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In his last book, "Les Nevroses," Janet in the few concluding in general pages has taken the epoch-making step of acknowledging terms how a complete understanding of such cases requires us to understand more than is at present known of the early stages of the development of the soul. Le Doute, par PAUL SOLLIER. P61ix Alcan, Paris, 1909. 407 p. (Bib. liotheque de Philosophie Contemporaine.) For the last score of years very much has been written about the will and its re-education, by philosophers, moralists, pedagogues, and and American pragmatism, which is at bottom a psychotherapists, philosophy of will. Indeed, many are coming to believe that truth is what we will. This book is a vigorous reaction against these abuses, which can have nothing but disastrous consequences for morality, To will, it is necessary first of all to pedagogy and therapeutics. know, in order to choose, We must understand the external world and the various physiological and even psychological conditions and When conditions are not realized, doubt arises because consequences. of incertitude and indecision. This is what our age suffers from and really lacks will. At bottom, doubt is an emotive phenomenon due to feeble cerebral resistance. To study it, therefore, now becomes of prime importance for morals and society, to say nothing of patholAfter some general considerations, the writer ogy and psychology. takes up in the second chapter the objects and conditions of doubt of which, as to the external world, he divides into three parts-that present, past and future reality; and concerning the ego, he makes three varieties, viz.: as to the object, extent and intent, and time of the doubt. He traces its slow evolution in individual cases and in As to its elements society, its culmination, decline and disappearance. and consequences, he finds them to be affective, sensorial, intellectual, motor; and its causes he traces in sense, in perception, conscience, memory, imagination, association, judgment, feeling, sex, religion, etc. There are certain reactions on the part of doubters that are inherent in the doubt, and dependent upon individual character as well as upon the nature of the doubt itself. Psychoesthenia, obsessions, impulsions, pain, are among these. In treating the reactions of the doubter against the doubt, he considers the consequences as intellecThe organism and nature of doubt he tually affective and emotive. finds in cerebral feebleness and psycheesthenia; and he gives quite a repertory of modes of resistance, beginning with physical exercise, and passing on to psychotherapy and re-education to action.
Zeitsckrifl fiir angewandle Psychologie und psychologischeSammelfor-
schung, Band 3, Heft 3 u. 4. Herausgegeben von WILLIAM STERN und OTro LIPMANN. J. A. Barth, Leipzig, 19o9. pp. 163-318. Among the interesting articles that constitute this number is one contributed by Victor Lowinsky reviewing the Pedagogical Seminary, which has always been devoted to education upon a psychological basis and interested in uniting theory and practice. This, the writer says, "has been Stanley Hall's effort, who, with his ethnologically applied bio-genetic law has summoned the whole modern life of culture in all its breadth and depth before the judgment seat of psychology, since although a culture pedagogue grossten Stiels, he seeks He keeps his eye always to exert an immediately practical influence. mainly fixed upon the relations of his own country; nevertheless, the Of the scientific issue of his conclusions always has general interest. pathos and ethos of his discussions, this report, of course, can give no intimation. Pedagogical, medical, historical, and psychological points of view are represented." The writer then proceeds to give an epit-
omy of nearly all the leading articles in the Pedagogical Seminary during the last two years, including volumes 14 and 15. Modern Problems in Psychiatry, by ERNESTO LUGARO. Translated by David Orr and R. G. Rows. University Press, Manchester, 19o9. 305 p. (Publications of the University of Manchester, Medical Series, No. XII.) After describing in his general introduction the evolution of psydifficulties, the prejudices that hamper it, and breadth of chiatry-its author passes first to the psychological probknowledge needful-the lems and stresses the need of distinguishing direct from indirect results of primary disturbance; discusses parallelism, dualism, etc.; is himself a realist; discusses the applications of psychology to the The anaanalysis of mental states of the insane and its difficulties. tomical problems are then taken up with a good account of Cajal and others. Then follow problems in pathogenesis, etiology and nosology, with a final practical chapter on treatment, asylum problems, relations to crime, etc. The author bases largely on his own experience and has not emerged from the influence of the Kraepelin school. L'Anne'e Psychologique, publide par ALFRED BINET avec la collaboration de MM. von Aster, Becher, Benussi, Bergson, Bloch, Borel, etc. Quatorzieme Annie. Masson et Cie., Paris, 19o8. 500op. The first article, 94 pages, is by Binet and Simon on the development of attention in children during successive years. Then follows one by Houllevigue on the physical ideas of matter; another by Souriau on sentiment and esthetics; then follow articles by Borel, on the calculus of probabilities; an inquiry on the history of the methods of teaching philosophy, by Binet; on professional surveillance, by Imbert; on morals and biology, by Rauh; then a criticism of Poincard another article by by Goblot entitled Mathematical Demonstration; Binet and Simon, on language and thought; hygiene and pedagogy, by Chabot; pragmatism, by Cantecor; and Binet on experimental The bibliography is less extensive than usual. chiromancy. Alte und neue Gehirn-Probleme, von W. W. WE1NDT. Otto Gmelin, Munich, 19o09. 116 p. The best part of this pamphlet is devoted to the study of brain weights of men and women, ordered according to age, height, and There are also statistics concerning the brains of suicides, weight. those that have met with accidents, and those who have suffered other forms of death. The relation of brain weight to different callings in life and the results of all these tabulations are brought together at the end. The author thinks that the most important result of his statistics is that the brains of lowest weight that have nothing abnormal about them belong usually to day laborers; and here the lightest were some 1,120 g., while the lightest academic brain weights were 1,140 g. The author believes that brain weights can be established below which no individual of a certain grade or class ever sinks.
Essai sur la Psychologie de la Main, par N.
Marcel VASCHIDE. Rivibre, Paris, 1909. 504 p. (Bibliothique de Philosophie Exp6rimentale.) This essay, with thirty-seven full-page plates, is a posthumous work of the brilliant young author who died prematurely two years ago at the age of forty years. It is both comprehensive and unique. Beginning with chiromantic divination, the author proceeds to consider the chirognomy and physiognomy of the hand, from antiquity to the present time; the artistic canons concerning it; he then presents the