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JLibrcmes Some By -Products of Missions By ISAAC TAYLOR HEADLAND, Author of " iT Court Life in China," " China's Ph. D., New Day" "Chines...

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JLibrcmes

Some By -Products of Missions

By

ISAAC TAYLOR HEADLAND, Author of

"

iT

Court Life in China,"

"

China's

Ph. D.,

New Day"

"Chinese Mother Goose Rhymes," "The Chinese Boy and Girl," "The Young China Hunters,"

etc,,

etc.

THE METHODIST BOOK CONCERN CINCINNATI NEW YORK

V

COPYRIGHT,

1912,

BY JENNINGS AND GKAHAM.

LIBRARIES ]

First Edition Printed March, 1912 Reprinted October, 1912; March, 1913; June, 1914

"ClAAT,

1458829

PREFACE SOME

three or four years ago I began speaking

on the influence of missions as a factor in the civilization of the world, holding that outside

missions had

of all religious considerations justified

themselves by their influence in the

government, the education, the science, the health, the wealth,

and the trade of the world.

Persons who were interested in the method of the presentation of the subject were clined at times to say,

"But

this is

still in-

not mission

work." I

was

willing to admit that

it

was

not,

and

was a product of mission work. In traveling about the country I was taken to visit various great enterprises, and

yet I insisted that

was shown

it

their products, but

was

told that a

larger proportion of their income was a result of their by-products than of their direct products, all

and

it

one day popped into

my

head that

these things that I had been thinking of as

the products of missions were in reality but s

PREFACE

4

The products of missions are

by-products.

generated

human

re-

beings, while all these other

things are simply by-products, consciously or

unconsciously, directly or indirectly, the result of mission work.

There are those of

my

friends

thought that I gave the gospel too for our "Western civilization.

That

them

my

much

credit

I will not say Christian it is

the result of Greek

Roman pre-Christian forces, considered in

who have

thinking,

all

and

of which I have

and have accorded

their place; but I believe that, after all

credit is given to all other influences,

it is still

the power of regeneration, the method of obtaining which Jesus Christ communicated to

His followers, that best accounts for I have called the book

it all.

"Some By-products

of Missions" because I have only touched

upon of few the that a might be great subjects Dr. Barton, from treated under this head.

whom

I have quoted in several of

my

chapters,

published a few months ago an interesting ries of articles in the

se-

Misisonary Herald, under

"

By-Products of Foreign Missions." In these he treated of " Industrial Advance," the title

"New

Social Order," "Blunted Sense of. Be-

PREFACE " sponsibility,"

and

Co-operation

"Modern Medicine in merce,

5

" " Modern Education,

' '

Unity,"

"A New Com-

the East,"

etc., all

of which,

and many others, might properly be taken up under this head. May I not hope that many of

my

readers will take up other lines of thought

and

call the attention of the

people to the di-

rect as well as the indirect influences of Christianity in the

development of

all

phases of mod-

ern progress! I

make no apology

for publishing the book,

as I have been asked by the publishers to write it,

and repeatedly urged the past two years

put

my

thoughts into print.

to

The chapters as

they stand were given to the theological depart-

ment of Boston University, and is

that they

may

my

only hope

be as kindly received by the

public as they were

by the

students.

LT.H.

CONTENTS VAQB

CHAPTER I.

II.

AN AGE

or BY-PRODUCTS,

BY-PRODUCTS IN GOVERNMENT,

III.

BY-PRODUCTS IN TRADE,

IV.

BY-PRODUCTS IN SCIENCE,

V. VI. VII. VIII.

IX.

X.

A GENUINE

.25

.

35

.

47

.

.

...

PRODUCT,

BY-PRODUCTS IN Civic LIFE,

.

THE RELIGIONS OF CHINA,

64 .

LACK OF CHRISTIAN INFLUENCE,

96

.

.

.

85

107

BY-PRODUCTS IN INTELLECTUAL DE.

.

123

.

.

NEED OF MORAL AND RELIGIOUS EDUCATION,

XII.

15

.

.

.

BY-PRODUCTS IN CIVILIZATION,

VELOPMENT, XI.

.11

.

.

.

.

.

BY-PRODUCTS IN Music,

.

.

.

135 158

.

XIII.

BY-PRODUCTS IN ART,

XIV.

BY-PRODUCTS IN REFLEX INFLUENCE, 193

XV.

.

.

.

THE GOSPEL AND THE WORLD'S PEACE, 7

171

211

CONTENTS

8

FAQE

CHAPTEB

XVI.

BY-PRODUCTS IN INDIVIDUAL DEVELOPMENT,

.

.

.

.

XVII.

PRODUCTS AND BY-PRODUCTS,

XVIII.

PRODUCTS AND BY-PRODUCTS,

XIX.

IN

ERATURE,

XXI.

.

BY-PRODUCTS IN SYSTEMS,

LANGUAGE AND .

.

.

224 243

.

BY-PRODUCTS IN EXPLORATION,

XX. BY-PRODUCTS

.

.

260

279

.

LIT.

301

NON-CHRISTIAN 312

Some By-Products

of Missions

CHAPTER

I

AN AGE OF BY-PRODUCTS THE present is an age of by-products. On every hand, instead of the small dealer of a few dec-

ades past,

we

see great business firms, combi-

nations, trusts, utilizing for personal wealth

and public good every scrap of material that was formerly thrown away as worse than useless

by private individuals.

I recently visited a great sawmill.

a

man on a

I found

platform on the riverside, with a

long pole, tipped with a hook, in his hand, with

which he was guiding great logs to an inclined Here they were caught by a moving plane. chain, carried to the second story of the building,

where they were dumped by a piece of ma-

chinery onto another inclined plane.

down

They,

truck, where they were fastened by two men with jacks, and were shot back and forth with a piston past a belt-saw

rolled

to

a

with teeth on both sides.

a board was taken

As

it

off; as it

other board was taken

off,

n

moved forward, came back, an-

and a log twenty

feet

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS long and twenty-one inches in diameter was ssawed into boards in one

and three-quarters

to

two minutes' time.

Every scrap of wood was used

or for fuel, while

lath, for slats, for, scantling,

the sawdust

was made

the exhaust steam

either for

into wood-alcohol,

was carried over

and

to a salt

made to run machinery men to make five hundred

factory next door and

enough

to enable six

barrels of salt a

day worth

ninety-five cents a

barrel.

The Chinese have a

sawmill.

This

ing more nor less than two men, a big buck-saw.

One end

is

file,

noth-

and a

of the log is elevated

by placing it across another and while one man stands on

piece of timber,

the log the other

stands beneath, blinking his eyes to keep the

sawdust out; and what the American sawmill makes into boards in two minutes the Chinese sawmill does in from two to three days' time.

What

is

true of the sawmill is equally true

of the packing house. recently.

The mayor

I

was

in Wichita, Kan.,

of the city said to

me

one Saturday morning:

"How

would you

like to visit the

packing factory this afternoon?"

Cudahy

AN AGE OF BY-PRODUCTS "

had been born

I

Delighted," I answered.

13

on a farm, and I remembered distinctly how, as a boy, my father and brothers, with a neighbor or two, used to spend one day preparing

The next day they killed eight or nine hogs, and the following day they spent to butcher.

"cleaning up."

The mayor

called for

me

in his auto about

We

one o'clock Saturday afternoon.

were

taken at once to the rear of the factory, where the hogs were driven into a

hooked a chain

to

little

pen.

A man

one leg of each of the animals

and the other end of the chain

to a large wheel.

"With the revolving of the wheel the hog

was

raised from the floor and dropped from the

wheel to a moving first

man

it

and used.

came

was stuck by the and the blood was caught

trolley.

to,

It

It passed through

a,

boiling vat,

was

scraped by machinery, and the hair saved and utilized.

As

the body passed along the line of men,

about thirty in

all,

one

man

front; another disemboweled trails into

slit it it,

down the

tossing the en-

a trough, where they were examined

by Government inspectors to see was healthy. A third man took

if

the animal

off the

head

;

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

14

a fourth

slit it

down

the back; a

fifth,

cut

it

in

halves with a single stroke of a cleaver; and

when ried

it

reached the end of the line

away

in pieces to the shelves.

it

was

car-

Everything

ahout the hog: hoofs, hair, entrails, blood, even to the contents of the

used

everything, I

stomach and bowels, were

was

told,

except the squeal ;

and there were men there with moving-picture machines and phonographs, catching the movements and the squeal, which they proposed to sell in their nickelodeons. And I was assured the largest profits of the packing houses come

not from the meat, but from the by-products.

The by-products

of Standard

oil

are greater

and more numerous, perhaps, than of any other To enumerate them single kind of business. would be tiresome.

Among

them, however,

there are several that are of paramount impor-

a method of transportation, is a by-product of Standard oil from which she derives one of her largest incomes.

tance.

The

pipe-line, as

Analine dies are another, and the world had to wait for a good automobile

and a

flying

ma-

produced gasoline in such quantities and at such prices as would

chine until Standard

oil

justify its use as fuel.

CHAPTER

II

BY-PRODUCTS IN GOVERNMENT the last chapter of Matthew, the last three

His

verses, during one of

final

conversations

with His disciples, Jesus Christ says, "All

"

power is given unto Me in heaven and in earth. That is one of the most tremendous claims that any living being could make. Moses would not have "dared to utter such a sentence. David could not.

Paul could

not.

Caesar, Alexander,

Napoleon would not have dared

ment of

to

make a

state-

no one that has ever lived

that kind

but Jesus Christ would dare to say, "All power is

given unto

But to

is it

whether

Him we

Me

in heaven and in earth."

That

true? all

is

a fair question.

As

in heaven is given unto

power

need have no concern here; we propose

to confine ourself

more particularly

tion as to whether all

to the ques-

power on earth

is

given

unto Jesus Christ.

His next word to His >

.,.

.

went.

and teach

And

it

all

disciples

nations."

was

The

to

"go

disciples

might be of interest to those who

u

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

16

have the time and disposition to do so to find out which of the disciples went the farthest.

If

asked, I have no doubt most of us would an-

But

swer, Paul.

we

Epistle of Peter

we

if

will study the First

will find that

written

it is

to the Churches scattered throughout Pontus,

Capadocia,

and

Bythnia; Churches which were established by Paul and Silas, all of which Peter had probably visited Galatia,

Asia,

The

with Silas and Mark.

letter,

we

will find

by referring to the last verses of the book, was written from Babylon (or Eome), and was carried

by Sylvanus

(Silas).

"We find Peter

preaching in Samaria, Lydda, Joppa, Caesarea, Antioch; and Paul

tells

the Corinthians that he

could lead around a wife or a sister as well as

Cephas or Barnabas indicating that Peter had been at Corinth. Peter was probably crucified at

Rome;

in other words,

in all the places Paul

A

we

find Peter

had been.

similar study of the Seven Churches to

which John wrote, together with his banishment and death, will show that John was almost as great a traveler as Peter and Paul.

who heeded went the

this

command

farthest,

The men

to the letter,

and

are the greatest of the

BY-PRODUCTS IN GOVERNMENT Twelve.

They are not

17

greatest, perhaps, be-

cause they heeded this command, but because

they were the greatest they were big enough to

grasp Jesus' meaning. As I have indicated above, the disciples went according to the last

command

of Jesus Christ.

to Italy, and Italy became a power. They or their successors in mission work went on to Spain, and Spain became a power. They

They went

went to Portugal, and Portugal became a power. And Italy, Spain, and Portugal were the polit-

powers of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. It was they who discovered China and

ical

revealed her to Europe.

It

was they who

also

discovered America and revealed her to the

was they who first rounded Cape Horn. It was they who first rounded the Cape of Good Hope; indeed, it was they who made

world.

It

the first tour around the world.

But they did not give the Bible people

they gave

interpreted

it

to

it

to the priests,

to all the

who

in turn

the people, and thus they

reached a certain stage of development, where they stopped, as

all

countries have done that

have not given the Bible to

all

the people, mak-

ing each individual responsible both to 2

m 'if

God and

18

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

man

for

Ms own

Witness the

Boman

Catholic countries of Europe, of South

Amer-

ica,

and Mexico

front rank

conduct.

not one of them stands in the

among

first-class political

the nations of the world as

powers.

Luther went down to Italy; he returned to

Germany, translated the Bible language, gave

it

to all the

into the

German

German people, It was taken

and Germany became a power. to

England, given to

all

the English people, and

England became a power. It was brought over to America, placed in the hands of all the American people, with liberty to study

it

at will,

and

America became a power; and Germany, England, and America are the three political powers of the world to-day. It is worthy of note too that

than six

England and America are giving more times as much toward foreign missions

as all the rest of the Protestant world combined.

All political power, since the coming of

Jesus Christ into the world and the establish-

ment of

Christianity, has been

the hands of the

man and

and

still is

in

the country with the

Bible ; and hence Jesus Christ might have said,

All political power

I realize

is

given unto Me.

how dangerous

it is to

attempt to

BY-PRODUCTS IN GOVERNMENT give in so few sentences a litical

power of the world.

summary

19

of the po-

I realize that there

are those who, not being Christians themselves,

temporary Mohammedan uprising with the Moorish supremacy of the Dark Ages, and the Mongol invasion of Europe. In

will recall the

am

ready to risk

the statement that the political

power of the

spite of all this, however, I

world as

it

stands to-day

is

the result of the

gospel of Jesus Christ, though I realize, as I shall

show

hereafter, that all the governments

are going counter to that gospel.

be urged by some that, while such remarkable transformations might have been It

may

brought about in the political conditions of the

world in early times, they would be impossible in this age. To all such I answer: Fifty years ago Japan was a closed land. I

am

not disposed to deny that Japan had a her own, nor am I disposed to

civilization of

deny that among a people of her own kind she had a certain sort of political power; but the ease with which her doors were opened

by Comevidence that it was

modore Perry is the best not of the same character as that which she wields to-day.

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

20

Japan had had Confucianism, Buddhism, and Shintoism for fifteen hundred years, and she slept; but with fifty years of the preaching

and teaching of the gospel of Jesus Christ and the introduction of the by-products

same a,

gospel,

power

Japan

is

of that

awake and has become

and such a power that the nations of

Europe dare not

discuss

any questions concern-

ing the Orient without consulting Japan. It

would be interesting here

progress that Japan has social,

political,

How

life.

made

to note the

in all phases of

commercial, and educational

the sexes mingled promiscuously

naked in the public bath and in the home; how the government almost at a single bound leaped

from the feudalism of the Middle Ages

to the

monarchy of the present time; a half century, from a few junks trading

constitutional

how in

from port

to port, or with China, she has taken

a place next to Great Britain as a sea-faring people, and with great banking houses and commercial establishments not only throughout her

own

empire, but throughout the world;

from an inability to the

command

of

resist ten small ships

how

under

Commodore Perry she has

within a period of ten years destroyed the fleets

%

I

BY-PRODUCTS IN GOVERNMENT of two great empires

;

how her army has been

transformed from incompetent soldiers armed with swords and pikes and chain armor of the Middle Ages into a multitude of troops that

commanded

the admiration of the allied armies

Boxer War, and whose mothers ordered them, when they went to fight with Russia, to come back either a victor or a of the world during the

,

corpse; and how, finally, her few schools teach-

ing the Confucian classics have been developed into a great public-school system, with high schools,

colleges,

and universities

throughout the whole empire.

scattered

So that the Jap-

anese have been the

first

a whole nation

obtain an education along

new

lines

may

people to prove that

during the lifetime of a single indi-

vidual.

And now

I challenge you to study the his-

tory of her educational development and see the first schools were not established

if

by the

missionaries, if her first government schools

were not under the conduct of men who went to

Japan as missionaries, and if the

established

by

educated

natives

opened as Christian schools by

first

schools

were

not

men who had

been assisted by Christian people abroad.

SOME B Y-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS If there are those that trade

the

had most

new Japan,

let

who are disposed to to do> with the

me

insist

making of

call their attention to

the fact that Japan had been trading regularly

with the Dutch since 1611

and more.

And

three hundred years

these Dutch traders

had been

promised by the Japanese Shogun that "they in all places, countries and islands under mine obedience,

may

and build homes

traffic

service-

able and needful for their trade and merchandises, where they

may

trade without any

hindrance at their pleasure, as well in time to

come as for the present, so that no man may do them any wrong. And I will maintain and defend them as mine own subjects."

They and personal private when and these were secured ends, they were It was not till a man went with a satisfied.

were there for

their

own

free Bible, a free school, and a free and efficient

system of medicine which would bring relief from pain, with the object of doing good to the people, that the

new regime was brought

about.

Turn now

to the greater

One hundred years ago

empire of China.

the Protestant gospel,

which represents regeneration and a free Bible,

BY-PRODUCTS IN GOVERNMENT was taken

to the Chinese.

China had had Tao-

ism for twenty-four hundred years, Confucianism twenty-three hundred years, Buddhism eighteen hundred years, and

Mohammedanism

twelve hundred years, and she

made but

tardy;

progress. But with one hundred years of the teaching and preaching of the gospel of Jesus

and the circulation of a free Bible

Christ,

among the people, China is awake and is making more rapid progress than has ever been

made by any nation

of similar population or

dimensions at any time in the history of the world.

When

I went to China, a

little

more than

twenty years ago, there was just one school opened by the Chinese Government teaching foreign learning, and that was opened and presided over by a

man who went

to

China as a

missionary, Dr. "W. A. P. Martin, though there

were numerous missionary schools, colleges, and universities scattered throughout the empire.

And

it is

worthy of note that the

first

and universities established by the Chinese Government were opened and presided

six colleges

over by

men who went to China the Tung "Wen Kuan and

five

sionaries:

as misthe Pe-

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

24

king Imperial University by Dr. "W. A. P. Martin, the Tientsin University by Dr. C. D. Ten-

by Dr. W. M. Hayes, the Nan Yang College by Dr. John C. Ferguson, and the Shansi University by Dr. ney, the Shantung University

Timothy Eichards

while the first attempt at a public-school system was also established by ;

Dr. Tenney in the metropolitan province of Chihli,

and a scheme for a similar one drawn

up for the Shantung Province by Dr. Hayes. One school teaching foreign, learning opened by the government twenty years ago, while at the

present time there are more than forty thou-

sand schools, colleges, and universities Opened

by the Chinese Government and engaged in teaching the learning of the West. All political power has been given to Jesus Christ.

I

am

not trying to interpret the pas-

sage of Scripture with which I began this chapter,

but such

is

the verdict of the world nine-

teen hundred years after that sentence was uttered by the Master.

CHAPTER

III

BY-PKODUCTS IN TRADE LAST winter I was invited in the parlors of Mr. B the Hudson.

You know

you get a hundred you give

it

way

lecture.

to

it is

it,

a talk when

Mr. B-

on Sunday.

and a

ser-

Well, that

I learned that evening on ?

s

home

on

a lecture when

at a missionary meeting, it

a lecture

in Riverdale

dollars for

mon when you preach was a

to deliver

that his salary

my

is

the

same as that of the President of the United States,

great

though he

life

that if

is

only vice-president of a

insurance company.

Adam had

I learned also

put $100,000 in a bank the

year he was created, and had continued to deposit $100,000 a year every year

from that time

until 1912 without getting

any interest on it, he would not have as much money in the bank to-day as this insurance "Wealth, wealth, wealth!

me

to

say

how many

company has

assets.

It is impossible for

millions of dollars

represented by that audience. 25

were

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

26

At

the close of the lecture Mr.

partner of Mr.

M

me and

had had in

listening to

was

the

,

came up and shook

>,

hands with

P

expressed the pleasure he

what I had

I

to say.

told that evening that on one occasion Mr.

Went

p

down

to see

Mr.

M

They

.

transacted some big piece of business, at the conclusion of which Mr.

M

said,

"P

,

what are you getting a year now?" "Oh, I 'm getting a fair living."

"You

are getting $50,000 a year; are you

not?"

"Yes." "Well, I 'm reserving this desk for you." "What do you mean?"

"I 'm reserving office.

When you

this desk I

Mr.

up

P-

my

are ready to come and take

have $250,000 a year for you." took that position, and gave

it

a year later for something bigger.

When he

expressed the pleasure he had had

in listening to

"Mr. P

what I had -,

you

to say

said, I

I like to talk to

doing big things, and to

desk for you in

this

it is

answered:

men who

are

no mere compliment

you are doing big

things.

Have

I overstated the bigness of the gospel or the

importance of Christian missions?"

BY-PRODUCTS IN TRADE ' " No I do n 't think you have, he answered. Christian missions have always been the fore'

;

' '

runners of trade."

your business man; he sees missions from the standpoint of trade; and it is There

is

much to say that unsalaried drummer for

not too

the missionary is the

the commerce of the

world.

"But, Mr. P ," I urged, "is not trade itself a development of Christian missions?"

"What do you mean?" he asked. "Have you ever seen a Chinese junk

or a

Japanese junk or a Hindoo junk or an African junk in an American port?"

"No;

I do not think I have."

"Well, what junks are carrying the trade of the world?"

"Why,

of course, the vessels

made

in Chris-

tian countries."

"What men have developed the trade of the Was it the Chinese, the Japanese, the

world!

Hindoos, or the Africans?"

"No;

of course not.

It

was the men in

Christian countries."

"Now, Mr. P fact that the men

,

how do you

explain the

in Christian countries devel-

oped the trade of the world, and the vessels

28

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

made

in Christian, countries are carrying the

trade of the world, if

it is

not

"I had not thought

of

it

answered. '"It does look as

"God are

thing,

or last a

and Christian missions?"

result of the gospel

"Another

first

in that if it

P

Mr.

way," he

were."

," I continued;

says that 'the cattle on a thousand

all

Mine.'

Mine, the silver and the gold

Now,

and gold is God's too."

if the silver

the coal in the earth

is

"Yes," he answered; "there

is

all

hills

is all

God's,

no violation

of logic about that."

"Well, I come from Pennsylvania, and that State

is

we

underlaid with coal, and

scores of millionaires

taking out of the earth.

from the That

is

are

making

coal they are

God's coal and

God's money.

"Then," I continued, "if the earth

is

God's, the gas

is also

God's.

millionaires

I

mean

coal in the

the natural gas

But we are making scores of

from the natural gas they are

tak-

ing out of the earth.

"Then, further,

if

the coal and gas are

God's, the oil in the earth is also God's.

But,

can you think of Standard Oil without coupling " it in your thought with multi-millionaires !

BY-PRODUCTS IN TRADE "No," he answered;

29

-"I always think of

Standard Oil and multi-millionaires at the same time."

So do

One

I;

don't yon!

of the Standard Oil

when they

men

me

told

that

began taking the oil out of the earth there were people who complained that first

they had no right to do so ; that

den

this oil

the world

God had

hid-

deep down in the earth to blow up

when he got ready

were robbing God.

Now,

to

this

do

so,

may

and they

not be very

good reasoning or very good sense, but they tacitly admit that it is God's oil. I often go to the Duquesnes Club, in Pittsburgh, for

my

the temerity to ask

when

luncheons (one

me

I

am

man had

at a laymen's mission-

ary convention who paid for those luncheons). There I see multi-millionaires going about like so

many

school boys

made from

the iron they

have taken out of the earth. I have just been for a trip up through Mon-

where we have our copper kings; and down through California, where we have our

tana,

gold kings ; and out in Colorado, where

our silver kings

;

we have

and then in South Africa we

have our diamond kings.

But those diamonds

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

30

and that gold and silver and copper and iron and coal and gas and oil might have remained buried deep

down

in the earth for another mil-

lion years if a gospel-developed

gone to take them ers to find lionaire

1

man had

out, for I challenge

anywhere

not

my read-

in the world a single mil-

made

not to say multi-millionaire

any non-Christian country

in the world

in

from

any of those things which God hid away in the earth and says "are Mine." He has given His wealth to the

man

to

whom He

has given the

gospel; for the wealth of the world

is in

the

hands of the gospel-developed man. And in the of the twentieth century Jesus

light

might have "been

Christ

"All the power of wealth has given unto Me, and I have given it unto said,

you."

And we

exclaim,

"Why,

Master, hast

Thou given it unto us?" And we seem to hear His answer echoing down through the centuries in the form of His last great

commission:

"Go, teach

"Go

all

ye into

nations."

all

the world and preach the

gospel to every creature."

"Ye

shall be witnesses

most parts of the earth."

unto

Me to the utter-

BY-PRODUCTS IN TRADE

31

I have given yon the wealth; I have given

you the power; I have given you the intelligence; I have given you the conveyances. GO

!

There are four great sources of wealth: mining, agriculture, stock-raising, and getting control of the forces of nature;

and I think I

would be safe in challenging my readers to find a single millionaire made in any non-Christian country from any one of these four sources. There are millionaires in China. Li Hung-

chang was said

to

be one; but his money was

invested in pawn-shops, and his wealth

made by preying on

the poor.

was

Therei are mil-

lionaires in India ; but their wealth, as in China, will

be found to be the result of taxation of the

poor.

"When Mr.

said that "Christian mis-

P-:

have always been the forerunners of trade," I could not but feel that I was in a sions

position to give

him pointers on missions and

trade.

"When I went

we

to

China twenty years ago

could not get a bag of American flour in

that empire.

up on

the

When

bund

all

I left Peking I saw piled

in Tientsin stacks of

American

hundred feet deep, and a quarter of a mile along the bund, and I said

flour thirty feet high, a

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

32

to myself,

"The

great wheat-raisers of our

Northwest could afford to pay all the expenses of all the missions in China educational, evangelistic,

and medical

com

them."

to

Standard Oil could afford

When

do the same.

for the business that has

not get a can of

oil

I

went

to

to

China we could

except by having

it

shipped

from San Francisco or Chicago. Now Standard Oil is the light of Asia. They burn it in their lamps

;

they burn

it

in their small stoves

they cook their food with

it.

They

;

dip their

water and make their tea and wash their dishes

and sweep up their dust in utensils made from Standard Oil tins. Nay, they even roof their houses with Standard Oil tins; indeed, in all kinds of domestic uses the Standard Oil tin vals,

and

in

many

ri-

cases supplants, the omni-

present bamboo.

And what

we say of the Singer sewing That company will testify that the first sewing machines that they sent to the nonChristian world were carried by the missionashall

machine?

ries.

The natives watched them with open

mouth as well

as open eyes.

They began buythem now we see their adand ing themselves, vertisements in

all

the native papers.

We

see

BY-PRODUCTS IN TRADE

33

them pasted on their walls; we see them in their shops and in their homes, and hear them singing as

we

And

pass along the streets.

I

can not look at the tower of the great Singer Building as I enter the harbor at

New York

without saying to myself, "I helped to build that tower," for I

drummers

was one of the unsalaried

that helped to open

up one

of the

largest markets in the world to the Singer sew-

ing machine.

Men, I speak

to

you now.

If

you want

talk business, the biggest investment this

has

is

the gospel of Jesus Christ.

to

world

It has

done

the development of man and more toward the development of the world than any other one force. And next to the gospel is the

more toward

men who carry the gospel. No greater mistake can be made by shortsighted, narrow-minded, selfish business men than to suppose that missions interfere with business. trade.

The only business

They promote would

that missions

interfere with, if they could, would be the ship-

ping of such intoxicants as injure the health

and character of the natives. And the time come,

if it is

not even

highminded business s

will

now upon us, when every

man

of vision

and

fore-

34

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

sight will do all in his sions,

power

to further mis-

even though his motive be nothing higher

than to promote his own business. Indeed, if I were asked to state what would

be the best form of advertising for the great

American Steel Trust or Standard Oil or the Baldwin Locomotive

"Works

we

(for

took

twenty-seven Baldwin locomotives out of the hold of one steamer in China) or the Singer

sewing machine, or any one of a dozen other great business concerns, I should say, Take up the support of one or two or a dozen mission stations,

an educational

institution,

a hospital,

a dispensary, or a hundred native preachers or teachers. Every one thus helped would be, consciously or unconsciously, a

drummer

for your

goods, and the great Church they represent at

home would be your

advertising agents.

CHAPTER IY BY-PBODUCTS IN SCIENCE. As THE missionaries went in last command of the Master tions,

obedience to the to teach all na-

they began establishing schools.

They

were monasteries and nunneries in old Boman Catholic times ties to-day;

forts

of

sprung

:

and

these all

the

they are colleges and universiit

was from the educational

early

ef-

churchmen that have

great universities

of

early

Europe. "With the advent of Protestantism the missionaries continued to go

and

to teach,

and Ox-

ford and Cambridge, Harvard, Yale and Princeton, and a multitude of other colleges, are the

from men who were stimulated with the thought that, " religion, morality, and result of gifts

knowledge being necessary to good government and the happiness of mankind, schools and the

means of education

shall forever

be encour-

aged," an ordinance which they promulgated in 1787.

They began taking the young people 35

into

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OP MISSIONS

36

their schools

gan

and teaching them, and then

new power

to develop a

in the world

be-

the

power of the intellect, the

power of the reason, and the disposition to

the power of invention,

experiment.

These young people seriously undertook the study of nature and her laws. They soon discovered some of the powers of nature.

They

then began making their thoughts into -machines (what

is

a locomotive or a trolley car

made

but a thought

power of nature or-

electricity

into a machine, with a

the expansive

hitched to it?),

power of water and then these

powers of nature pulled them over land and sea, and a similar power swishes them through the

air.

Scientists tell us that our civilization is the

result largely.

pel;

of

our science; and I answer, Yes,

But our science

and hence

all

a result of our gosour civilization is only a is

synonym for the gospel of Jesus Christ product of the gospel. to a last analysis,

Trace

this

a by-

thought out

and we have a railroad

train,

a trolley car, a telegraph, a telephone, a phonograph, a watch in your pocket, a tooth, glasses

on your eyes, and

filling

all

in your

the great

BY-PRODUCTS IN SCIENCE maeninery-filled mills which

it

has' required

thought to produce, and thought and

There

gence to operate. that

is

intelli-

no reason to believe

we would have had any of these things to we have them now but for the inspi-

the degree ration

and

intelligence that has been furnished

by the gospel,

and the Church and schools which

are the embodiment of the It is

Word of

God.

worthy of note that, while the non-

Christian peoples studied the stars, they never

made an astronomy.

I

know what

the ancient

Greeks did in astronomy how they constructed a theory (the Ptolemaic) which misled the ;

world for

fifteen

Pythagoras

did,

hundred years. I know what and how nearly he came to the

Copernican explanation of the solar system; but the science of astronomy as it stands to-day has been made by the Christian peoples. The Chinese predicted an eclipse more than seven

hundred years B.

0.,

and many of the

facts of

astronomy were stumbled upon by the Oriental peoples. They have written books upon the

and the planets but the facts of astronomy were never observed, collected, and classistars

fied in

;

anything like a

Christian people.

scientific

way by any non-

SOME BY-PBODUCTS OF MISSIONS

38

The non-Christian peoples have studied the rocks; but they have never made a geology. They have written books upon rocks and precious stones. They have opened mines of gold, silver, copper, iron, and indeed all kinds of They have polished diamonds, and all kinds of precious stones.

rubies,

have worked crystals into goblets and

snuff-

metals. jade,

bottles

but the classification of

;

all

They

the facts of

the strata of the earth and their contents left as

a task for the

man

with a Bible.

The non-Christian peoples have

likewise

studied the flowers ; but they have never

a botany.

was

made

They have written thousands of

books about the flowers; but they have failed to

make

the slightest observation as to their struc-

One day while engaged in translating a botany with an old Chinese graduate scholar, I ture.

mentioned the parts of the flower, to which we had just come in our work.

"What do you mean?" he "I mean the

structure of the flower, the

regularity or irregularity

stamens, and

"Wo

of

sepals,

petals,

pistils," I explained.

pu ming pai"

he urged.

asked.

(I

do not understand),

BY-PRODUCTS IN SCIENCE

39

I went to the window, pulled two or three

and pointed out what I meant. With staring eyes and mouth agape he

flowers,

ejac-

ulated:

"Wo

mei

hui" (I never observed that}. Again, the non-Christian peoples have written books upon the human system; but they; lu

have never made a physiology, a science of medicine, a science of dentistry, a science of optics nor, indeed, any science.

Every

science, nat-

ural and applied, thai the world has to-day, has 'been

made by

the

man

that has been developed

{

by the gospel of Jesus Christ.

Observe that I

do not say: by a man who believes in Jesus Christ and His gospel. There are many men

who have been developed

in Christian schools,

or in schools originally established by Christian

men, who seem to think ness or broadness to

an evidence of bigfocus their minds upon it

and try to pick to pieces the shell from which they were hatched. There are many an

em,

other

men

also

men

of

great

intellectual

power and thought and of correspondingly small spiritual power and faith whose time has been so taken up in the development of their thinking powers and their observation of things

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

40

that they have

had no time for the

cultivation

of their moral and spiritual faculties and the

observation and classification of moral and

and phenomena. They have done much for the advance of science; but they are spiritual facts

the product of a Christian civilization, and but

for the gospel and the educational system de-

veloped by the

man with the

Bible,

we

are quite

safe in saying they never would have been.

Observe, further, that

we

did not say that

have been observed by the with the Bible. This would not be true.

all scientific facts

man

All the great peoples

who have

established

great civilizations of ancient or modern times

have been familiar with some, first principles of physics

and

if

not

all,

of the

the lever, the wheel

axle, the inclined plane, the pulley or the

Without these the Egyptians could never have built the pyramids or erected their screw.

great temples, tombs, or monuments.

some observation of the

Without

facts of

astronomy referwould not with have erected them they ence to the points of the compass as they did.

But with the exception of the ancient Greeks and the Moors, we find no non-Christian peoples classifying their observations of laws or

41

BY-PRODUCTS IN SCIENCE things in anything like a scientific way.

The

ancient Greeks approximated this in euclid,

astronomy, and

and the Moors made con-

logic,

siderable progress in mathematics

omy; but these three

sciences,

and astron-

with

all

other

a by-product of the civilization developed by the gospel of Jesus

sciences, stand to-day as

Christ.

I suppose

nese

is

it

will

be admitted that the Chi-

the oldest and greatest non-Christian

world has ever developed. It has risen higher, has lasted longer, and has

civilization that the

men and

exerted a wider influence over more

women than people.

the civilization of any other pagan

Moreover, the Chinese are a very prac-

having stumbled upon the mariner's compass eleven hundred years B. C., guntical people,

powder some two hundred years B.

the prin-

C.,

used in the pipe-organ two thousand to three thousand years B. C., printing five hunciple

dred years before Gruttenberg, while they have

made of

for themselves all the practical utensils

life.

Their alchemists began experimenting

in their search for the elixir of life

some two

or three centuries before the Christian era;

some of them had an

explosion,

and

it

was thus

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

42

they stumbled upon gunpowder.

But while

they are a very practical people, they have

never made an ounce of good gunpowder during their whole history. Although they discovered the mariner's compass some three thou-

sand years ago, they have never made a good

compass up

and although hundred years

to the present time;

they antedated Guttenberg five

in the discovery of printing, their Peking Gazette

was both the

oldest

and worst-printed

newspaper in the world. These alchemists developed a system of science which we shall have occasion to mention further on in speaking of the T'aoist religion.

Their system, however, It is called

shua,

we

will describe here.

Feng Shua; feng meaning wind, and

meaning water, while the system

itself

controls or explains the fortune or misfortune in a word, the luck

The

of all places and people.

scientists are the soothsayers,

and

it is

im-

possible to locate a house, a well, a city, or a

cemetery without

first

pieces of nature.

Let

consulting these mouth-

me

give an illustration

or two which will do more to clear than a whole tion.

make Feng shua

volume of abstract explana-

43

BY-PRODUCTS IN SCIENCE There

is

at Tung-ehou, fifteen miles east of

Peking, a pagoda thirteen stories high, weigh-

ing an indefinite thousand of tons, quired of a native

this

why

I once in-

He

pagoda.

ex-

plained that formerly in that locality there was

a shaking of the earth.

A soothsayer was

con-

He

ex-

sulted concerning this

phenomena.

plained that in that locality there

deep down in the time

it

winked

the earth.

was buried

earth a dragon, and that every

its

eye

caused a shaking of

it

They further inquired as

to get rid of this

to

how

quaking of the earth to which ;

" Build

he answered, something heavy enough on the eye of the dragon, so that he can not wink;" and my friend continued, "we built the pagoda, and he has never winked

At is

since.

"

the north side of every cemetery there

a great mound of earth, unless

it

be located

with reference to some mountain-peak, as are

some west of Peking, or of a mountain-chain like

some amphitheater the tombs of the Ming in

dynasty near the great wall north of Peking, to protect the bodies of the departed

bleak winds of the north. capital itself is a great

from

from the

In the center of the

mound, or

hill,

made

the earth secured in the excavation of the

.

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

44

artificial lotus lakes

of the Forbidden City.

is placed immenortK the of palace buildings for the diately

This mound, called Coal Hill,

purpose of protecting the court. An elevation north of a man's house, however, is as, liable to bring

ill

as to protect him, as

was well

illus-

trated in close contiguity to our mission in Peking.

There was a huang tai tze (a yellow girdle man), a distant relative of the royal family, lived in a small Chinese house just across the street to the south of our mission

in Peking.

He had

five

compound

daughters and no sons

a calamity in a Chinese home, where a girl

can do nothing toward the support of the family, and a boy is necessary to the perpetuation of the worship of the ancestors.

This worried

the old man, and he called in a soothsayer to inquire the cause of this misfortune.

The soothsayer went

all

about the premises,

looking wise and muttering incoherent and unintelligible

formulas, but could find nothing

that would account for the condition.

The

house was properly located if it had not been, some other soothsayer would have been at fault.

But as he came out

to the front gate

and looked

45

BY-PRODUCTS IN SCIENCE across the street,

lie

discovered that

we Lad

a chimney a foot and half above the top " of a small Chinese house and he exclaimed, It

built

;

is

that foreign devil's chimney that has spoiled

the feng sliua of your place, and

have anything but

you

will

girls as long as that

never

chimney

stands."

The old man donned

garments and a Chinese never wears a hat except

his hat

his silk

on important occasions sult with the

and came over

members

to con-

of the mission.

He

talked for an hour about everything except that

which concerned him most idea of the flight of time

with him

how

and

finally

a Chinese has no

tempus does not fugit came to our chimney, ;

had spoiled the feng sliua of his place, and would not the honorable pastor kindly tear it down to a level with the roof of the house and it

restore the luck of his home.

We

wanted

to live in

with our neighbors, and so

down

peace and harmony

we

tore the chimney

to the level of the roof of the

his next

two babies were boys.

house

That

is

and

science

in the greatest non-Christian nation the world

has ever developed.

worked

We

must admit that

it

at least something worked, in that

46

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

case; but

how would you

like to

be governed by

that style of thinking?

Again the verdict of the world at the ginning of the twentieth century entific

is

be-

that all sci-

power has been given unto Jesus

Christ.

CHAPTER V BY-PRODUCTS IN CIVILIZATION I WAS talking with a business

man in New York

recently about missions and the Church, religious .affairs in general;

and

and in the course

of the conversation he ejaculated :

"The trouble with you preachers, Headland, is

that

you don't preach a

practical

enough

' '

gospel.

"What do you mean?"

I asked.

"Well," he continued, "you tell us about being saved some time, somewhere"

"Pardon me," I

interrupted; "but to be

saved some time, somewhere, will be the most important thing in time or in eternity to you and me. It will, my friend; I happen to know

have had one foot in the grave for the space of two months, and I think it gives one a different view of life to have been for

that, for I

eight or nine weeks in sight of eternity."

"Oh,

yes, I

know what you mean," he 47

con-

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

48

tinned; "but

we

business

that takes hold right

"We

have

it," I

men want something

now."

answered.

"What?" he inquired. "The gospel." "What do you mean?" "You have a filling in your

tooth," I an-

swered.

;

"Yes; what has that got

to

do with it?" he

asked.

"Why, your

tooth

is

saved by the gospel,"

I replied.

"What

do you mean?" he asked, with some

surprise.

"I mean

to say," I replied, that

you can not

anywhere in the non-Christian world that can fill and save a decaying tooth.

find a dentist

Now,

that

is

a practical enough gospel, isn't

it?"

"Is that true?" he asked. "It is," I replied; and then I continued,

"Look

here; do you pay your preacher,

when

he comes to see you, the same as you pay your dentist

when you go

to see

him?"

I had

him

there.

"No;

of course I do not," he answered.

49

BY-PRODUCTS IN CIVILIZATION

"You

are not quite honest," I replied.

"Well," he answered, trying

"you

self,

he

see,

when a

to excuse

him-

fellow gets a toothache

will give almost anything to get rid of it."

And

I answered,

"0

God, give us a soul-

That

ache, a heartache for the world!"

what we want.

own

little

forts

and

We

is

are so concerned about our

own comif we ever

aches and pains, and our luxuries, that

we

forget,

knew, the great throbbing, pulsating heart of the other half, or the dull, blind ache of the dark, drear millions all

who have been

left

through

these centuries without any knowledge of

that great big gospel that brings us liberty, fraternity,

government, educational systems,

knowledge, science, health

"If you can not

;

for, I

continued

find a dentist to

fill

:

a de-

caying tooth, you could hardly hope to find a

surgeon who could set a broken arm or limb, or prescribe intelligently for a diseased stom-

ach or a system of aching nerves." "Well, scarcely," he answered, laconically. will be interested in the following

"You

story," I continued :

"One of the court painters

one day in Peking. He was having trouble with his throat. I inquired about the

came

4

to

me

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

50

and

me

had been eating fish in the palace a few days before, and had gotten a fishbone stuck in his throat. " Could n't any one take it out for you!' difficulty,

lie

told

lie

*

I inquired.

"

'No/ he answered, 'one of the court phy-

sicians

but

it

gave

me

medicine to dissolve the bone; I wonder

did not dissolve.

physicians could remove

"I took him over

if

one of your

it.'

to Dr. Hopkins,

one of

man who

can preach and teach as well as heal, who lived only two doors from me. The doctor had him sit down in front

God's noblemen, a

of the window, open his mouth; he looked into his throat,

saw a

little

red spot, took a pair

of tweezers and pulled the fishbone out."

As

simple a surgical operation as that the

court physician in the greatest non-Christian

country the world has ever developed could not

What, then, about the setting of a broken arm or a broken limb! perform!

Long ago

i

the Chinese discovered the supe-

riority of "Western medicine over their

own

when they began

their

antiquated system, and

great refprm measures of 1898, one of the things they did ical

was

to introduce

first

a regular med-

department into their great colleges and

51

BY-PRODUCTS IN CIVILIZATION universities.

cational

And when

Union began

the North China

Edu-

to build their medical

school in Peking, besides the

officials

of the

capital subscribing liberally, the empress

dow-

ager herself gave nine thousand dollars toward the erection of the building;

and when

it

was

dedicated she sent her nephew, Prince Chun, the present regent, father of the emperor, to be

present at the dedication.

The regent was

also

present at the dedication of the Methodist Hos-

and has shown a particular interest in all phases of educational and medical work in and pital

about the

capital.

And well he might,

for another incident that

occurred in Peking will reveal another phase of

Chinese medicine.

One day one of the leading portrait painters of China came to call on me. He was not feek ing well, and when I inquired the nature of the

malady he simply answered, "Tu tze pu hao;" a polite translation of which would be that his stomach was out of order.

He

did not ask for

treatment nor request an interview with the doctor.

I returned his call less than a week

thereafter.

When I

called at his studio

quired about him, his pupils said,

"He is dead."

and

in-

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

52

"How me

less

that!" I inquired. than a week since." is

"He

called

on

"Yes," they answered; "but he has been ailing for some time, and one of the men in the shop or store across the

way

had

said that he

a prescription which would exactly suit his style of sickness."

"Was

the

man

"No," they

a physician?" I inquired.

replied; "just

a clerk in the

store." ' '

And what

"He

did he prescribe t "

told our teacher to swallow a large

green grasshopper," they answered; "about that large," putting the end of the thumb against the middle of the index finger.

"And what happened?" I asked. "He swallowed the grasshopper and

died

within a few hours."

Now,

my

wife,

who

is

a>

physician, tells

"tha,t grasshopper ought not to

him," and

my

only answer

is

have

me

killed

a counter-ques-

tion:

say what a live grasshopper in a weak stomach might do for

"Isn't

it

a sick man?

pretty

difficult to

All that I

know about

the matter

i

is

that he swallowed the grasshopper and died

BY-PRODUCTS IN CIVILIZATION

man

within a few hours, and his wife sued the

in the shop for having killed her husband."

And

so I said to my; friend with the filling

in his tooth:

''That

is

medicine and surgery in the great-

est non-Christian country in the world.

would you

like to live in

ter religion

Now,

How

a country with no bet-

and no more science than that?

my theory is that it is

the gospel that has

contributed to the production of

all

our

sci-

ence."

"Yes, I have heard you say that before; but I do not believe it. I think it is the white man. ' '

And

so do you,

my

dear reader.

"Will you be good enough to

you think

it is

the white

man?"

tell

me why

I asked.

"Oh, that is easy. The white man is the most highly developed man. He V the thethe best part of the

human

race."

"I knew you believed that," I responded, "and I thought you would say it. You remind

me

of a conversation I had with a young

in a railroad train."

And

man

I related the follow-

ing incident: I was going from Topeka, Kan., to Kansas

City last winter on the railroad train.

A hand-

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS some young fellow about

six feet tali, weighing,

I should think, about one hundred and seventyor eighty pounds, entered the car and sat

five

down

He was

beside me.

dressed, trim,

clean,

Like everybody

else,

well-groomed, neatly

and

intelligent-looking.

I have an unbounded ad-

miration for handsome, big men. to be big

own

I should like

and handsome myself

not for

sake, but just for the sake of

my

my

Master.

A big, handsome man comes out on the rostrum, and the audience looks

at him,

and

ing their arms, they sink back

then, fold-

among

their

cushions or in their seats and sigh to themselves,

"Well, he

thing." tle

Now,

man comes

big enough to

know some-

honestly, do n't you?

But a

lit-

out on the rostrum, and he has

to prove that he will believe

's

knows

it

before his audience

it.

Now, if I had been in a Chinese railroad train, and such a person had sat down beside would have been easy to have gotten acquainted. I should have turned to him, and

me,

it

with a polite bow honorable name.

"My

Wen

name is Wang," he would "what is your honorable cog-

miserable

have replied;

ta kuei Jisingt asked his

BY-PRODUCTS IN CIVILIZATION

"My

miserable

name

is

55

"Where are

He.

you going? and where did you come from? What are you going to do!" etc., etc., and we would have been acquainted.

Now, in an American railroad

A man

tirely different.

train

comes and

it is

en-

down at him

sits

beside you, and you half turn and squint out of the corner of and eye, your

then

straighten up in a sheepish sort of way, as

though you had been trying to steal his pocketbook, instead of trying to steal a glance at him. I discovered in a round-about sort of that this young

house

man was

traveling for a

traveling for a shoe

shoe house!

Every

great business firm in the country has

its

its

men

what it is doing, repwares. "What the Church wants is

out traveling for resenting

way

1

it,

telling

members

go out and be a drummer for the gospel. Too many of us seem to feel that when we have paid five or ten

[that

every one of

its

will

dollars toward the preacher's salary

cents toward missions

we have

obligation toward Jesus Christ.' settle

your

spiritual obligations.

and

fifty

liquidated our

Money can not 0nly service

L

can pay your debt to the Church. If ever you start a conversation with

ai

per-

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

56

son in a railroad train, do not

He

about yourself.

with you to

tell

you

Mm anything

will get tired of

But a man

two minutes.

tell

all

will

you in walk two miles

about himself.

"Why? Because you are interested in the other fellow.

And

the

hungry heart of the world longs for

the interest of his fellow-men.

I talked to shoes the

him for

fifteen

nothing but shoes.

make

I

minutes about

was

interested in

of shoes, the quality of shoes, the sale

of shoes, the prices of shoes

shoes.

After we

had talked for a quarter of an hour about shoes he became tired of it. It was shop to him; he wanted

to

know who

this fellow is

who

is talk-

ing shoes so vigorously.

"My name

Headland," I informed him. "I have been in China for twenty years, and is

am away behind the times in industrial pursuits. I am on the Laymen 's Missionary Movement."

He drew in his though I were a

breath.

curio,

He

looked at

and then he

me

said,

as

with

perhaps more frankness than courtesy, remembering the interest I had taken in shoes :

"You know sions,"

I do not believe in foreign mis-

57

BY-PRODUCTS IN CIVILIZATION " I did not know

you mind

it,

"I

' '

replied.

me why you do

telling

But would

not believe in

foreign missions?"

"Yes, I

'11

tell

you why, "he answered. "If

I had forty billions of dollars I could spend

them ' '

all

in the United States."

But would you do

"Well, that

is

it f

" I asked.

another question," he an-

swered. f '

Suppose you did spend it all here, you still would not have all the people converted," I urged.

"No, but as long as there

is

so

much

to

do

here at home I do not believe in sending so

many men and so much money abroad," he insisted. "You believe in home missions, then?" I said, interrogatively.

"Yes, I believe in home missions," he replied, not ' '

very enthusiastically.

What particular phase of home missions !

"Oh,

all

'

kinds." telling

me what

particu-

enterprise

you help

to sup-

"Would you mind lar

'

home mission

port?" I inquired as innocently as I could. " Well, he replied, I do not help any par1 i

' '

ticular kind,"

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

58

"Don't you suppose," I went on, "that there was just as much need of men and money in Jerusalem and Judea and Samaria when Jesus Christ was preaching to His disciples as there is in

Topeka and Kansas and the United

States to-day!"

"Oh,

yes, I suppose so," he admitted.

"Well,

why do you

suppose,

when He only

had a dozen trained men, and they did not have any money, His last words to them, in Acts 1:8, were to go "to the uttermost part of the earth?"

He did not have any answer to that question, and I went on:

"Let me ask you another question. Suppose those dozen disciples had believed just as you

do,

where would you and I have been

"Oh," he

exclaimed, "the white

to-

man would

have gone up anyhow!"

"I beg your pardon," I urged, quietly. "When Jesus Christ was preaching to His disciples in Western Asia your ancestors and mine were clothed in skins and living in mud-huts and caves in Europe, and if the disciples and their followers

had

*

said,

There

is

no use

oi!

59

BY-PRODUCTS IN CIVILIZATION

going to the ends of the earth while there is so much to do at home, instead of you and I beautifully

clothed"

ically,

from

neatly-tied

"and

and I looked him over

crit-

his brightly-polished shoes to his

cravat

and well-groomed head

luxuriously reposing

among

^

the cushions

of a Pullman palace car in America,

we might

have been squatting on our haunches gnawing a bone among the unkempt, unbathed, half-clad

members of our tribe " I do n *t believe

it,

white

some cave " he

in

man would have

in

Europe." ' '

interjected.

The

risen in spite of every-

thing."

"Do you not suppose, I inquired, that the white man has been upon the earth as long as the black man and the yellow man!" ' '

' '

"Yes, I suppose he has," he admitted. "Then, how do you account for the fact that

we made

so

little

progress

gospel?" "Is it true that

we

did

till

after

make but

we

got the

little

prog-

ress?" he asked.

"Let me put

the question in another form.

"Why did we not keep pace with the yellow

man?" n't

we?" he

asked.

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

60 ' '

By

no means,

' '

I answered.

' '

"We are told

in English history that 'in the dense forests of

the north

and west

of savage men,

(of Britain) roved groups

who

shot a deer or snared a

bustard when they wanted food, ate berries and leaves

when game was not

to be had, slept in

caves or under trees, wherever the sun found

them after the day's chase, and

led, in short,

a

life which, in truth, took no thought for the

morrow. skin, his

A

gigantic savage

wrapped in deer-

naked limbs stained deep blue with the

juice of woad, his blue eyes darting lightning,

and a storm of yellow hair tossing on his broad shoulders and mingling with the floating ends of his tangled moustache, has been the favorite portrait of the ancient Briton,'* as found in his

native wilds. "Different, indeed,

is

the history of China.

A thousand years before that time he had made Five hundred years predescription of our British ances-

a mariner's compass. vious to this

tors Chinese literature

had become

so volumi-

nous that he was forced to collect the best of

it

an ecyclopedia which we call the Chinese classics. Two hundred years before the time into

*

Collier's History of

England, p. 11,

BY-PRODUCTS IN CIVILIZATION

61

of this description of our British ancestors the

Chinese had passed out of the age of feudalism,

had

built the

Great "Wall, and had united the

whole country into one great government; their first

great history had been written, and curio

collectors

had begun

to gather relics of ancient

times.

"Now,

the question arises,

how

is it

that

the Chinese were so far ahead of our ancestors at the beginning of our present era, for they

were undoubtedly a thousand years ahead of us when Jesus Christ was preaching in Galilee,

and the only way I can account for it is that they had a better religion than we had. But whatever the reason

may

be, it

remains a fact

we never made any progress until we got the gospel."

of history that

worth while

He was missions.

cornered on the question of foreign

He knew it, and I knew it, but he was

not willing to admit

it;

and so he jumped right

out of that corner into another corner, dodged the question, and started in on a

"You know,

new

line.

I don't believe in preachers;

they are a lazy lot." I had heard that before, and I

with an answer.

was prepared

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

62

"Do you mean to say," I asked, "that all the men that are traveling for your house are to

your average!" "Oh, I would not dare say," he answered. "Well, I would. They are not. There is

up

not a house in the United States in which

men are up an exceptional man

all

your average. You

the traveling

to

are

physically," I added,

giving

him a

critical glance.

"You

the average intellectually, and

are above

from some of

your remarks I judge you to be very good morally. But will you pardon me if I say I do not think you are

much

only about two-thirds

therefore,

your

Now,

in all

spite of lization

are,

developed;

and your moral third. kinds of business we have all grades

intellectual third

of men.

You

religiously!

But

will

you pardon me

if

I say, in

your ideas of preachers, that the civiof the world is more the result of the

preachers of the gospel than of any other one class of

He is

men!

'

did not have any answer to that.

no answer

to it except to

admit

it.

There It is a

mistake to suppose, as some do, that Confucianism, Buddhism, and

Mohammedanism have

re-

tarded the development of the Asiatic peoples.

BY-PRODUCTS IN CIVILIZATION They have

not.

They have raised them

63

to just

as high a level as the system can raise them. No man nor any people ever rises above their religion.

My friend had no answer to my remarks about preachers, and so again he avoided the issue, and, knowing that I had been many years in China, he said:

"Look here, I do not believe you can convert a Chinaman."

"Did you ever try it?" I asked. "No; I just judge by the looks of him," he answered.

"I have been marked. "That long enough

would

to

like to tell

the following-:

sixteen years in China," I re-

not a very long time, but have learned something. I you a story." And I told him is

CHAPTER VI

A GENUINE PRODUCT MANY

years ago there was a

in a soap

little boy working and candle store just across the city

wall from our mission in Peking.

One day he saw a missionary coming across the street with books in his hands, and he said to his associates

"Kuei

:

the foreign devil

tze lai liao

is

com-

ing."

The missionary, who proved

to be Dr. L.

Pileher, entered the store, put the books

W.

down

on the counter, and asked: Have you seen these books f " ' *

They had not seen the books, but the boy bought one. "Whenever you find a small laboring boy buying a book and studying it you will soon find

him going up and

to predict

where he

up,

and

it is

impossible

will land.

This boy, whose name was Ch'en, 64

left

the

A GENUINE PRODUCT

65

soap and candle store and entered the London Mission School.

He studied diligently. He was converted. Now, one can be converted

Some men

man

in

sections.

get their head converted, and one

with his head converted without his heart

can be more trouble in a Church than rest of the

Then

men

it is

much

possible to have the heart con-

trouble as the other.

and foam without foundation. kind of a

man

Indianapolis.

would

the

together.

verted without the head, and this kind as

all

He

is

almost

is all

We

froth

had that

in the great laymen's meeting in

While we were speaking he

listen attentively until

to reach a climax.

He

we were just about

thought he saw what was

coming before we finished our sentence, and he would lean back and, with a seraphic look on would clap his hands and say, Amen. The first time he said it nobody paid much at-

his face,

tention except to look surprised at the

way he

had repeated it a halfdozen times everybody would look in his direction and laugh and we lost our point. He had did

it.

But

after he

a good heart, but a bad balance wheel. 5

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

66

me and whenever a lot of business men agree in telling me anything I am ready to accept it they tell me that there is another part of a man that is harder Then

these laymen

to convert than his

his

But

hand in it is

tell

head or his heart (putting

his pocket)

yes, his pocketbook.

possible to be converted

pocketbook, and

all

head, heart,

and you are ready

to say,

not sing merely you can sing anything; most of us sing only for the music anyhow but you

can say with

all

your nature:

where you want me to go, dear Lord, Over mountain, or vale, or sea,

"I'll go

And

I 'U stay

I wish

it

"I'll stay

were written that way where you want me to stay, dear Lord, always depend on me,

You can

Oh, what a power the Church would be

if

the

Lord could depend upon every man, woman, and child for whatever there was for him to do!

There

women

is just

as

much need

staying here at

home

others going to the foreign

of

men and

as there

is

of

field.

way Ch'en was converted. He went home and told his mother that he

That

is

the

A GENUINE PRODUCT wanted

67

Church and be baptized at the London Mission. His mother was outraged. ' '

to join the.

My son join the

did not forbid

Christian Church

' ' !

But she

She was too wise for

it.

that.

Mrs. Ch'en knew that to forbid a boy to do a thing he has set his mind on without giving

him anything to do

of a

it

make him want

else to do, will

She therefore began to think wean him away from his religion.

the more.

way

to

After considering various methods she decided to have there

mind

him engaged and married.

If

was anything that would take a boy's would be the being en-

off his religion it

gaged and married.

She selected a young lady named Li, a member of a non-Christian family and she told the ;

boy he was

Of

to

be married.

course, he said he would.

anything else to do. lects the wife for

There was not

In China the mother

se-

her son the father selects the ;

husband for his daughter. The mother knows the girls; the father knows the boys. They naturally select the best they can find,. engage

them

to each other without the

knowledge of the young people, and in due time they are married; and if they fall in love they have to do

it

afterward.

68

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS Ch'en waited until

all

the arrangements

had

been completed and his mother, according to Chinese custom, was about to call a sedan chair

and send for the young lady. She would be brought and put into his apartments, with Chinese ceremonies, and they would be married. certain

other

But Ch'en

said:

"No;

I propose to be mar-

ried over at the mission with the Christian cere-

mony.'

And

he smiled and shut his teeth

to-

gether.

And, you know, you can do anything if you just smile and shut your teeth together. You

you only smile; and you can't do it if you just shut your teeth; but smile and grit your teeth, and you can do anything, for can't do

it if

the world is waiting for

you to will, to decide do, and then the world

what you are going to will pitch in and help you do

it.

Have you ever stood beside the railroad and watched a great freight train passing?

There

are eight large wheels on the engine driven by the piston, and they each seem to say with

every turn, "I will; I will; I will."

Following

them are two or three hundred other small wheels, all turning the

same way, "I

will; I

A GENUINE PRODUCT will; I will; I will;"

are turning.

and

69

all

because these eight

is

waiting for you to

The world

decide what you are going to do, and

Ch'en was married over at the mission with the Christian ceremony.

But you can not keep a wife and study on nothing a year in Peking; so Ch'en had to find something else to do.

The mission wrote him a it

letter,

"To whom

concern," saying that this boy Ch'en'

may

was very

diligent

and

reliable,

and would make

a good servant to any one needing a "boy."

We

needed a servant.

In China every one builds a wall around his house; no one has a fence on his farm. together then ;

That

we

"We place our houses close

build one wall around the

a compound.

is

lot.

Then we have a gate

in

and a gatekeeper in the gatehouse. "We therefore engaged Ch'en as our gatekeeper. He wanted to be a gatekeeper in the house the wall

of the Lord

he said

to

he wanted to be a preacher; and himself, "If you want to be anything,

begin where you

might."

What

are,

and be

it

with

a motto for a boy!

all

your

Principals

of high schools and mothers have telephoned

me

after they

had heard these words of Ch'en,

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

70

"What was

asking:

you want

you said about be anything ?' I want it for that 1

to

'11

my

boy." Ch'en changed the gatehouse into a gospel hall,

for he began preaching therein.

Every

one who went in or out of that gate was told of the gospel in which he believed.

Whenever

he had opportunity he went out to

'the street

He

chapel and preached there.

took trips with

the missionaries out into the country places,

where he preached daily, hourly, all the time; and our mission history records that the first two people that joined our Church in Peking were brought in not by the preacher, not by the missionaries, but "by Ch'en, our gateone a scholar, the other a coolie;" the

keeper

highest and the lowest class.

But Ch'en's wife could not read a word, and he said to himself, "If I preacher,

my

So he said on his

face,

am

going to be a

wife ought to be able to read."

to her one day, with a kindly smile

"I wish you would study

the cate-

chism." Mrs. Ch'en was a married woman, and she did not propose to begin studying now; but she clid

not say she would not

a woman does not

A GENUINE PBODUCT say she won't to her husband in China. But she did not study. Oh 'en waited awhile, and then he said to her

a second

"I wish you would study the

time,

catechism."

Still

Mrs. Ch'en did not.

Again Ch'en waited, and then he ordered her

to study the catechism. Mrs. Ch'en thought matters began to look a bit serious, but she

paid no attention to the order.

Ch'en waited longer than usual this time, arid then he commanded her to study the catechism.

Still

Mrs. Ch'en did not obey.

Now, when Mr. Ch'en had

tried every kind

of moral suasion he could think of, and they had all failed,

the

he took her

off to

compound and whipped her

until she

prombecause he wanted

ised to study the catechism to

a deserted part of

be a preacher. I

wonder what you would do

if

your young

young wives in that way. And we knew that Ch'en had done 'did not bring him up before the it, and we theological students treated their

Why?

Church.

Well,

he had not hurt hurt her; chism.

it

was

her.

just to

first,

He

because

we knew

did not whip her to

make her study the cate-

Then, second, we knew that in China

72

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

man has a right to whip his wife if he can. And a woman has a right to whip her husband, And she does it; and that is the if she can. reason why there has been a woman sitting on a

the throne of China for the past forty-seven years.

Ch'en studied the catechism.

Mrs.

learned every word of till

the last day of her

it.

She

She remembered

it

and she taught

it

life,

to every one of her children.

But when her

baby was born it was a girl. I wish you could have seen that little girl she was one of the prettiest children I have ever first

;

known, and the

first

remark made by every one

who saw her was, "What a

Mary Ch'en

is!"

But she was a China.

But

beautiful child

girl,

and that

is

bad luck in

in addition to being a girl, she

was

day of the first month. And Grandmother Ch'en said: "That is because you

born on the

first

are a Christian.

on

Your

first

baby

is

a girl born

New

Year's Day; you will never have any' thing but bad luck all your life.

Ch'en smiled and went on preaching; and baby was a boy.

his next

Old Mrs. Ch'en shook her head and sighed,

A GENUINE PRODUCT

73

more than one boy to avert first baby being a girl born

saying, "It will take

the calamity of the

on

New

Year's Day."

Ch'en

smiled and continued to preach;

still

baby was a boy. Grandmother Ch'en still shook her head, but not so vigorously as she had before; and

and

his next

Ch'en

still

smiled and preached; and his next

baby was a boy, and his next, and

his next,

and

boys in succession; and Grandmother Ch'en had nothing further to say about his next

five

calamity coming to a Christian's his first

baby was a

home because

born on

girl

New

Year's

Day.

As soon as Mary was

old enough to study

the catechism, Mrs. Ch'en put her to

As

it.

the child sat on her

mother's

feet

she

would

little

work upon

stool at her

sometimes

say,

"

Mamma, what is this word?" Without looking up from her fancy work or sewing, Mrs. Ch'en would answer, "Bead a few

words before

it,"

book she could ter;

tell

and without looking at the her the name of the charac-

and so she did with

Ch'en called the

mother of His Lord.

all

her children.

little girl

His

Mary

first

for the

son he called

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

74

John, for the most beloved disciple; then Jacob,

and

lie

started right

down

the

of the patri-

list

archs.

There

a

is

lot of

character in parents indi-

cated by the names they give their children.

Some parents and their

member

give their boys big, strong names,

names.

girls beautiful, aesthetic

in

Abraham,

my

father's family Elijah, Eli,

we had

grandfather's family

Isaac, Jacob,

and

Elijah.

we have Abraham,

I re-

And

in

my

Isaac, Jacob,

John, and some more and they put ;

Isaac on me.

As boys we

did not like

it.

"We

thought our parents might have been more orig-

names they gave us. But as I look back over my father's and grandfather's famiinal in the

lies

and

find

them both keeping

to the

Old Book,

even in the names they gave their children, I feel rather satisfied.

I think

it

is

a recom-

mendation rather than otherwise to a boy to

have two or three generations of ancestors with Bible names. There is not much in a name, anyhow.

Isaac with Newton

is

a tremendous

And who would not be Benjamin if he could be Franklin, or Abraham if he could be Lincoln It is the character of the man that combination.

1

?

counts,

and not the name.

A GENUINE PRODUCT That

to

boy John! much. Jacob died as a first

He

75

does not amount

child.

But that third

almost a

saint. Tell me, why is it that boy is two boys, born of the same parents, nourished at the same breast, fed at the same table, study-

ing the same books, in the same seat, at the .

same

school, one will be almost a saint and the

other almost a devil?

One man answered from

the audience,

when

I asked this question,

"It

is

counts for

heredity, it

Headland; heredity ac-

all."

"What," I

asked, "heredity

from the same

parents?"

He

mouth half open, but did not say anything; and I added: "Heredity, individuality, and the gospel

may

hesitated, with his

account for

it,

I fancy, but not heredity

alone."

The sity.

third son entered the Peking Univer-

He

studied.

He

completed the course.

When

he graduated he was offered forty dollars per month if he would go into business in Shanghai.

This he refused, and became a

preacher in a small Church up outside the

Great Wall for two dollars and month.

fifty cents

per

76

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS He

The next son graduated. fered one hundred dollars a

has been

month

if

of-

he would

enter secular employment; but he refused all

other offers and became a teacher in the Peking

University at five dollars per month.

He

of the five boys graduated.

The

last

has just about

completed the course at Columbia University as a doctor of science, in order to return to

China and take some position in the employ of the government.

Would

it

not have been a fatal mistake to

have turned Ch'en out of Church because he

whipped

his wife to

chism!

It

the boy

who

make her study

the cate-

pays sometimes to be lenient with is

in earnest.

We

learned that

from the Master. Peter denied his Lord; but the next time

he met the Master, Jesus did not say to him, "Peter, you are a fine disciple

swer a

girl truthfully."

You remember

next time Peter met Jesus.

Sea of

Galilee.

the crucifixion.

afraid to an-

It

the

was up on the

Peter had gone up home after

One evening he

said,

"I 'm

go-

ing fishing;" and the rest of the fellows all said, "We '11 go with you;" and they all went fishing.

They

fished all night,

and they did not

A GENUINE PRODUCT catch any

fish.

cold and tired voice

"

77.

The next morning they were and sleepy and hungry, and a

came from

the shore,

Children, have ye any

meat!"

"No." Well, you are confining your fishing too

much in

to one side of the boat.

what He

And

said.

This was implied

the world for the past

nineteen hundred years has heen fishing too

much

only on one side of the boat.

"Cast the net on the right side of the boat," was the order of the Master, and it was so filled with

fish that

And we have been

lest it break.

down on

net

they were afraid to draw

it

letting

in

our

the other side of the world during

the past fifty years,

and we have been bringing

in nations in a day.

When John the Lord."

heard the voice he

"It

is

Yes, Peter had denied the Master;

but as soon as he knew into the sea

said,

it

was He, he jumped

and swam ashore.

And

Jesus did

not say to him: "Peter, you are back at your old job again, are you? Have taken all the rest

with you!"

No;

He

not say anything.

and

fish

thereon;

did not say that.

Peter just saw a

fire

He

did

of coals

and Jesus had prepared

78

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

Peter >s breakfast with His own pierced hands.

And He fed him, and then He preached to him. You remember His little sermon I It is very ,

what a wealth of meaning there for you and me as well as for Peter

short ; but, oh, is in it

!

"Simon, son of Jonas, lovest thou Me?" "Lord, Thou knowest that I love Thee."

And

Jesus did know that Peter loved

in spite of the fact that in a

ness he had denied Him.

"Feed starving

And his

moment

Him

of weak-

Then:

"Feed

My

hungry sheep." " lambs.

My

Peter fed the sheep and the lambs with

life.

"I '11 go where you want me to go, dear Lord, Over mountains, or vale, or sea," I '11 stay where you want me to stay, dear Lord,

You can

And

always depend on me.

the Master is saying the

same thing

you and me to-day "Feed My hungry sheep, feed

to

:

My

starving

lambs."

The papers

tell

us that two million and

five

hundred thousand Chinese

will starve unless

America sends them food.

Where does Amer-

ica get the food to send to so

many

famine-

A GENUINE PRODUCT

How

stricken people?

is

it

that

79

we hear

of

famines in China, and famines in India, and famines in Africa, and famine and plague and pestilence

and poverty

in

all

non-Christian

'

lands?

But when did you hear of a famine

in Ger-

many, or a famine in England, or a famine in America, or a famine in any other country that has a free Bible! I can not but look upon these

and

all

other similar conditions as by-products

of the gospel

way

If

can say

well, all I

to account for

you can not see them in that

them

in

that

up to you some other more reais

it is

sonable way. Ch'en, yes, he had whipped his wife to

make

her study the catechism; but he was our first preacher in the North China Conference, and

we could send him anywhere and be certain that there would be no trouble while he

of the Church.

He was

was pastor

at the Conference in

Peking at the beginning of the Boxer rebellion of 1900, and was appointed to the same Church

where his son had gone some years before. He took his wife and his youngest son and daughand reached his Church just two months before the Boxers came. ter,

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

SO

"When

lie

arrived the

members

said

to

him:

"Brother Ch'en, you must flee, and hide in the mountains, because if the Boxers catch you

" they will put you to death. His only answer was

"I am

:

the shepherd of this flock.

"When

hidden away and safe, then my I '11 go and hide; not till then." flock are

all

In the light of

know

more

of anything that seems

"I am the shepherd

than that.

"When

that happened I do not

all

Christlike

of this flock.

my flock are safe, then away." He delayed too long. As all

I will run

he was go-

ing out of the village the Boxers caught him.

The Boxer

chief took

clothing, his

away

his bedding, his

everything he had; then

money

turned him over to the rabble and said:

"Now you may

do what you please with

him."

Without the semblance of a his head,

there

and

left his

trial

they cut off

body and bones

to bleach

upon the plains of Mongolia during the

summer

of 1900.

They beheaded

his youngest son, as noble a

boy as we have ever had in the Peking Univer-

A GENUINE PRODUCT and the youngest daughter flew

sity;

81 to her

mother's arms, crying, Oh,

mamma, what

"We

will all

shall

we do?"

go to heaven together," an-

swered her mother in simple faith and trust. And they butchered the mother and daughter locked in each other's arms.

And Ch'en

Ms

fed the sheep and the lambs with

life.

"I '11 go where you want me

to go, dear Lord,

Over mountain, or vale, or sea," I '11 stay where you want me to stay, dear Lord, You can always depend on me.

And

I turned to

my

friend in the railroad

train and said :

"Do you

think Ch'en

was converted?"

There were tears in his eyes as he answered.

"I guess he was." "Well,

it

took us ninety years to get one

hundred thousand Christians in China. During eight weeks of that Boxer trouble of 1900, ten thousand of our hundred thousand laid down their lives rather than

deny their Lord.

the blood of the martyrs

is

And

the seed of the

In ten years since that time we have added one hundred and fifty thousand other Church.

6

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

82

we had

Christians to the hundred thousand

But the

fore.

the Church

is

number of persons gathered

into

only one pf the results of foreign

The

missions.

be-

civilization of the world, traced

back to a last analysis,

is

the result of the mis-

sion of the ^Church.

"Yet there are

tourists

who go around

the

world without ever visiting a mission, and then return and pose as an authority on missions

and missionaries.

God

pity the

man

or

whose views of the Church are limited

number within

of

to the

members that may be gathered .

its walls.

We

Christian country.

call the

Whether

not propose to say.

United States a it is

or not I do

There are about ninety

million people in this country, not thirty-three million of

whom

more than

are members of

the Church, and a majority of these are

and

woman

children.

But may I

women

call attention to the

fact that these thirty-three million

of men,

women, and children dominate and control the sentiment of the United States Government and make

it

impossible for a

by Christian

principles to exert a dominating

influence in the

"Now," I

man not controlled

government!

said to

my

friend,

"you would

.

A GENUINE PRODUCT not blame Ch'en's sons ple

who murdered

if

83

they hated those peo-

their father, mother, sister,

and brother, would you!"

"No," he answered; "I would not." "Nor would you blame them if they manded a heavy indemnity

for

what

de-

their par-

ents lost."

Again he said he would not. "When the Boxer trouble was over," I went on, "the Chinese Government offered to pay for everything the Christians lost at the hands of the Boxers. settling to this

"When the missionaries were

up the indemnity question they went boy who had preached in the Church

where his parents were massacred, and said to him:

"'

do>

you want for what

They

lost everything they

Wei-ping, what

your parents

lost?

had.'

"His head his eyes

;

fell; his

chest heaved; tears filled

and then he answered,

" I do not want anything. '

J

And they never

took a cash.

"The to give

next year, when the bishop was about

him

his appointment, before doing so

asked him where he would

like to

he

go to preach.

SOME BY-PBODUCTS OF MISSIONS

84 tt

'Again his head fell; he swallowed with difficulty, and when he could control his voice

he answered,

"

'I

would

go and preach to those father and mother and brother;' and this was all he like to

people who murdered my

and

sister

asked."

CHAPTER

VII

BY-PRODUCTS IN CIVIC LIFE 1890 I boarded a Pullman palace car in

Chicago bound for San Francisco. to

I could go

bed as comfortably in that conveyance as my own home. I could get up in the

I could in

morning, go into the diner, and have as good a breakfast as I could at home; and in three

days I was carried across vast plains and great mountains and deep ravines, and put down in San Francisco, three thousand miles away. It was a moving home a moving rivers, majestic

hotel.

There I boarded a that

floating palace to cross

shall I say, trackless ocean?

No;

it

was

trackless until the gospel of Jesus Christ found it

as all oceans were.

But from that time

until the present it has been tracked all over

by those

floating palaces.

Again I could go

to

bed as comfortably in this conveyance as I could at home, and if I did not get up in the

morning and take as good a breakfast as I could 85

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

86 at

home

it

was not because the breakfast was

And

not prepared.

I did not.

of not going to breakfast the

I have a habit

morning after I get out to sea, Perhaps you have. But in thirteen days I had crossed that ocean and had first

reached Japan.

There I boarded a

still

smaller floating pal-

me comfortably over to ShangThere I boarded a very much smaller one, which took me up the coast of China to Tongku, ace,

which took

hai.

the port of Peking, which was to be

my destina-

tion.

At Tongku I went on shore and found a railroad train. It was a little train, and it was The

not ,very clean.

The backs

boards.

dicular floorboards.

windows were dirty.

It

we have

seats

were made of

of the seats were perpen-

The

floor

was

dirty; the

soiled ; everything about

made me

floor-

think of the

little

in pots in our homes.

three, four, or five feet high.

palm

was

trees

They grow

Why do

grow as high as the house?

it

they not

They do

in the

"Why? They are out of their element. Take a gospel-developed thought and a railroad train is a gospel-developed thought and

tropics.

put

it

out of

its

element, and

it

dwarfs.

But

BY-PRODUCTS IN CIVIC LIFE

87

me

comfortably and fairly; rapidly up to Tientsin, some forty miles away. this

conveyance took

There, after a few days' rest I went

and I chartered a boat

to the riverside

own It

to go to Tungchou.

It

down

was a houseboat.

was almost high enough for me

to stand

up

I could go to bed in that boat but, though

in.

;

solitary, I

was not

alone.

It is impossible to

go to bed alone in a Chinese houseboat. it

my

all

took

me from Monday morning

evening to reach

Here again I chartered stage of

my

Friday

Tungchou, eighty miles away.

I went

still

till

And

down

to the canal,

another boat to

journey to Peking.

make It

and

the last

was a san-

and pan means boards three boards make a boat. Men had ropes at-

pan.

San means

three,

;

tached to the front of the boat, and with one

end of the rope over their shoulder they walked along the bank of the canal it was not a towpath ; there was no tow-path to the walls of Peking.

We

and pulled us up could not all

sit

on the top of the boat; so the rest of .us hired donkeys and rode up to the walls of Peking. Now, I have given this trip for the sake of the contrast: a Pullman palace car, with all the comforts of home, two thousand miles in

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

88

three days in a gospel-developed country, end-

ing up on "three boards" and a donkey in a

country where the gospel has not gone; and almost every contrast between a country with the gospel

and one without

is the

contrast of

Pullman palace car and the three boards and donkey. There are a lot of people who

this

do not believe in foreign missions. like to take those

I should

people and put them

down

on the other side of the world, and let them ride on three boards and a donkey until they believe in a Pullman palace car and the gospel.

I

want

my

readers to go with

me

into Pe-

twenty years ago. The streets were built up a foot and half or more

king as I found

it

above the sidewalk.

water might run

Why?

In order that the

off the street onto the side-

walk in the rainy season, leaving a dry passage for mules and donkeys and carts. Men do not count in a country without a Bible. advisedly.

I say that

One of our Chinese students took

a trip around the world.

"When he returned to

Peking he said to the students in the course of his address

:

"Wherever I went I found

men doing

in non-Christian lands

the

work

of animals.

In

89

BY-PRODUCTS IN CIVIC LIFE

Korea they were carrying tremendous burdens. In Japan they were pnlling jinrikishas. In China and India and Africa they were doing the work which in England, America, G-ermany,

and France

And

is

done by the animals.

so I say,

without a Bible.

buy a man for

A

woman

known

Why, my

this?" he conclnded.

friends, is

men do

not count in a land

Humanity less

costs

is

cheap.

You can

than you can buy a horse.

less

little girls to

than

a cow.

have

I

be sold on the streets of

Peking for two dollars and a half. Only the gospel ennobles humanity and banishes slavery.

And

so I say, they built their streets

up a

foot and a half above the sidewalk in order that

the water might run off the street and leave a

dry passage for the animals. There were depressions between the street and the sidewalk, in

which the water

settled,

forming pools, some

of which were so large and so deep that

not only possible, but an actual

it

fact, that

was peo-

ple were drowned on the streets of Peking. The Chinese do everything the opposite of

what we

do.

their coat;

They put

we put ours

their vest on outside inside.

white for mourning; we, black.

They put on They shake

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

90

own hands

their

other's hands.

in greeting;

They keep

we shake each

their back

yard neat

and clean; we our front yard. their kitchen refuse,

They bring all vegetables, and other [dirt

and dump them into those pools in the street. They have been doing that for fifteen hundred years,

and the top dozen is

feet of the city of

saturated with all kinds of

Peking and animal

filth

human

that your imagination can pic-

ture.

They dig

their wells

down through

this sur-

and wall them up with blocks of stone without any cement of any kind to make them face

soil,

And

impervious.

down through

the rain descends and settles

this surface soil into the well.

They dip it out, boil it, and make their tea of and the fittest of them surit, and drink it yive.

That, however, was twenty years ago. gospel has gone

to

The

Peking since that time, and

wherever the gospel goes purity goes and during the last three years pure water from the ;

hills fifteen

miles west of Peking has been piped

every street

and now they have a hydrant on corner, and each one of these hy-

drants as

sends forth

into the city;

it

its

stream of pure,

re-

BY-PRODUCTS IN CIVIC LIFE freshing water gurgles as

it

flows a

91

byproduct

of the gospel.

The

refuse vegetables which were thrown

would sink down and decay. In the hot summer-time a thick green scum would

into the pools

form on the surface of these

by

the bubbles that

ing vegetables.

pools, broken only;

came up from these decay-

Then, during the burning hot

days of July and August, when the street was covered with two or three inches of dust, the street sprinklers would come along with longhandled reed dippers, ladle up this water, and sprinkle the streets with it.

Then you would come along

in your Chinese

and the hot rays of the sun would come down, and the odors would come up; and one cart,

of the questions which tourists used to ask each

other

when they were

in Peking was,

"What

kind of smells did you smell to-day?" to which they usually answered,

knew

the

names of."

" Smells that I never

My

friend Carl Fowler,

the son of Bishop Fowler, told

when I was

in

New

me

recently,

York, that when he was in

Peking, in 1888, he catalogued twenty different

odors he had never met anywhere else in the world.

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

92

I have given

to print

it

twenty years would allow me to not you nor would the publishers be allowed

The

describe,

faint glimpse of the

Peking as I found

dirt of old

ago.

you only a

real dirt

it,

even

if

I were to write

it.

Only

add that in the springtime, when every one was suffering from what we calf '"spring fever," the city authorities had

I

may be allowed

to

the sewers cleaned.

proportion of

and

it

where

it,

Was taken it

The

dirt, at least

had washed in

a large

off the street,

up on the sidewalk, dry for a week or ten

out, piled

was allowed

to

was then used for building up

days, and

the

street again.

This,

again,

was twenty years ago; but

where the gospel goes, cleanliness goes with it and so now every great street in Peking is ma;

cadamized and as clean as the macadamized streets of

challenge

an American

my

readers to

city to-day.

Now, I

name a

clean city in

in the

world where

any non-Christian country

the influence of the gospel and the missionary

have not gone.

I do not

mean

to say, nor to

imply, that the missionaries have brought about this condition.

But I do say that such a

tion can not be found

condi-

anywhere in the world

BY-PRODUCTS

IN' CIVIC

[where the gospel has not gone. that, traced

back

city, .with its

streets, its is

to

93

LIFE

And

so I hold

a last analysis, every clean

paved

streets, its

asphalt streets,

its

macadamized

cement sidewalks,

a by-product of the gospel of Jesus Christ,

for all the forces that have contributed to bring

about these conditions are directly or indirectly the result of the Church, or the schools that

have resulted from the influence of the Church.

When I arrived in Peking twenty years the streets were

lit

with street lamps.

ago,

A street

lamp at that time consisted of four posts with a paper house on top, in which was a small lamp about the size of a coal-digger's lamp, and they lit

these street lights

They never

lit

on moonlight nights.

them on dark

nights, for the sim-

ple reason that at such times every one

carry his

own

lantern;

and these

had

little

to

lamps

did not give light enough to be of any account.

So what was the use of wasting the city oil? But they lit them on moonlight nights, that the cart-drivers might drive along between these lights without falling off into the cesspools,

and

perhaps drowning themselves as well as their mules.

That, again, was twenty years ago.

But

94

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

wherever the gospel goes, there light goes and Peking has not proved an exception. Jesus ;

Christ said,

What

did

"I am

the light of the world."

He mean by

that!

Before I went to

China I would have interpreted that as meaning the light that comes into the

with regeneration.

Perhaps that

human is

heart

what Jesus

Christ meant; I shall not attempt an exegesis of the passage.

means the

Nay, in the light of the twentieth

intelligence. it

seen, it

comes into the darkened mind with

light that

century

As we have

means even more than that.

It means

an oil-lamp for the non-Christian world up ;

the present time has never

lamp.

If they never

could never

make a

made a decent

made an

to

oil-

oil-lamp, they

gas-light or an electric light

or an acetylene light or a gasoline light or an

oxyhydric

light,

or any light other than a

low candle or a dish of

oil

tal-

with a wick floating

therein.

Jesus also said to His disciples, light of the

world."

And

"Ye are the

every kind of

arti-

name of light, that the world has to-day has been made by the man with the Bible, by the man who has been

ficial light,

that is worthy the

developed by Christian institutions.

And

so

95

BY-PRODUCTS IN CIVIC LIFE now on each streets in

side of those great

macadamized

Peking there are two rows of incan-

descent electric lights, with great arc lights at every; cross street,

are

lit

and the streets of Peking

as well as the streets of

an American

city

Is not Jesus Christ the light of the

at night.

world in a bigger way than the world has ever yet realized? I can not go down any of our principal streets. in our great cities at nights,

with their electric lights and electric signs

flash-

ing out on every hand, without ejaculating:

"I 'm

the light of the world; the light of the

WOrld, THE LIGHT OF THE WOULD

CHRIST."

I have heard

JESUS

is

men say

that

God

could not say, "Let there be light/' and there was light. I can say it you can say it any one ;

;

can say

it, if

ing dynamo.

only he

is

connected with a mov-

And God Almighty is the dynamo

I can not push an electric button or

Himself.

turn on an electric light

I never do

without

repeating to myself, "Let there be light, and there is,

was

light."

Oh, what a mighty

and what a mighty gospel

our lands

!

He

God He

has placed in

CHAPTEE

VIII

LACK OF CHRISTIAN INFLUENCE I WISH you could take a ride with I do not think

Chinese cart. to take

me

in a

you would want

more than one; but one

is interesting.

"We always take our friends for a ride in a native cart

when they

never forget

visit

us in Peking.

They

it.

A Chinese cart is a great big Saratoga trunk on two wheels.

you ask f

has no springs.

"Why! do Because the non-Christian world has It

never yet made a spring vehicle. eliminate all springs

how much off

from your

of your comfort

your bed, your chairs,

is

Now, you life, and see

gone.

all

Take them

your furniture,

your buggy, your wagon, trolley

car, railroad

train, automobile; take all the springs out of

your life and see what a rough, jolty thing life would be. And so I add, spring vehicles are by-products of the gospel.

has no springs. tailor-fashion

It

has no

A

seat.

Chinese cart

You

on the bottom of the 96

sit

cart.

down Now,

LACK OF CHRISTIAN INFLUENCE on those old

97

the Chinese

dirt streets or roads

do not make roads the cart makes the ;

road-

there would be a rut on this side, with none on

The wheel drops

that.

bump your head on

and you of the cart. Next

into the rut,

this side

there is a rut on that side ; the wheel drops

and you bump your head on that

Or

cart.

there

may be

in,

side of the

a drain across the road

;

both wheels drop in at once, and the jolt makes you wish your brain was placed on a rubber cushion; or, finally, the mule starts suddenly

a mule always does what you are not expecting him to do that is the reason why he is a mule, ;

and you bump your head on the back of the cart; and when you get home, the only thing you can remember of your cart ride

1 suppose

is

the bumps.

you were to go with me for such a ride, I would take you as I did Mr. William Jennings If

Bryan, for a

and curio

visit to

Liu Li Chang, the book

street of Peking.

The Chinese are

a great literature-loving people, and have been for .more than twenty-five centuries, and the focal point of all their literature

insofar as

it is

contained in books,

street; for practically every 7

and learning, is this

one

book published in

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

98

the empire can be found here.

Let

me

try to

give some idea of the extent and character of their literature.

went with Dr. Morrison, that wizard of the London Times, to visit Liu Li Chang. I once

He wanted to secure some medical books and charts. He obtained some books such as he thought he wanted, and finally anatomical chart, it

was only an

ered

all

if

such

it

we found an

could be called

outline of the

human

for

body, cov-

over with black spots, making

very much as

;

it

look

had had the small-pox. So many of the Chinese were pock-marked that I could not refrain from suggesting to the dealer if it

in a joking kind of

way

that the chart seemed

have ch'u hua'rh (blossomed out), the Chinese term when referring to that disease. to

"No," he places where

explained; "those spots it is

mark

the

safe for the doctor to insert

the needle in treatment

by acupuncture with-

out killing the patient."

"May

I ask," I went on, "about

patients the doctors

ing a

would have

chart like this before

how many

to kill in

mak-

they discovered all

these ten thousand safe spots?"

He

shrugged his shoulders, as though that

LACK OF CHRISTIAN INFLUENCE

99

were not a part of his business, and simply; answered,

"Pu chih tao" He showed us a

I do not know*.

medical encyclopedia which

a prince spent thirty years in preparing, copied nine times with his own hands, and it contained twenty-one thousand prescriptions. tions

of

enough

life.

Prescrip-

in all conscience to cure all the

ills

But when a Chinese has a headache he

pastes turnip skins on his temples or on the sides of his forehead to bring the ache out. \

When

he has a sore throat he pinches it up and down the two sides and the center until it is

black and blue, in order that by counter^

irritation

within.

on the outside he

He

still

the outside. his forehead

may

cure the pain

has a sore throat, but

it is

on

In the same way he often pinches

and

his temples

when

turnip or

radish skins are not to be had.

Treatment by acupuncture is not an out-ofdate method by the Chinese. Not many years ago our "boy," a servant who had been with us for nine years, suddenly fell ill with cholera.

The American doctor was summoned

at once

and gave him a dose of cholera mixture. not take effect at once, and a few hours

It did after-

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

100

ward, as my; wife was entering the compound, she saw the

"boy"

native doctor

in the gatehouse, where a

was treating him

to

a "dose 'of

hatpin under the tongue."

Some

of the prescriptions in this great med-

powdered snakes' teeth for violent diseases on

ical encyclopedia consist of

bones and tigers' the principle

that virulent diseases

strong remedies

require

a principle that was prac-

by our own physicians not many centuries ago. Among their nursery rhymes I found one called a "Doctor's Prescription," which, of tical

course, is only a child's caricature of the doctor.

He

us that

tells

My wife's little daughter once fell very

ill,

And we called for a doctor to give her a pill, He wrote a prescription which now we will give

her,

In which he has ordered a mosquito's liver, And then, in addition, the heart of a flea,

And

half

pound

of fly-wings to

make

her some tea.

So far as I know the Chinese have never had any medical schools similar to those in the West, nor any native medical schools like those in which they taught the Classics.

Any

Four Books and Five

one who had an aptitude for the

study of medicine, and a disposition to prescribe for those

who were

ill,

could do

so,

and

LACK OF CHRISTIAN INFLUENCE

101

not infrequently with results not unlike that of the grasshopper referred to in a former chap-

was myself acquainted with one of the court painters, who was drawing a stipend as ter.

I

court physician as well as artist.

was he who gave

Indeed,

it

my friend medicine to

dissolve

we

will find

his fishbone.

Among

the books in these stores

a history that would fill a two-horse wagon. This is not a universal history, nor a history of the world, nor a general history of any kind,

but simply a history of China.

may find an

Here, again,

encyclopedia that contains as

we

many

volumes as there are minutes in two weeks.

Among as

their poets

many

we

will find

one who wrote

separate pieces as there are days in

a hundred years. "When the commission appointed by the late empress dowager to make a tour of the world

and examine the constitutions of the various governments they visited, for the purpose of advising her majesty what kind would be the best to adopt as the proposed constitution for

China, returned to Peking,

it

published

its re-

port in one hundred and twenty-seven volumes.

Such are some of the large ways in which the Chinese have evinced their love of literature.

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

102

In a former chapter

we

referred to the fact

no non-Christian people have ever organized their thought on any one subject into a scitliat

"We might go further and say that no Asiatic people have ever done so. Over against ence.

this statement

we

ought. to place another;

viz.,

none of the world 's great religions originated outside of Asia. The Asiatic seems to that

think in terms of the universal, the European in terms of the particular.

The mind

of the

Asiatic is telescopic; that of the European,

microscopic.

The

Asiatic deals with worlds

and gods and universes; the European with atoms, electrones, and microbes. And so the Asiatic has given the world all its great religions, while the

European has given

it all its

"sciences.

Of the world's great

religions the Chinese

have originated two, adopted two others, and are being rapidly transformed by still another. It is a great mistake, therefore, to suppose that the Asiatic, and especially the Hindoos

and the

What Paul

said of

Chinese, are not religious.

the Athenians

is

emphatically true of the Hin-

doos and the Chinese; they are very religious.

There are probably ten times as many temples and shrines in Peking as there are churches in

LACK OP CHRISTIAN INFLUENCE

103

Almost every square lias its temple, every tome, shop, store, and even well, its

'Chicago. ancl

shrine.

Among Chang Tby

is

the books in the shops

one called the Tao

Te

on Liu Li

Ching, written

Lao-Tze, the founder of Taoism, during the

sixth century before the Christian era.

we

find the highest level to

In

it

which the Chinese

have risen in

their statements of

ligious truth,

when he urges

moral or re-

his followers to

"recompense injury with kindness."

Even

Confucius himself could not reach this

level.

When Basked by

his disciples

what he thought

he replied, "Becompense kindness with kindness and injury with justice." Like many teachers of our own time,

of

Lao Tze's

principle,

he was willing

to' fall

below a contemporary

in principle in order to be original in his state-

ment.

In the Confucian books we find the negative form of the Golden Rule, often wrongly attributed to Confucius as

its

author.

On one

occa-

sion the master in conversation with one of his disciples asked,

"Tze, what

To which

is

your principle in life?"

the disciple answered, probably

quoting a proverb of his times,

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

104

principle in life is not to do to others

"My

what I would not have them do good principle for a he

me."

A

to hold, and one which

practice all his life

may

thing.

man

to

without doing any-

It is only negative goodness.

It is

when

one begins to do to others as he would have

them do good.

to

him

And

that he begins to be positively

this alone

might account for the

difference in the results of the teachings of

Confucius and Christ, else

though there

shall

show elsewhere.

When

is

if

there were nothing

something

else,

as

we

Mencius, some three hundred years

before Christ, was asked by his prince what principle he

had that would enable him

to gov-

ern his people well, Mencius replied: "I have but

one principle,

Eighteousness.

You

be

and your people will be righteous." This, again, was a high type of moral or re-

righteous,

ligious teaching for this follower of Confucius.

But contemporaneous with Mencius there was another teacher, independent of both Taoism and Confucianism, named Mo Tzu, or Micius. We have preserved among his writings a whole chapter on " Universal Mutual Love."

He

every prince loved every other prince as he loves himself, no prince tells

us that

if

LACK OF CHRISTIAN INFLUENCE

105

would make war upon any other for the purpose of enriching himself. If a father loved his son,

and the son

his father; if a

mother

loved her daughter, and a daughter her mother ; if

neighbor loved neighbor as he loves himself;

if,

in a

word

for he goes on in this strain

throughout the entire chapter

if

everybody

loved everybody else as he loves himself, no-

body would injure anybody else for the purpose of benefiting himself, and so all the ills of life would be cured

if

only everybody exercised

universal mutual love."

Now, when Mencius's disciples asked him what he thought of Motze's principle of loving everybody else as one loves himself, he answered, "It would bring us into the state of the beasts.

"

They have no more love for

their

progenitors than they have for any other animals, and hence

are

we

if

we

we would be no

better than they

did not love our parents better than

loved anybody

else.

Again, and this

is

the last of these high

moral principles of Chinese literature to which I wish to call your attention, there was, contemporaneous with the Apostle Paul, a Chinese

woman who

wrote the

first

book that was ever

written in any language for the instruction of

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

106 girls.

now

It

constitutes the first of the

Books for Girls," and in

"Four

she says, "First

it

others, then yourself ;" equivalent to our own,

"Always prefer others rather than yourself." All of these books, with their good moral principles,

can be secured in these bookshops of

Liu Li Chang, and will give us some idea of the quality

of

this

class

Touch the Chinese on

Chinese literature.

of

and they are weak; touch them on morality, and they are science,

decidedly strong; stronger, I think, than any

other non-Christian people the world has ever developed.

So far as I know, not even the Hin-

doos have given statement to so

many

of the

highest moral principles as embodied in the Christian system as have the Chinese.

The question naturally have said

is true,

of our religion,

arises, if all that I

and our progress is the cause and the Chinese have all the

great moral principles that

they not question

we

why

did

make equal progress? To answer

this

it will

have,

be necessary to consider the

Chinese systems of religion, remembering that morality and religion, as

we

shall

show

in an-

other chapter, spring from different states of

the mind.

CHAPTER IX

THE BELIGIONS OF CHINA THE

and most revered of the

first

China

is

Confucianism.

It is the

the teachings of Confucius.

It is

religions of

outgrowth of

a worship, but

not a religion; a worship of genius, but not a worship of God. Neither priest nor idol is

found in a Confucian temple. Every man is his own priest, and his only object of worship

an ancestor, an emperor, a statesman, a scholar, or a soldier. Every home of any im-

is

portance has

its

These are

ancestral tablets.

small pieces of board fashioned after the style of a tombstone, on which the tor

is

written or carved.

an

To

of the ances-

these

homage

is

homage may be translated worship or respect. The first objection

offered,

either

and

name

this

official will

Church

is

that

offer to joining the Christian it

does not approve of the wor-

ship of ancestors.

My up

assistant pastor, Mr. Liu

Mark, gave

his salary as a preacher, asking to be al107

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

108

lowed to preach for nothing and teach English in

an

official's

family for his living.

He

taught

official, and not infrequently both father and sons conversed with him about

the sons of the

On

his religion.

one occasion the father said

to him,

"My

only objection to your religion is that

you do not worship your ancestors."

"And why

do you object on that account!"

asked Mark.

"Because I think everybody should worship his ancestors," replied the

"You

official.

worship your ancestors, I suppose?"

said Mark, interrogatively.

"Most

assuredly, I do," he replied.

"Which

do you wor-

of your ancestors

ship?" asked Mark.

"My father, my grandfather,

and

my great-

grandfather," he answered.

"None

of

them further back than your

great-grandfather?" asked Mark.

"I do not know them any

farther back," he

replied.

"And how

will they feel?"

asked Mark.

"Will they not feel unhappy that their sons and grandsons are worshiped, while they are not?"

THE RELIGIONS OF CHINA "Mei lismng tao"I never thought

109 of that

replied his excellency.

u "Now, do you not se-e?" said Mark, that> no matter how many of your ancestors you worship, their will not,

and that

it is

still

he others that you do

impossible to get a perfect

worship unless you go back and worship the one God and Father of us all, and thus you

honor

your ancesters?" never offered any further objecMark's religion, but allowed one of his

all

The tions to

official

sons to join the Church.

When

Li Hung-chang died, a temple was erected for his worship (not simthe great

official

ply in his memory) in Peking, another in his native place, and cities.

Every

still

official

in winning great

others in other great

or scholar

who succeeded

fame may have at

least one

temple erected for his worship, that in his native city or village, or in the place

won

his laurels.

Great Wall enters the erected in

memory

where he

In Shanhaikuan, where the

of

sea, there is

a temple

Wu San-kuei, the general

who succeeded in keeping

the

Manchus out

until

come and help him drive out the rebel who had overthrown the Ming dy-

he asked them

to

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OP MISSIONS

110

A

nasty.

similar temple is in Changli, for the

worship of the great statesman and philosopher Han Yti, and almost every city and village has

some temple erected for the worship of some one of

its

own

great sons.

Confucius was born 551 B. 0. moralist only, and not a religionist.

He was

a

His con-

cern was man's relation to man, and not man's relation to God.

When

asked about God, he

man how can I know

answered, "I do not know

;

God?" "When asked about

the existence of the

soul after death, he replied,

"We know not life;

how can we know death!" When asked what he thought of Lao Tze's teaching, to "recompense injury with kindness," he replied, "Bec-

ompense kindness with kindness, and injury with justice."

The negative form of which

is

the

Golden Eule,

usually attributed to Confucius, did

not originate with him, nor was he the give

a

it

expression.

disciple,

On one

"Tze, what

is

first to

occasion he asked

your rule of con-

duct?"

"My ciple,

rule of conduct," answered the dis-

"is not to do to others what I would not

have them do to me.

' '

THE RELIGIONS OF CHINA

111

"Tze," answered the master, "you have not yet attained to that."

In estimating Confucianism we should remember that Confucius made no pretensions to divine help, power, or revelation.

He

taught

men as a man, and taught only about life. He made no pretensions to do what he could not, or to know what he did not know. As a man he has had a greater and better influence upon more people than any other man that has ever lived.

And the Chinese people, the greatest non-

Christian nation the world has ever developed,

are more the result of the influence of Confucius

than of any other person.

He

gathered up and

edited the best literature of the past,

and made

a set of classics which are pure in tone and

which have served the Chinese as a course of study for twenty-four centuries.

That some

later scholar did not prepare a better course is

no

reflection

on the sage.

But Confucius was not a deep thinker. He was simply a pedagogue. He struck a surface depth which

is

easy to understand, and hence

could become popular.

If Confucius had gone would have been narrower. deeper his influence Tze or from Lao Turn Chuang Tze to Confu-

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS cms, and

it is like

totle to Socrates.

turning from Plato or Aris-

One can not but wish

that,

instead of turning the face of China to the past,

he had turned

it to

the future,

stead of turning men's thoughts

it

that, in-

manward

he had directed them Godward. did a noble work, and

and

remains for the

of Galilee" to do what the

man

of

only,

But the sage

Man

' '

Lu could

not.

Confucius inspired the peoples of Eastern Asia in a pursuit of the intellectual just as Jesus

Christ has inspired the peoples of Western

Europe

in the pursuit of the spiritual,

and has

received the same kind of homage.

BUDDHISM.

In the year 65 A. B. the

Em-

peror Ming Ti had a dream in which he dreamed that a prophet had arisen in the "West. the leadership

Under

of a prince, his brother, he

formed a company of eighteen officials and sent them west to search for the prophet. This was about the time Paul was writing his second,

Timothy; and one can not but wonder what would have happened if Paul and some of epistle to

and Gospels, with the Old Testament, had been found by this delegation. But God pity us if they had found Paul and taken the Epistles

him

to China instead of allowing

to Europe!

him

to

come

THE RELIGIONS OF CHINA They went

113

There they found some

to India.

Buddhist books and priests, and carried them with some idojs back to China; and thus Bud-

dhism was introduced into the middle kingdom.

And

the Chinese say,

was the

"Of

all

sinners

greatest."

As a matter of fact Buddhism Confucianism lacks

and

Ming Ti

supplied what

a hope of a future

life;

why Buddhism has

got-

ten such a strong hold upon the people.

Of

this is the reason

course,

it is

implied in the worship of ancestors

that the spirits of the ancestors

why worship them? But

still exist,

the hope

else

is indefinite.

So when Buddhism was brought in, with her nirvana and her transmigrations, there was something to feed the hope of the bereaved ones.

Buddhism, however, brought nothing which corresponds to the Chinese classics or the Bible as an educative force; and the system of

reli-

gion which does not foster education must 1

One need only follow the history of the Christian Church where the people are surely die.

kept in ignorance and subjection, to understand the force of this remark.

Buddhism undertook to do with priests, tem8

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

114

pies, worship,

and

idols

what Confucianism un-

dertook to do with schools.

Every nook and

corner of the universe was inhabited by a

and Buddhism put an stone,

idol

wood, clay, paper

spirit,

gold, silver, bronze,

wherever

it

could be

from the kitchen and the front gate to the housetop and the well, and gave the people

placed,

something to fear and to worship everywhere.

But they did nothing to increase the intelligence of the people.

The temples are

priests are filthy

and ignorant and

the

dirty,

foul.

"And if the priests be foul in whom we trust, What wonder is it a lewd man should rust ?"

The people

whether they 'do or not; but when death comes to a home, both Buddhist and Taoist priests are called in affect to despise them,

to chant their litanies for,

not knowing which

and say

may

their prayers,

be right or which

wrong, they prefer to consult them all. At New Year's time the Chinese burn a kitchen god.

But before doing so they smear

mouth with molasses, so that he will not report any but sweet things about them when he

his

reaches heaven. iall

"When friends

die,

they make

kinds of paper houses, rolls of paper

silk,

THE RELIGIONS OF CHINA

115

sedan chairs, servants, money, even cards and dice, if they were fond of play-

carts, horses,

and burn them in a

ing,

parted one

bonfire, that the de-

may have them

Each year they

in the spirit world.

place silvered paper on the

grave as an annual allowance for the

spirit.

Mrs. Headland once said to a princess

had prepared

who

these things for her mother-in-

law,

"You do

not think that her spirit will want

dice, or cards, or the chair in

which she was

borne as a cripple, do you?" "I do not know what she

may want,"

plied the princess, "but

a comfort to us

it is

to do for her anything that she liked

when

re-

here,

and so we prepare these things."

And

so they prepare

less things just as

or on the grave.

all

we put

these usefully use-

flowers

Human

on the casket

nature and

sorrow and human needs are the same

human all

over

the world.

But the in China

is

most worshipped of any the goddess of Mercy. There are

idol that is

some who think that

this is the

Virgin Mary, from 500 to

carried to China by the Nestorians

800 A. D., adopted by the Buddhists, and

in-

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

116

She

eluded in their pantheon.

is

certainly not

a Hindoo goddess, as she has neither the features nor the figure of the idols brought from that country.

TAOISM (pronounced Dow-ism)

the out-

is

growth of the teachings of Lao Tze, who was an old man when Confucius began his teaching. The highest expression of moral teaching ever reached by the Chinese was reached by Lao Tze in

his

"

recompense injury with kindness." Confucius once visited him, but was unable to

comprehend his teaching. Lao Tze wrote a book

called the

"Tao Te

Ching," the classic or Bible of the Taoists. is

It

a small book of only about five thousand

words. virtue;

The word Tao means way, Te means and so

it

has been called the "Classic

Way and of Virtue." His own explanation of the Way is so complicated that no critics of the

thus far have been able to comprehend

same expression, Tao, first

is

used for

it.

Word

The

in the

chapter of John's Gospel, "In the begin-

ning was the

The

Word."

chief teaching of

followers

done;" a

is,

"Do

Lao Tze and

nothing, and

all

doctrine; of inactivity.

his early

things will be It is

worthy

THE RELIGIONS OF CHINA of

note

that

China 's

greatest

117

philosopher,

Ckuang Tze, a contemporary of Aristotle, was Lao Tze's most distinguished disciple. Once,

when Chuang Tze's as to

conversing

were

disciples

what kind of a funeral

they;

should give their master, he, overhearing them, said,

"(jive

me no

funeral at

all; just

throw

me

out."

"But," they

"the birds

objected,

will eat

you."

"Bury me," he answered, "and the worms You rob the birds to feed the will eat me. worms."

The Taoists began experimenting

as alche-

mists some two or three centuries before Christ,

and were the natural

scientists of the times.

Their search was for the in this

way

The great

elixir of life.

was

that they discovered gunpowder.

of the times despised this

officials

search for the elixir of ang, the emperor

who

life

;

but Chin Shih Hu-

built the

and some of

his successors

the elixir of

life,

ways

It

Great Wall,

were anxious

to get

and, of course, there were al-

fakirs to find

it

for them.

On one

sion one of these Taoists brought

occa-

a dose

to

SOME BY-PKODUCTS OF MISSIONS

118

An

who was present when it was brought, drank it. The emperor threatened to put him to death. "That is impossible, Your Majesty," said the emperor.

the

old

official,

official.

"What do you mean!" "I have taken a dose answered the

"That "If

it

"what

is

And

asked the emperor.

of the elixir of life,"

official.

shall not save

you," said the ruler. can not save me," asked the official, the use of

Your Majesty taking it?"

his wit saved his

life.

This pandering to the wants of others has

been a characteristic of the Taoists throughout

They began to adopt the gods the Buddhists and add them to their own

their history.

of

;

and

they continued to do until their pan-

this

theon

is

equal to that of the Buddhists.

Lao Tze

left

China, so the story goes, riding

upon a cow. As he was going out of the northwest pass, the gatekeeper made him stop and

"Tao Te Ching," before he him through. As he never returned,

write a book, the

would

let

he was supposed to have sublimated and gone to the celestial regions, where he holds meetings with the best of his followers until the present

THE RELIGIONS OF CHINA

Eight of-the greatest of his disciples are

time.

called the Eight Immortals.

"Li

119

One of these

is

of the Iron Staff."

Li

is

said on one occasion to have gone in

meeting with Lao Tze, leaving his

spirit to a

body in charge of a

disciple.

The mother of

the latter died hefore Li returned, and he was forced to leave the body to go and bury his parent

;

gun

so that

when Li

to decay.

the disciple

returned, his body

(Why

it

When

be-

would not decay while

was watching

the Chinese.)

had

it,

does not concern

Li returned and found

body in a state of putrefaction, he looked about and saw the body of a lame beggar from

his

which the

spirit

had

just departed, and, slip-

ping into that, he has been hobbling about on

an iron

staff ever since.

Most of the Chinese

fairy tales are connected with Taoism.

About the third or fourth century of our era there was a war for supremacy between these

three religions.

The Buddhists

built

temples and decorated them with their idols. The Taoists built temples too, and decorated them, with pictures of their gods and their im-

The Confucianists

built schools

and

decorated them with paintings of the great

men

mortals.

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

120

of the past.

This continued for several centu-

Sometimes one would lead in popular faTaoism was alvor, and sometimes another. ways ready to adopt a god or a genius, if by ries.

so doing she could It

was

in this

win the hearts of the people.

way that Chinese art took its

so that art in Asia, as in Europe,

rise

;

was developed

in connection with religion.

"What these three religions undertook to do for China, Christianity did for

Europe and

America.

Confucianism undertook to develop the intellectual life of the people. This it did in a very imperfect way.

It furnished

a system

of study which, with the learning of the Chi-

nese language, has produced a greater

development in the Chinese than in people in the world but ;

it left

memory

any other

the thinking fa-

such as reason and invention, practically dormant. Contrast the old educational sys-

cilities,

tem of Confucianism with the great university, college, and public-school system of Europe and America, and we can readily see what a failure

Confucianism has been at Or,

if

we

question

its

its failure,

strongest point.

we

only need to

remember that the Chinese themselves have given up the old Confucian system for the

THE RELIGIONS OF CHINA Christian system, even adopting every seventh: '

day as a day of rest. Buddhism undertook

,

to furnish the Chinese

with a system of worship and a hope for the life beyond. In this she also has failed. No Chinese scholar will admit that he dhist.

is

a Bud-

The people as a whole do not admit that

Buddhism as a system

worthy of their respect. They seek the priests as a last resort, but from childhood they have no respect for is

the priests, and ridicule them in their play and in their nursery rhymes, as witness the follow-

ing: Pat-a-cake, pat-a-cake, little girl fair, priest in the temple without

There 's a

any

You take a tile and I '11 take a brick, And we '11 hit the priest in the back of the Taoism undertook

to furnish the

hair,

neck.

Chinese

She experimented as astrology. She under-

with a system of science. in alchemy.

She tried

took to explain the laws of nature. efforts

all

her

have resulted in nothing more than

Feng slma: demonology, romancy.

And now,

twentieth century,

opened

But

all

soothsaying, and nec-

at the beginning of the

the

Chinese people have

doors to the learning, the science,

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS and the

religion of the, !West,

and are sending

their brightest pupils to be educated in

and America.

Nay, she

princes and her highest

is

Europe

even sending her

officials

to learn about

the Christian countries, that she

may

adopt a

system of government that has never been developed by any but a Christian people.

CHAPTER X BY-PRODUCTS IN INTELLECTUAL

DEVELOPMENT FROM what we have seen of the Chinese systems of religion, we are driven to the conclusion that They have done what they could, but they are man-made systems, and they can but do a man-made system's work. Not peo-

they have

failed.

ple can rise higher than their religion.

fucius and Mencius,

the other noble

came

Lao Tze and

Mo

Con-

Tze, and

men who worked with and who

after them, have raised China

up

to their

own man; and there they must stop until a longer lever with a greater purchase and power is placed under her. level, the level of a

That power, as we have

seen, is not

Taoism, nor MohammedanConfucianism, Buddhism, ism. These have all been tried. They have had their chance for

from twelve

to twenty-three

and they have confessedly failed. What shall be done now? Shall we withdraw

centuries,

123

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS and say China

is

Shall

hopeless?

we

say no

people has any right to offer their religion to

any other people? or

shall

we send our

mission-

message of the Master a message of salvation, of healing, and of intelligence and see what that will do! Jesus Christ as

aries with the

He came

world was especially designed as a Savior of men, of all men, and of the whole

man

to this

physically, mentally, morally, spiritually ;

and the message which He has left us, if rightly interpreted and applied, can not but bring about the same results

among

of other nations and races as

it

has

the people

among our

own. I

was

not long

talking with since*

an eminent psychologist

one of the

new

who do a tremendous amount

psychologists,

of experimenting

with the brain, the nerves, the eye, ear, nose, throat, taste, touch;

a physiological psycholo-

gist,

or a psychological physiologist, or what-

ever

we may term

the

new

certainly a master in his

psychologists, but

own

line of

work

.

and during the conversation I said to him: "I suppose you will admit that the human brain will

is

the highest type of physical creation;

you not?"

INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT ' '

' '

Certainly,

"You

he replied

believe, as

we

' ' ;

we all hold that.

all do,

went

' '

that the body is

only the house in which the real tools with

125

man

lives

the

which he works; do you not!" I

on.

"Yes," he

replied.

"But

house

this

is

important, and these

tools are essential to his development,"

"Very few people," he answered, "have any conception of the complicated mechanism

human body." "I suppose, also, that you admit," I tinued, "that somehow connected with

of the

brain there

is

a thinking man

an

conthis

intellectual

man." "Certainly I do."

"Well, now, will you admit that reason is to the thinking man about what the brain is to the physical intricate

man

and

the highest faculty, the

complicated

of

the

most

thinking

powers, and the most difficult to develop?" "Yes," he replied, "the memory is simple

and

easily developed

;

a kind of a storehouse for

The imagination runs riot even But the reason does not appear

facts. child.

later in

life,

and

it

in a until

requires the solution of a

126

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

long

list

its

and a great variety of problems for

development."

"And what would you say the reason or thinking man deals with?" I asked. "Things," he

"The

thinking

the

replied, without hesitation.

man

relates us to the

world and

the things of the world."

"Does

"To

it

not relate us to laws?"

laws as things, again I answer, yes.

We think "Does

about laws as things," he replied. it

not relate us to

man?"

I asked,

further.

"To man as a thing, yes," he replied; "but not to man as a moral being." "And how are we related to man as a moral being?" I inquired again. "By our moral nature," he replied. " Wha.t do you mean by our moral nature?" I asked.

"I mean," he went on is

a moral being

a,s

to explain, "that

well as an intellectual being.

That he has a moral nature that

from

is

as distinct

his intellectual nature as it is

spiritual nature,

man

from

his

and that he has moral faculties

just as he has intellectual faculties."

"What dp you mean by moral I inquired.

faculties?"

INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT

"What

do you mean by intellectual facul-

ties!" he asked, in return.

"I mean powers

of the

mind that have

tain definite functions, or states of the

when

it

mind

does certain definite work," I replied.

"That ulties,"

cer-

is exactly

what I mean by moral

fac-

he answered.

"You mean," I asked, "that conscience is to the moral man what reason is to the thinking man?" ' '

Exactly.

Conscience

is

just as truly

a fac-

ulty or state of the mind as reason; has just as definite functions,

and

as capable of develop-

is

ment by the same laws and methods," he

as-

serted.

"I am not sure

that I understand

mean," I answered.

"Man

is

what you

,

a trinity," he explained, "without

any reference

The psy-

to his physical nature.

chical part is threefold.

The lowest

of these

three is the intellectual or thinking man, with all his faculties

reason,

we have

and powers.

To develop the

definite studies,

such as the va-

rious departments of mathematics.

thinking

man we have

Above the

the moral man, and con-

science is to the moral

man what

reason

is to

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

128

the thinking man.

It is just as

much a

faculty

as reason, and is capable of development by the

same laws and

we do

nately,

exercises;

and

yet,

unfortu-

not have, in a single college or

university in the world, so far as I know, a sys-

tem of study that

designed to develop con-

is

science as mathematics develops reason.

"You

think, then, that

"

our system of educa-

tion is defective," I suggested.

"It

incomplete," he answered.

is

"We

have been spending all our energy thus far on the development of our intellectual nature, without paying any attention to our moral faculties.

What we want is a moral mathematics a which turei

will

study do for conscience and the moral na-

what mathematics does for reason."

"That would be

difficult to

make, would

it

not!" I objected. "Arithmetic, algebra, geometry, trigonometry, calculus, ical studies

them.

and the various other mathemat-

were not easy

to make, but

we made

We can make anything we are interested

enough to undertake.

Most of us have never

a study." would you undertake to make such a

even, thought of the necessity of such

"How

study?" I asked.

INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT "I am not swered.

' '

It

know," he anwould probably have to be a praccertain that I

tical application of

already know.

a good

many

things that

might be that after

It

we

we had

taught the students certain things they

would

be sent out to do them a la Squeers.

might

It

be that students would be held responsible for

and examined

in their conduct

toward their

fel-

low-students and their teacher as carefully as in their books." * '

You mean that it would be a

science of our

relations one with another?" I asked.

"Certainly," he replied.

"As our

tual nature relates us to things, our

ture relates us to our fellow-men.

intellec-

moral na-

Conscience,

our moral faculty, enables us to distinguish between right and wrong and urges us to do the right

and avoid the wrong.

velop one's

arm is

to use one's

develop one's reason so,

The way

is to

to de-

arm; the way

to

use one's reason;

on the same principle, the way to develop

one's conscience

is

not only to

know what we

ought to do, but to do what we ought to do."

"Our day, then,

"In 9

educational system, as is

it

stands to-

very incomplete," I suggested.

so far as a thorough education is con-

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

130

' cerned, most assuredly,

we have passed third developed.

'

lie

answered.

the schools

we are

' *

When

only one-

Our moral nature and our

spiritual nature still lie dormant, except as they have been helped by the Church or by home in-

Most of the schools pay no attenthe moral and spiritual development of

struction.

tion to

the students, though these, or either of them, is

more importance than the education of intellect, while both of them are totally dis-

of

the

regarded by the schools." "Is not your statement too strong?' 1

"What statement?" "You say that the moral more importance than

faculties are of

the intellectual facul-

ties," I added.

"Are

they not?" he asked.

"I have always thought

of the intellectual

development as being the most important of all," I said.

"So have most

people," he added,

that is where the trouble

lies.

But

is

"and

our rela-

tion to things as important as our relation to

our fellow-men? iderstand the

Is

it

as important that I un-

law of gravitation, or that I can

operate the laws of electricity or steam, as

it is

INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT

131

that I can operate the 'Golden Eule' or the 1

Judge

not, that

' ye he not judged? You know

young men who spend four years of study in the university trying to understand and he ahle of

to manipulate the laws of electricity,

come an

hear of a

man

and

he-

But did you ever and spending

electrical engineer.'

going into college

four years in an 'effort to understand and be ahle to operate the moral laws?

as a result of our college

numher is

What we want

work

a greater Our moral nature

of moral engineers!

is

higher than our intellectual nature, and more

difficult to

develop and hence ;

begun upon

it,

we have

scarcely

not to say anything of our spir-

itual nature."

"What

do you mean?" I asked.

"I mean

to

above the moral

say," he added, "that

man

there

man and this above the moral man as spiritual

;

is

man is as far the moral man is above religious

the intellectual or thinking man. is to

the spiritual

away

another man, the

man what

Now,

conscience

moral man and reason to the

faith

is to

intellectual

the

man.

Just as much a faculty, just as susceptible of development, and by the same laws and rules as reason. But there is not a theological school

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS know, that has ever thought of attempting to construct a system of in the world, so far as I

study that would contribute to the development of faith

mathematics does reason.

a,s

no question. pable of development no one, I

have faith there

doubt.

is

That

That we it is

ca-

has any The only question that remains to be

settled, then, is this

:

Is

it

think,

possible to construct

a study, or a system of studies, to co-ordinate

and correlate a

series of laws

and facts in such

by a thorough, systematic, and continued study of the same we may secure a faith

a

way

that

development commensurate with our reasoning

power!"

"You

think,

then,

that the faith of the

Christian peoples is not equal to their reason," I remarked.

"Do you judgment,

think

we

are a

it

is?" he asked.

'race of

"In

my

reasoning or think-

ing monstrosities and of moral and spiritual pigmies.

We

think, think, think; there is

problem too big for us ready to spend our little

to undertake.

lives

We

no are

boring down to a last

some problem in chemistry or or rooting out some new element, or

analysis of

physics,

ferreting out

some new power

of nature; but

INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT ; 133 how much

of the time spent in our education is

put on the development of a conscience that sensitive to the slightest variation

from the

laws of rectitude and the rules of honesty? there were as

much time and

is

effort spent

If

on

the development of a sensitive conscience as

there

is

on the manufacture of a sensitive ther-

mometer, the world would be better than

it is

to-day."

"Our

faith does not

seem

developed," I remarked.

" It is not

to

be very highly

.

developed at

all,

"he added. "We But who

talk about reasoning out a problem.

ever heard any on matter.

We

talk about faithing out

have made reason into a verb, be-

cause just as soon as a faculty goes to work

must work as a verb.

made

into a

I answer, simply because

Why?

it

But who ever heard of

conscience or faith having been

verb!

a

we

have never yet set conscience or faith to work on the moral and spiritual problems of life."

"Do you and

think that the words conscience

faith could be

made

into

"Anything can be made

verbs?" I asked.

into a verb if

it

can

be put to work.

There are great spiritual prob-

lems which

never be solved unless they are

will

134

SOME BY-PKODUCTS OF MISSIONS

faithed.

Who

ing can find

by searching, thinking, reasonout Grod$ Spiritual problems must

be solved by spiritual faculties. No man could solve a problem in euclid by faith. Nor could

any one

solve

a spiritual problem by reason.

You can no more reason the things you can dolts

faith the things of reason.

of faith thart

Each must

own work in its own realm."

"What,

then, is the realm of faith!" I in-

quired.

"The realm

of spiritual things," he an-

man moral man

with

Faith links the religious

man

swered.

"Reason

things.

Conscience links the

his fellow-men.

with God.

links the thinking

The whole man

is

with

thus tied up to

the whole universe."

"According

to this, then,

we are

only one-

third developed," I suggested.

"Quite right," he answered; "and that the lowest third."

CHAP-TEE XI

NEED OF BY-PBODUCTS IN MOBALS my conversation with my psy-

thinking over

chological friend I could not but admit that he

was more than half right in his views of our lack of development and the shortcomings of our educational system, and I determined,

if

some

of

possible, to talk the matter over with

our leading educators. recently, sities,

to

when

This opportunity came

visiting one of our State univer-

and one of the leading professors said

me:

"I have been

told that

-

proposes to

spend three million dollars on a department of morals. What do you think of such a use of

funds?" '' " The best use that could be made of them, I answered.

"Would you be head of an

money

you were at the sink that amount of

willing, if

institution, to

in a scheme as impractical as that?"

he

asked further.

"You mean,"

I returned, 135

"would I make an

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

136

effort to float a project of that kind with that

amount of money?" "Well, it amounts

to the

same thing," he

answered.

"I think

I would," I answered.

"And

then

I would try to get three million dollars more to float

a department of

" religion.

"What do you mean?" he

inquired.

"Just what I say," I answered.

"But I do not understand," he "I would teach boys and girls

the impor-

how

to be reli-

tance of being religious, and gious, just as I

urged.

would teach them how

to be

clever."

'But you do not mean to say that you can teach boys and girls how to be religious and 4

moral?" he

rejoined.

"Why

not?" I answered.

"Why,

the

way

to be

moral and religious

is

moral and religious," he explained. "Then, on the same principle, the way to be

just to

be,

clever is just to be clever; is it?" I asked.

"No

;

to be clever, one has to study,"

he an-

swered.

"Isn't goodness and piety as important as brilliancy!" I inquired.

BY-PRODUCTS IN MORALS "Oh, yes; I suppose

137

But they are not

so.

so practical," he answered. It'

'What do you mean by practical f" I asked. You can 't live on Useful, he answered.

tf

' '

' l

goodness and piety."

"Live," I answered; "you- do not have to live, but you have to die; and goodness and piety are a good deal better to die liancy.

That

"No;

is practical;

by than

bril-

isn't it?"

but the present age

is

an age when

we want to turn all our knowledge to account." "You mean, when we want to transform all our brilliancy into money ?" 1

"Well, practically

"And

it

amounts

is that, therefore,

to that."

the best thing to

"dot"

"That

is

the disposition of the age.

You

examine the courses of study in our colleges and universities. Notice how many of them are of a practical nature.

Men want

to use the

It is a practical age.

knowledge they acquire."

"In what way?" I asked, for I perceived he was just now leading up to the subject I wanted had recently listened to two addresses by the presidents of two of, the largest universities in America, and both of them to discuss; for I

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

1S8

discussed the practical nature of the present practical being the ability to use for per-

age

sonal ends all the knowledge and

power one

ac-

quires during his college course.

"Well, for instance, take any college cur-

You

a large percentage of the courses of study are of the nature of en-

riculum.

will find that

mining or some other practical character which enables a man to make a better living," he explained.

gineering

civil,

electrical,

"Yes, I have observed that," I answered; "but because that is so, is it therefore best ? 1

Should

it

be the whole object of an educational

institution to teach

them

men to be smart and

enable

to do their less fortunate brothers, or

should

it

be a part of their duty to teach them

good and make it easier for others to as well as themselves?"

live

own

ex-

to be

"Sure," he answered. pression: "It

is

I give his

the business of the school to

make men smart, and the business Church to make them good." ' *

I venture,

"I

' '

answered,

of the people think as

you

do.

much

the

that nine-tenths

I

believe that the opinion of the

the same, for not

of

am inclined to government

attention

is

is

given to

139

BY-PRODUCTS IN MORALS

morality and religion in our State universities. But does that make it right! Haven't we been

a

narrow

bit

Or may I put

in the past?

Have we not been

another form?

it

in

so intent

on

understanding nature and the things about us, that we have paid too little attention to our-

Have we not been

selves?

so anxious, for the

we have given too little thought to the future? Have we not thought so much of our stomach and our back that we have forgot-

present that

ten that the other fellow has a stomach and a

Have we not thought so much about having to live that we have forgotten that

back as well?

we have rality

to die?

I do not

mean

to say that

and religion are only good

They are as good

to live

by

mo-

to die by.

as intelligence

;

but there are other things than living, and there are others selves.

that

One

it will

who have

to live besides our-

of the dangers of an education is

make men

clever without

them good, and enable them of their fellow-men for their

In other words, education

to take advantage

own personal is liable to

self-culture for selfish purposes.

vation

may

be the

sacrifice is the

first

first

making ends.

become

Self-preser-

law of nature, but

law of God."

self-

SOME BY-PEODUCTS OF MISSIONS

140

"Well, you do not think that an education should be self-culture for benevolent purposes,

do you?" he exclaimed.

"Pretty nearly," I answered. "An education at best is a very selfish thing. It is a pouring in

just pouring in

shoveling

ing out, of a young mind.

who are

in,

or draw-

The young people

getting an education are just getting,

getting, getting all the time,

They are being done thing for any one

for,

and not giving

but are not doing any-

Now, does

else.

out.

it

seem right

that the State, or the public, should provide institutions to devote their time

to

all their

time

a few of these young people in order that

they

may live

the

more

easily

at.

the expense of

the food producers and the clothes producers, unless they can add very materially to the comfort or happiness of

mankind as a whole!"

"But you can not induce people

to

spend

their time securing an education in order to

devote themselves to the good of others," he said.

If

"That depends upon how you teach them. you teach them that the object of an educa-

tion

is to

get

put more into

more out of life,

to

life

rather than to

do others rather than to

BY-PKODUCTS IN MORALS do for others,

141

be happy rather than to try to make others happy, you can not get

them

to try to

to devote themselves to others.

you teach them that the of their

life

first

But

if

twenty-five years

should be spent developing them-

selves in order that the second twenty-five years

may

be spent in the service of others,

you

will

probably produce a very different class of scholars."

"What is that you say?" he "Do you mean that a prise. fit ' '

fellow should

hard study in order

spend twenty-five years in to

asked, in sur-

himself to work for others!"

That

is

one way of putting

"though I should express

it

it,

"I

answered,

differently.

I

should spend twenty-five years trying to find myself, and getting right views and right values

of

life

;

then I would spend the next twenty-five

trying to express myself in terms of to

my

fellow-men.

There

is

my relation

some excuse for

a farmer living who does not do a benevolent deed all his life; he is producing food for manThere

kind.

is

some excuse

also for

a laborer

who has no time for anything but the support of his family; he is doing the work of the world and

is

thus a producer.

But he

is

a pitiable

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

142

figure, indeed,

who, with an education, produces

neither food, clothes, work, thought, comfort,

nor consolation, but spends his time trying to secure his

He

is

own

ease and prolong his

life.

a parasite on the public; and the system

of education that leads or teaches to believe that

an education

order that they

may

rather than that they

fruit of

young people

being secured in

is

live

more comfortably

may

help others to be

more comfortable and happy is

The

own

radically wrong.

an education should be very much

like the fruit of the spirit."

""What do you mean?" he asked. "Well I wish that expression of the hook-nosed

Jew who

heaven and learnt

'little

trod the air into the third

ithe

most beautiful things'

were in some other book, that I might quote it from a man as a man a great manrather than as a preacher."

"What

expression?"

"That expression about

the fruit of the

spirit"

"Oh, you mean love and all those other things!" he said, interrogatively.

"Yes; do you know what they are?"

"I don't think I your

little

do, in the order in

Jew names them."

which

143

BY-PRODUCTS IN MORALS

"Well, if you do not know them in the order in which he names them, there is no use of

knowing them at

"Why?"

all," I

remarked.

he inquired.

"Because everything depends upon the order in which they come. Paul in those nine words is trying to express his conception of themoral and religious development of a human soul or his moral and spiritual education; for that

is

what

it is.

Now,

if

our educational

in-

would follow those directions in the

stitutions

development of young people, instead of only trying to teach them about things, we would

have a much more rounded and symmetrical lot of young people sent out from our colleges year

by year." "Let me get my Testament and look at it," he exclaimed. "I have never thought of it in relation to

an education."

"There are nine of them, you observe," I continued. "Group them in three bunches of three each, for

you

will not find

anywhere

else

in the world three such clusters of fruit."

"The them

first

over,

not strike cation."

three," he remarked, as he read

"are

me

'love, joy, peace;'

but they do

as any particular part of

an edu-

\

144

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

"Indeed," said

I,

interrogatively;

"do you

not observe that love, joy, and peace, like an education, take effect

upon one's

self?

They

have nothing to do with any one

else.

They

are absolutely the most selfish things in the

world in that you can not give them to any one else. You can not share them with others. No matter

how much you may want

to do so,

you

can not divide your joy with your best friend. It is yours, and yours alone."

"Oh, I do not think you are right!" he claimed.

"Why,

ex-

I have always been taught

that love is the most unselfish thing in the

world."

"Then you have been wrong,"

said

I,

under-

standing exactly what he meant, but without explaining myself. "Love is yours. It is yours alone.

You may inspire it in some one

you can not divide is

yours.

To

it

with him.

inspire in others?

but not to divide.

Peace

with no power to divide

may want to do lie

down

so,

is it,

but

likewise

Yes, perhaps;

yours.

Yours

only,

however much you

with any one

at night beside

Joy

else,

else.

You may

your friend, your wife,

your husband, at perfect peace with yourself and all the world, while they think and worry

145

BY-PRODUCTS IN MORALS

and toss upon a bed of unrest ; and gladly would you divide your peace with them, but you can not do

You may

try to comfort them, but you can not share your peace with them. Love, joy,

so.

and peace, the

firstfruits of the spirit, like

an education, are the result of one's own conduct or effort, and can not be given to us by

any one

else."

"Now, aren't you there?" he

twisting the meaning

"It looks as

said, dubiously.

if

what you say is right, but I had never thought of them in that way before."

"I

think not," I answered.

"Love and

joy

and peace are the personal part of a moral and spiritual education, just as the

memory, reason, and imagination are the personal part of an intellectual development. Without them we are moral and spiritual imbeciles. They ought to come in youth at the same time with our intellectual development,

and the

cultivation of

them

do not mean any sexual affection, but a disposition to be affectionate, happy, and peace(I

ful)

ought to be as much a part of our system

of education as the teaching of mathematics

and

we

science.

If these are developed in youth

are prepared for a happy and successful 10

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

146

moral and spiritual life; and if not then canes, crutches, and bolsters. Now, what are the next " f ruits of the Spirit!

"

'Longsuffering, gentleness, goodness,'

"

he read from Galatians. "Well, what do you make of that!" I asked. "I do not make anything of it," he replied.

"Do you upon

not see

how

naturally that follows

the heels of love, joy, and peace?" I in-

quired.

"Not

exactly," he answered.

"I do not understand how you can

fail to

see it," I urged.

"See what? "he

asked.

"See the connection," I answered. as soon as on

"Just

has within himself a well-devel-

and peace he can not but express himself in longsuffering, gentleness, and goodoped love,

joy,

When

ness toward his fellow-men.

one has a

well-developed reason, imagination, or inventive power, he wants to go to

make machines, poems, riddle of the universe

;

work on things and

pictures, or solve the

so

when one has a

well-

developed affection and a well-cultivated disposition

he

will just as naturally

go to work upon

his fellow-men in his exercise of longsuffering

or patience toward them in their shortcomings,

BY-PRODUCTS IN MORALS

147

gentleness in their dealings, and goodness in their conduct.

in action.

It is the conscience of the

It is his

moral nature operating on

And it

his fellow-men.

is

as

much more impor-

tant than intellectual. development as the is

man

man

more consequence than the machine he

of

And

operates.

yet

school and teach

we put young

people into

them for twenty-five years

develop their thinking powers, paying tention to their morals,

New Testament and

to

little at-

and even turning the

prayer out of our puhlic

schools."

"It does look a good deal more important

and more serious than I had ever thought it was, he answered, as he read the words over ' '

again and again.

"Well, what

is

the last cluster of that fruit

of the Spirit! "I asked.

"

'Faith, meekness, temperance,'

and before I could stop him he " verse,

" he read;

finished the

'against such there is no law/

"

"Well, there isn't any occasion in the divine regime for any law against such things,

though there seems to be a good deal of opposition

to

temperance in some States," I re-

marked.

He

smiled.

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

148

notice," I continued, "that this

"Now, you

us up with God, just as the former linked us with our fellow-men, and

last cluster links

leaves us in the closing

and more mature years

of our lives to perfect our

development

of

own

meekness

character in the

and

temperance.

Love and joy and peace come in youth; but who ever knew a child to be meek or temperate !" "Yes, or

to exercise

any great faith!" he

added.

"What

do you mean?" I asked in turn, for

I was not sure I understood him.

"Why," he people want

to

explained, "children and

know, and are not

young

satisfied

with

believing."

"I must confess I do not yet understand," I added.

"I mean, what you know you do not have to believe, and what you believe you admit you do not know/' he explained.

"I hardly think I agree with you," I

re-

marked, "at least altogether. .Faith, it seems to me, is a faculty which enables us to get a kind of knowledge that reason can not get; viz., a knowledge of God, of salvation, and of a future

life.

For

instance, I

know I am

saved.

BY-PRODUCTS IN MOEALS

149

I did not get that knowledge through imagination, through intuition, nor through reason, but

through faith."

"But can you know you are saved?" he

"Do you

asked.

not just believe you are?"

"By no means," I "How?" he asked. "Well,

this is

answered; "I know

it."

where the man of reason and

man of faith part company," I answered. "What do you mean?" he asked. "Why, the man of reason holds that all our knowledge comes through reason. And our the

knowledge of things, I suppose, does, except where faith in a theory helps us. But faith as

a faculty helps us ties,

to ferret out spiritual veri-

just as reason helps us to solve temporal

problems; and when we have ferreted them out or faithed them out^-we are just as certain of

them as we are of any other

"For instance?" he

facts."

said, interrogatively.

"Well, then, for instance," I answered.

"When

I was a boy of eighteen, and one must

give personal experience in order to illustrate

with personal knowledge, I did not feel satisfied with my life. I felt that T ought to be a Christian.

I had not been a bad boy ; that

is,

I did

SOME BY-PEODUCTS OF MISSIONS

150

not swear, or steal, or love low company, but I went to church

and Sunday

on the whole, as

my

school,

and was,

teachers and neighbors

would have admitted, a good son, a good brother, a good boy. But I was not satisfied. Eevival services were being held in our church. I did not attend them at

first

because I was

teaching at the time, walking seven miles a day to

and from

and I persuaded myself that

school,

I had enough to do.

" About a week

me

after they

had begun,

my

was not going to attend the services. I answered that I was not; that my long walk and teaching was about all I could

mother asked

do.

if

I

Then she said: " 'Are you afraid to go!' "I shut my teeth together and said

self, 'I

go,'

'11

to

my-

show mother that I am not afraid

to

and I attended the meetings every evening

of the week.

"

Saturday evening there was a lecture in our schoolhouse, and I took my young lady friend to hear

it.

As we were driving home

she

asked:

" 'Has any one gone to the altar at the vival services ?'

"I answered

that no one had.

re-

BY-PRODUCTS IN MORALS " 'That

is

151

'There are

queer,' she replied.

so

many young people in your neighborhood who do not belong to Church, and everybody a Christian better than one who

likes

not a

is

.Christian.'

"Now,

that

seemed the most reasonable

thing I had ever heard, and I decided that on

Sunday night I would go forward, kneel at the altar, and seek salvation. I did in all honesty. I prayed.

I got rid of everything I had that

would separate me from God. I prayed during my walks to and from school, but I did not rea single change.

alize

week. held.

On Saturday The people

This continued

the

forenoon a meeting was

told

would be converted.

how

all

me

to believe,

and I

I could not understand

I was to believe I had a thing that I did

not have or did not know I had.

My brother

on Saturday morning. sitting in the parlor.

I went

He was

home

and I were

trying to start a

tune which he did not know very well.

I had

not sung a word the whole week, but I butted in

and started the thing for him. Mother looked in from the dining-room and asked: " 'Was some one converted a,t the

meeting

this forenoon!'

"

'No,' I answered.

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

152

" 'Are you sure?' she asked.

"And I lieve I

4

said to myself, I believe I

am;' and with

my first

am; I be'believe' came the

knowledge that'I was, and from that time until the present, thirty-four years, I have known.

what I mean by faithing out a thing. There is a kind of knowledge that comes by rea-

That

is

son

a knowledge of things

;

and then there

a kind of knowledge that comes by clear, just as definite, and very

is

faith, just as

much more

val-

uable and important; and hence I think the rea-

son for God's having given us

command-

tlie

ment as He did."

"What do you mean?" he

asked.

"I mean that God gave mankind four commands in regard to Himself the first four the burden of which was that we should love

Him

with

all

our heart, mind,

soul, strength.

The most important relation a man has, if we are to judge from these first four commands, is God; and hence it is the most reasonable thing in the world to believe that we

relation to

.can faith out that relation.

Then

the last six

express our relation to our fellow-men:

we

should honor our father and mother, and love

our neighbor as ourself, and never try to do

BY-PRODUCTS IN MORALS

153

/

Mm out of Ms

life,

or anytMng that

is

his character,

Ms

Ms.

the Almighty;

Now,

spent the whole force of the

ments on our relation to

men

if

property,

Ten Command-

Him and

our fellow-

our moral nature and our religious na-

turewould

it

be an impractical use of funds

have a department of morals and a department of religion in every one of our colleges! to

be the part of wisdom to get all of our young people linked up to the whole universe, rather than to have them tied down to

Wouldn't

it

material things alone?"

"I do not know but people do not tMnk of it

it

would.

But most

way," he

in that

re-

plied. 1 '

' '

Quite right,

I answered.

people used to think that

it

' '

A great many

looked wise to pre-

tend to be agnostics; ignoramuses, for that

what an agnostic admits Mmself that time

much

is past.

to be.

is

But

In these days, however, so

attention has been given to a knowledge

and forces and powers and tMngs that students seem to tMnk it a sign of weakness

of laws

be found studying about moral and religious matters, when in reality the highest and best to

two-tMrds of their psycMcal nature (
is

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

154

so dwarfed

and undeveloped that they do not

even have the power to conceive, or to realize the largeness of the worlds of thought that lie

beyond their horizon." "I do not think I understand what yon mean/' he remarked.

"Haven't yon heard men say is all right

women and

for

not big enongh for men?

that religion

children; bnt

Or,

if

it is

yon have not

heard them say it with their mouths, go to any of our churches and look at the congregation

and see how they say it with their lives. Gro and listen to some of the baccalaureate addresses in some of our great colleges and universities,

and see how the practical character

of an education

is

dwelt upon for

fifty-five

min-

utes, and then the last five minutes are given

to a reference to the

moral and religious nature

in a sort of

an apologetic

had no right

to

supposition,

be

I

there.

am

I

tone, as

am not

though

it

any I what simply describing talking

heard in two great addresses by the presidents of two of our greatest universities not a month ago.

Nor am

I referring to anything that

is

any of the Commencement exercises of our State institutions and you will

uncommon.

Go

to

hear the same thing."

BY-PRODUCTS IN MORALS "But you would not

155

teach religion in our

State institutions, would you?" he asked.

"Why teach

not?" I rejoined.

sectarianism

"I would not Catholi-

Protestantism,

any ism; but I would try to develop goodness and reverence in young people as I develop cism,

I would try to give

intelligence.

conception of what they are.

them some

I would try to

develop in them some understanding of their

whole nature.

who

I would try to show the smarty

thinks he is intelligent because he

something about the earth,

stones ; the animals

,

and

its strata,

history; the rocks, the minerals,

knows its

and precious

the insects, the reptiles,

and the birds the moss, the lichens, the flowers, and the trees the combinations of air and ;

;

water and ten thousand other things

;

of matter, of magnetism, and of mind tions of the planets

stars

;

the laws ;

the mo-

and the compositions of the

that he has only begun to understand the

elements of things.

I would try to impress

upon him that if he wished to be really intelligent he would ferret out and explain what time and space and infinity and existence and beauty and duty and right are. And then, after he had explained these to his

own and my

satisfaction,

I would urge upon him never to be satisfied with

SOME BY-PBODUCTS OF MISSIONS

156

his accomplishments until

he was able

to do his

duty toward his fellow-students, his teachers, and his fellow-men, and live in a right attitude

toward God and get results from prayer; and then he would be in a fair way in his probation for eternity. rich

Some

of those

who

think they are

will wake up some what they thought was lucre, that what they thought

and clever and famous

time to the fact that treasure is filthy

wisdom was

and what they thought fame was only notoriety; and they will find foolishness,

themselves starting in upon eternity as halfinch dwarfs because of a misconception of values during the period of their probation and

education."

"But how are you going a

to find time during

college course for the study of all these

things!" he asked.

"One

.

could not find time during a college

course for the study of * '

plied.

people are in school to

We

all

these things," I re-

But one ought to find time while young

make

right impressions.

do not get an education while in

"We only get a

stari, a trend.

We

learn enough to enable us to study, but to get right impressions

college.

ought to

we ought

and right values of

life.

BY-PRODUCTS IN MORALS

We

will not all

course, but

.

157

be inclined to follow the same

we should

all

know enough

of reli-

gion and morals as constituent elements in an education to prevent us from sneering at the highest parts of our nature as unimportant,

and focusing our minds on our lower as though they were the highest." " Jesus increased in stature

faculties

(physically)

and in wisdom (mentally) and in favor of man (morally) and in favor with God (spiritually),"

and He was the perfect Man.

CHAPTEE

XII

BY-PBODUCTS IN MUSIC ONE Sunday

in August, 1909, I

was

invited to

give an address in the great auditorium at

Ocean Grove, N. J. I arrived at Ocean Grove on Saturday, and was given a ticket of admission to a musical entertainment, the principal

performer in which was the great singer Jommelli. There were more than seven thousand people present, and in addition to her singing, selections

were given by others on the piano

and on the great organ, one of the

largest, I

think, in the United States, designed, placed in

the auditorium,

whom you

and directed by Mr. Jones,

you are at Paderewski method of

will easily recognize if

Ocean Grove by his dressing his hair.

The following morning I spoke ence of nine thousand people on

to

an audi-

"The By-

products of Missions," and during the address I called attention to the great organ, the enter-

tainment of the previous evening, and to the 158

BY-PRODUCTS IN MUSIC

159

.

fact that one

might search the non-Christian world in vain for a human voice, cultivated and developed like that of Jommelli.

To my

surprise, after the address I discov-

ered that Jommelli was on the rostrum behind

me, and at the close of the service asked to be introduced, and also introduced her husband to

me.

As we were stopping at

inquired

if

the

same hotel, she

me some

she might talk 'with

during the afternoon, to which replied that I should be glad to

I,

time

of course,

have the honor

of her acquaintance and an opportunity to talk with her.

During the conversation of the afternoon she said:

was a new thought to me that one might search the world, I mean the "Mr. Headland,

it

non-Christian world, around and not find a well-cultivated

"You have

human

voice.

Is that true?"

been around the world, have you

not?" I inquired.

"I have; but I did not look for singers. I suppose I was so

"Yes," she think to

replied,

interested in singing myself that I did not think to hunt for others."

"You have been in theaters in China, Japan,

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

160

India,

<

and other Asiatic

have you

countries,

not?" I asked again.

"Yes," she

replied,

"I wanted

to learn

something about their music, and so I attended their theaters."

"Did you find any voice was being used properly," I

that

you thought inquired, "or any

school for the cultivation of the voice?" ' '

' '

None,

she answered.

"Neither

will

you

find

any

such, though

you

search the non-Christian world around," I said.

"And how

do you account for this?" she

asked.

"By the Church," I replied. "What do you mean?" "I mean

that the Church

is

the cause of the

world's music," I answered. ' '

' '

Impo ssible, she replied. "You know the history of the development

you not?" I went on. "Was it not a demand on the part of the Church for of music, do

proper music that developed the tories?

Were

not the

first

first

conserva-

great musical com-

positions sacred rather than secular?

not the

first

Were

composers churchmen? Follow the

history of music, and you trace

it

back to the

BY-PRODUCTS IN MUSIC same source as the history of

mean

to say that

it

I do not

art.

music remained under the su-

pervision of the Church any

but

161

more than did

art,

was the demand of the Church for proper

music for her worship that has called forth the musical talent of the world; and you,

madam,

would not have been using that beautiful voice of yours to-day but for the Christian Church.

Every human voice that

is

furnishing the world

with the music of to-day, as well as the voices that are hushed forever: Patti, Melba, Eames, Calve, Caruso, Delmores, Nordica, Fremstad,

Mary Garden,

Alice Nielsen, Zenatello, Bonei,

Cavalieri, Constantino, Lipkowska, Baklanoff,

Amato, McCormack, Boninsegua, tinn,

Emmy

Sammarco, Anselmi, Mardonis,

Des-

Scotti, or

Tetrazzini, are, whether they recognize

it

or

not, by-products of the gospel."

"Yes," she it

in this

replied,

way before.

I

"I had not thought of suppose we do not give

the Church credit for all that civilizing

and

it

has done in the

socializing influence

it

has had

upon the world. I had never thought of the Church but as a religious institution. I think most people think of

"No n

it

only as such."

doubt they do," I replied; "but that

SOME BY-PRQDUCTS OF MISSIONS

162 is

Turn now

a very narrow view.

to the great

musical compositions, those that have most

touched the world's heart.

Are they sacred or

secular?"

"Sacred, of course," she replied. that is because of the natural

human

"But

instinct to

be religious."

"Is that true?" I asked. "Is

not?" she counter-questioned. I replied, why do not the Chinese is,

it

" If it

' '

' '

and the Hindoos have such music?" "Perhaps they are not so

religious as

we

are," she replied.

"Who world?"!

gave us the great religions of the queried.

"I have never thought who," she answered. "China gave us two Taoism and Confucianism; India two: Brahmanism and Buddhism; :

Persia

one:

Zoroastrianism;

Arabia

one:

Mohammedanism; and Palestine two: Judaism and Christianity. The Europeans never origwas worth propagating. that we are more religious than

inated a religion that

How

comes

it

when they originated all the religions?" "Ah! indeed; I had never thought of that.

they,

That

is

extremely interesting.

"We are not re-

BY-PRODUCTS IN MUSIC ligious

163

enough to have made great sacred com-

positions without the stimulus of Christianity!"

she exclaimed.

"I

shall always be

more

inter-

ested in religion than I have been heretofore.

"We are indebted to

it

for

all

the products of

our musical genius!"

"Nay, more," I

replied;

"we

are indebted

to it for all our great composers as well."

"Ah!"

said she, with

"Are we not?" I

an interrogatory

asked.

tone.

"Could we have

had a Mendelssohn, a Wagner, a Meyerbeer, a Eubinstein, a Verdi, a^Liszt, a Rossini without the demand, the stimulus, the preparation, the sentiment, and the inspiration that have

come

from Christianity?" "Indeed, our debt ' '

greater than

it

is

great," she exclaimed;

had ever occurred to me to con-

sider!"

began to thunder, as I supposed, and we both bent our ears in an attiJust as she spoke

it

tude of listeners.

"Ah,"

she exclaimed, with a flash of appre-

ciation in her eyes,

"The organ

is

playing."

of the spheres," I answered.

"No, the organ plied.

"the organ

in the auditorium," she re-

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

164

"Is not that thunder?" I asked.

"No; is

that

is

the organ," she answered. "It

a very good representation of thunder, isn't

it?"

"It

is,

indeed.

I

was convinced that

thunder, in spite of the fact that the sun

"That organ

ing," I remarked.

is

was

it

is shin-

a great ad-

vance on the Chinese sheng."

""What do you mean?" she queried.

"Did you not

see the Chinese sheng

the

oldest representative of pipe organs'?" I asked. ' '

Oh, you

mean

the half of a eocoanut with

bamboo tubes or pipes tached?" she

said,

of various lengths at-

with an interrogatory ac-

"But I did not learn when it was made, whether before or after our pipe organ. And I had not thought of associating the two." cent.

"Yes, I think the Chinese should be given

made the first pipe organ," "The Emperor Huang Ti appointed a

credit for having

I said.

committee about 2697 B. C. to select a series of

bamboo tubes of various

lengths, so the story

goes, to represent the seven musical notes

they have seven instead of eight, as

They did

so,

and the result

is

we

;

have.

preserved in the

sheng, the ancestor of the pipe, organ, if

may

so call it."

for

we

BY-PRODUCTS IN MUSIC "That

me

leads

to

165

speak of what I wanted

you about," she said; "Chinese muThey have a system of music, have they

to talk to sic.

not!" she asked.

"They have,"

I answered.

"The emperor

appointed his committee, had them select their musical hamboo tubes, arrange their

scale,

and

begin making their musical instruments, and so far as I

know they have not made any marked

changes in

it

from that time

until the present,

except that modern music of a theatrical or

began in the Tang dynasty. They have, therefore, two classes of music: the ritual and the popular. The former is used in

popular class

acts of worship in

which the emperor takes part

and holds a place of the highest importance in the government."

"Have you

ever heard any Chinese music

was pleasing

your ear?" she asked. "Shortly after I went to China," I replied. "I must confess that I sympathized with that

that

to

person who described Chinese music as

'deli-

ciously horrible, like cats trying to sing bass

with sore throats.'

But before I

never passed a shop at

left

New Year's

China I

time where

an orchestra was playing without stopping

to

166

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

listen to the

minor strains of some of their

stringed instruments. diced, for I

am

Now, I may be preju-

very fond of the Chinese, and

am

ever seeking to find their good qualities.

But

my friend,

Mr.

Van Aalst, who has

studied

Chinese music more than any other living European, says 'the ritual or sacred music

is

pass-

ably sweet, and generally of a minor character;' and we are told that 'Confucius was so

ravished on hearing a piece composed by the great Shun, more than 2200 B.

0.,

that he

did not taste meat for three years.'

On one

was attending a meeting of the China Educational Association, when occasion, in 1896, I

the

Christian Endeavor

Shanghai.

Among

was one by a

Convention met in

the musical selections given

soloist

accompanied by an or-

chestra of Chinese instruments consisting of

a clarionette, and a stringed instrument corresponding to our violin. I never a sheng, a

flute,

saw an audience

so

moved by

music.

They

listened to the first verse with rapture, the

second verse with ecstasy, while during the third verse they could not control themselves,

but

all

joined in with the

bounded enthusiasm.

singer with un-

During the fourth verse

BY-PRODUCTS IN MUSIC all

167

rose to their feet and sang with an abandon

I have never witnessed in

when

the song ended they clapped, stamped,

waved

and almost went

their handkerchiefs,

Now, I want to add that this was a Chris-

wild.

tian

an audience; and

hymn, composed by the Chinese

to a Chi-

nese tune, sung by a congregation of some

five

hundred young Chinese Christian Bndea,vorers.

But the enthusiasm was refreshing." "And what about their musical instruments?

They are mostly very

crude, are they not?" she

inquired.

"The sheng

is

ous," I answered.

simple, crude,

"But

and ingeni-

was the introduc-

it

tion of the sheng into Europe, according to va-

rious writers, which led to the invention of the

accordion and the harmonium.

And

it is

also

said that Kratzenstein, an organ builder of

St.

Petersburg, havjng become the possessor of a

sheng , conceived the idea of applying the prin4

most delicate of organ stops. construction, and is the most delicate of tone,

ciple to

.

It is the

though many other instruments are much more universally employed, especially in the north. The banjo, the violin, the guitar, the harp, the flute,

and the

clarionette are the

most commonly

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

168

The sheng

used in the north of China.

mon in and about Shanghai and the all of

them are very crude. The

com-

south.

But

intervals of the

and the notes sound

scale are not tempered, false

is

and discordant to our ears.

There

is

no

precision in the construction of the instruments,

no exactness in the intonation; the melodies are very much in the same key, equally loud and unchangeable in movement, and naturally be-

come wearisome and monotonous

to

customed to the music of the West.

an ear

ac-

Their mel-

odies are never definitely float

major no? minor, but between the two, and hence lack the vigor,

the majesty, or the tender lamentations of our

minor modes, or the charm resulting from the alternation of the two modes. Moreover, they have no satisfactory method of expressing time. In a single word, it is enough to say that their music

more

is is

not scientifically constructed, and no their musical instruments,

can not please an ear that of exactness.

But now

let

is

and hence

offended by a lack

me

quote

nese says their music affected him.

how a

He

Chi-

says

it

moved " 'Softly,

as

the

words; now loud and

murmur

of

whispered

soft together, like the

169

BY-PRODUCTS IN MUSIC

patter of pearls and pearlets dropping in a maror liquid, like the warbling of the

ble dish;

mango-bird in the bush; trickling streamlet in

its

downward

like the torrent, stilled

for a

moment was

course.

like

And

by the grip of

the

then,

frost, so

the music lulled, in a passion

too deep for words.' "

"It must be admitted," she

said,

"that that

description would fit very well to that of a musical enthusiast in Italy or France. I do not know but their music affects thsrn as ours

does us."

"I

think

it

does," I answered.

were asking about

"But you

their musical instruments,

and, indeed, I began telling you about their

mu-

instruments as a result of hearing the

sical

thunder of the organ in the auditorium."

"Quite right," she replied. "The contrast between their instruments

and ours

is

' '

very striking,

I went on.

' '

Theirs

are crude, rough, hand-made, in small novels rather than shops or factories* most, silk

if

not

all their stringed

The

strings on

instruments, are

rather than gut, and none that I have ever

seen are wrapped with wire.

They have noth-

ing that corresponds to our organ, piano, or

170

SOME BY-PEODUCTS OF MISSIONS

large pipe organ; indeed, our musical instru-

ments of the largest kind, again, are by-products of the gospel in the intelligence that

sary to

make them, and

mand for is little, if

them.

of the

was neces-

Church in

its

de-

For, but for the Church, there

any, reason to believe that the

manu-

facture of musical instruments would ever have

reached the condition

"You seem

it

has."

to give the gospel credit for all

our progress in music," said

"I

Madam

Jommelli.

give the gospel credit for having devel-

oped the school that made possible the

intelli-

gence to make such musical instruments

;

and

then I give the Church credit for having created the

demand which led manufacturers

to furnish

the supply," I answered.

"And

I think

you are more than half

Mr. Headland," she

right,

said, as she rose to go.

"I have enjoyed very much

this conversation.

I have a better opinion of the Chinese, a larger

view of the Church, and I than I ever did before.

like the gospel better

I shall read

Testament with a different relish."

my New

CHAPTER

XIII

BY-PEODUCTS IN AET I WAS invited recently to deliver a lecture on

Chinese art before the Century Club of

New

York. I wish to say that I do not pose as either

an

artist

nor an art

critic

;

made a and have made

but I have

collection of Chinese paintings

a

sufficient

what I wish

study of European art to justify to say in this chapter.

There were

present that evening some of the most noted

American authors,

among whom

artists,

I think I

and art

critics,

mention Mr. F.

may La

Hopkinson Smith, Mr. John

Farge, and Sir

Caspar Purdon-Clarke. After the lecture Mr. John La Farge, who,

among Amerand who was spe-

I believe, deserves to be ranked ica's

most renowned

artists,

cially interested in Oriental art, said to

"What do

me:

the Chinese regard as the under-

lying motive in, the beginning of their art?"

"The

desire to express their thoughts in

pictorial form, I think,

1 '

171

I replied.

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS "And what were

their first studies!" lie

further inquired.

"

Figures, so far as I have been able to

learn," I replied.

"Then

leaving figures,

to do next 2"

what did they seek

he asked.

"They began to make pictures of buildings and maps of conquered territory," I answered.

"Then, of course, they drifted

off into land-

scapes by adding touches of scenery or flowers,

and trees

to their figures, I suppose,"

he sug-

gested,

"Quite right," I

replied.

your study of Chinese art, did you discover what it was that gave the first great

"Now,

in

stimulus to their art, and about what time?"

he inquired. Indeed I

' '

1 '

did,

I replied ;

" it was the intro-

duction of Buddhism, about 65 A.

"In what way?" he

"From first

D."

asked.

about 1100 B.

record of a painting,

0.,

when we

down

find the

to the time of

our present era almost everything we come

and

upon in

their records are figures, paintings,

maps.

About the beginning of our era there

BY-PRODUCTS IN ART

173

were two great portrait galleries erected, in one of which were placed pictures representing all

the great mythical as well as the great his-

toric rulers of the past,

Chou Kung Li

Tien.

and

was

this

In the other were placed

portraits of the twenty-eight great

helped to establish the called the still

Yun

called the

Han

dynasty.

There

T'ai Hall.

is

Han Lu

another gallery, the

men who This was

a record of

Ling Kuang

were painted all kinds of bogies from the mountain and monstrosities from the Tien, in which

sea in colors which harmonized with what the artist

thought the original ought to

der not to be behind the

men

had painted for

In or-

in the preserva-

tion of portraits of her sex, the

(125 A. D.)

be.

Empress Liang

herself imaginary

portraits of all the female worthies mentioned in the 'Eecords of

Famous Women' (Lieh

Nil

Chuan), a noted book of the time, preserved

Though as early as 65 A. D. the Emperor Ming Ti, who introduced Buddhism into China, established the custom of until the present day.

having court painters, a custom which has continued until the present.

"Ah,

"

indeed, I did not

know

court painters," he remarked.

that they kept

174

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS "Oh, yes; the

late

empress dowager sup-

ported eighteen court painters/' I answered, "But, to return to the subject," he continued,

"you

weire speaking of the introduction

of Buddhism."

"The

hundred years after Budidhism was introduced into China was a period first

six

of almost constant war.

From

200 A. D. to

600 A. D., a period of four hundred years, there

were ninety rulers sat upon the throne or

compared with thirty during the previous four centuries. But during this same period there were three religions striving for thrones, as

supremacy: Taoism, Confucianism, and Budidbism;

and each was using everything that

would contribute

to

its

permanent

establish-

ment, either at court or in the hearts of the people.

Nothing was more powerful than

and so the Confucianists decorated

art,

their schools

with portraits of their scholars, the Buddhists their temples with pictures of their divinities,

and the Taoists their temples with pictures of their fairies and immortals, with an occasional genius stolen from the Confucianists or a god

from the Buddhists. coing of the temples

This decoration or fresfor

it

was

all

done on

BY-PRODUCTS IN ART

175

the walls, fixed the attention of the people on pictorial representation,

and thus the art of the

Orient was developed in connection with

its re-

' '

ligion.

"The same

is

true

of

pictorial

in

art

Europe," said Mr. La Farge.

"What do yon mean?" I inquired; I thought I

knew what he meant,

hear him say

"To

I wanted to

it.

the Greeks," said he,

must give

for while

"I suppose we

credit for having reached the highest

proficiency in sculpture ; but the first real stim-

ulus to European pictorial art

when

was given

it

the Italians, the Spanish, the Dutch, the

Flemish, and the Germans began to

utilize it

in the decoration of their churches.

This

pecially true of portraiture; for, as

you know,

is es-

even portrait painting had not attained to any degree of development until

men and women

began to pose as members of the Holy Family and other sacred personages for the altar pieces

and other paintings and decorations in European churches. But for more than two centuries,

from Cimabue and Giotto

to Titian

and

Veronese, the great artists confined themselves

almost entirely to sacred art in their frescoing

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

176

and churches, and portrait painting as such was an outgrowth of this saof the cathedrals

cred art."

The same

1 '

is

countries, in the

true of each of the

not?" I inquired. Yes, he answered. ' '

European

development of its art,

' '

' l

Italian art

of beauty, and in a measure

it

is it

dreamed

realized its

dream, tinted with the colors of a Venetian sky

and the glow of heaven in the heart of the artist. Flemish art was in love with truth, and it held its mirror up to nature but nature to advantage dressed; for the glow of the spiritual also

shone in

German

all

the Flemish art of the Renaissance.

art rarely achieved either truth or

succeeded in rendering, with a

beauty; but

it

fidelity that

was often almost

character of the

and

after the

German

brutal, the virile

people, both before

Eef ormation.

But

all art that

was worthy of note was inspired by the religious zeal of the ages, and executed by men who were more or

less true to the religious ideals

" time.

of their

"What would you affected

He swered

byHhe

say were the studies most

artists of those times 1" I asked.

thought for a moment, and then he an:

BY-PRODUCTS IN ART "The

177

Virgin and the Christ, where

possible to decorate the churches in the

was

it

Eoman

Catholic countries, portraiture, and then land-

among

scapes

the Protestant peoples.

The

art

idea had caught the hearts of rulers and people

and in

alike,

spite of the fact that they

were

not allowed to decorate their churches they cultivated their art.

But

their

homes were small

and dark, and their town halls and public buildings were decorated with portraits of sheriffs, burgomasters, surgeons, or groups of directors of charitable institutions, or scholars.

But art

the Protestant peoples lost that touch

among

of the spirituelle which was not counterbalanced

by anything that ralness.

And

it

now,

gained in strength or natufive

hundred years

after-

ward, the pictures most in demand are those that were inspired

and executed by men

filled

with a religious zeal."

"And now," Mr. La

Farge, "I want to ask you what you think of the comparative value of Oriental and Occidental art," I said.

"I am not sure

that I

know enough about

Oriental art to give an intelligent opinion," he

answered. does. 12

"I am not sure

that

any Occidental

There are interesting features about Ori-

178

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS from anything we Their brushwork is one.

ental art that are different

have yet conceived of. Their point of view is another.

and

silk instead of

Their perspec-

Their materials

tive is still another.

canvas

is another.

paper But it

me they

emphasize the grotesque, and they lose in a lack of naturalness. You have paid more attention to Oriental art than I have

seems to

;

what do you think!" "I wanted your opinion as an

artist," I in-

sisted.

"My own

opinion

is

that the Oriental has

almost everything to learn from us, while there are but few

there are some

suggestions in

we have not already development of our own art. For

his art for us that

struck in

the

instance,

his colors are almost all pulverized minerals

mixed with water and

glue, the

same as those

used by the Italians of the early Renaissance. These we have long ago given up for oil and canvas, and thus far

we have not had

occasion

His paper and silk, with his method of mounting on scrolls, are convenient

to return to them.

and economize space; but I doubt

if

they con-

tribute to the preservation of the picture or en-

hance

its

richness or beauty as

we can by our

BY-PRODUCTS IN ART

179

more

But, I repeat, you have paid

frames.

tention to Oriental art than I have.

at-

"What

your own opinion of their comparative values !

"My own

opinion," I remarked,

"I

is ' '

fear, is

the result of the attitude at present assumed

own

the Oriental toward his

disposition of the Yankee, as ican, is to will

he

first to

what he

new

He

is.

we dub

the

is

Amer-

new

that

one reason

why

take anything

add to what he has. This

is

for

be the

by The natural

art.

always on the lookout

is

things that are good.

On

the other

hand, the Oriental has always been a bit slow, except in the case of the Japanese, to learn from the

Western Barbarian, as he has termed him.

We

find in this particular case, however, the

The Japanese, who was the

tables turned. to learn about

given up

first

has practically

European art, which was originally Chinese

his own,

art adopted

and adapted

to

Japanese use, while

the most noted Chinese artists of the present

day, attracted by the naturalness of our birds, animals, and portraits, are adopting our meth-

ods instead of their own while the late empress ;

dowager, the greatest of Chinese rulers for a

her own porpainted by Western artists Miss Carl

century past, traits,

left at least three of

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

180

and Mr. Vos

in the national gallery.

Consid-

ering the indifference of the Oriental to West-

ern things, his indisposition to change, and his slowness to appreciate the good in others ; and considering the quickness of the Westerner to appreciate, at least, anything that will

add

to

the commercial value of anything, I should say that Western art has every advantage over that

of the Orient, else the Oriental would not have

adopted

it,

and the Occidental would have

adopted his."

"I think you are more than half right," Mr. La Farge, as he bade me good-bye.

said

which

my

Now,

this is the conclusion to

conversation with this great American artist

has led me: That the best art that the world

has to-day, or that the world has ever known, has been inspired and executed by the

man who

has been developed by the gospel of Jesus Christ,

and hence

is

a by-product of the gospel

and of missions. *

The history of each individual is the history of all time. The little child with his rattle and savage with

all his

drum, and noise

is

the

destructive tendencies

and

his toys, his whistle,

BY-PRODUCTS IN AET his

wishes. his

everything but his

indifference to

The

little

pyramids, his

181

own

boy with his blocks builds Assyrian and Babylonian

palaces, his stonehenge or his Sphinx, his Par-

thenon or his Acropolis.

He

is

a builder and

passes through the building age of the world's civilization

that age which gave to the Chinese

a wall stretching

fifteen

hundred miles from the

sea and winding like a great dragon from mountain top to

mountain

top, far

up

into the desert.

Coarse and rough, gigantic .and magnificent, its bigness, but not beautiful.

almost sublime in

Then comes the dark

age,

when

his sleeves

and

trousers are too short, and her legs and tongue

are too long ;

when they organize

crusades,

and

shoot and scalp, and go to Sunday school, and

and philosophy, and doubt and dispute. Then comes the Eenaissance, when he begins to brush, and she begins to primp, and talk religion

the flowers begin to bloom, and his imagination paints pictures in every field and forest, glade

and glen; when he sees "books in the running brooks, sermons in stones, and good in everything." And again he builds; but what he

upon the advantages and the stimulus he has had. The Mohammedan builds

builds depends

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

182

the

mosques,

Buddhist builds

the

temples,

But

Christian builds cathedrals and churches.

what a striking difference in the results These little savages have been studying in different !

schools,

they have beien living in different

Those put paper windows in their temthat are blown off with every passing

worlds. ples,

wind, and the floor of the temple

is

covered

with dust.

They are but dimly

lit

during the day, for

the light of heaven with difficulty penetrates the paper pasted upon the lattice work.

are more dimly

lit

at night,

for,

or a pith floating in a bowl of

They

a tallow taper oil is

the only

light their intelligence has ever devised.

Their

them from the shadows of every corner, and the bat flitting from rafter to rafter scatters dust and dirt upon them as they bow

idols grin at

before their gods.

Eagged

priests,

upon whose

faces are carved the lines of ignorance and avarice, stretch

out soiled hands for the more filthy

lucre their nation has provided for

Now turn to

these who* have built cathedrals

and churches. Words nificence.

them to give.

fail to picture their

mag-

Their walls and ceilings are deco-

rated with angels, in colors that rival a sunset

BY-PEODUCTS IN ABT

183

Their floors are covered with

or a rainbow.

velvet rugs of silk and wool that deaden every footfall.

Their carvings and their statues rival

in their perfection the

and

work

their windows, each a

softens the light of the

of their Creator,

work

of art in itself,

noonday sun and sheds

a halo about the bowed heads of the worshipers as they kneel before their God.

Their priests

are clad in robes of silk and satin such as be-

come the servants

And

of the G-od they worship.

the architecture and the cathedral and the

painting and the sculpture and the carpet and the windows, yea, and the priest and his robes

are products or by-products of the gospel of the

God they It is only

serve.

when we thus consider

the differ-

ence in the details of the civilization of the Bast

and the West, and see how far they are behind us in every respect of national,

social, religious,

and individual progress, and then try account for these differences on some racial

scientific,

to

hypothesis, that

we

see

how

impossible

it is.

go back twenty centuries in history to find the nations that are now lagging

"We only need

to

behind, leading the race; and the nations, or

peoples

for they were then only savage tribes,

184

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

and they did not then deserve to be called naare now so far in advance in their knowltions edge of the laws and powers of nature, their ability to acquire wealth; that

is,

to

transform

the crude stuffs of nature into things of beauty

and usefulness, and provide sanitary conditions, comfort, and better facilities in every respect for living one's

life.

Let

me

illustrate:

Twenty years ago, when I arrived in Peking, it was the custom of the city authorities to clean the city sewers in the springtime.

These sewers

were great underground waterways, which received not only the washings from the streets, but from the stables, the homes, the kitchens,

and the

closets;

and because the

city

was so

leveland without a water system, and as there

was but

little

rain except during the months of

and September, there was no way of flushing the sewers. Everything that washed

July, August,

them from September till April or May remained there, decayed, and formed a stench

into

that words fail to describe.

One of the main

sewers passed through our mission compound,

opening into the canal just outside of the back gate of the mission and the front gate of the

Peking University; and as we were constantly

BY-PRODUCTS IN ART passing from one to the other to notice

185

we had

occasion

more, perhaps, than others would, though every one who lived in Peking in those it

days will confirm what I am now writing. During the months of March, April, or May, about the time when every one

is

having spring-

fever, the city authorities ordered the sewers

men

cleaned; and for days

would go down

pails

with shovels and

into the sewers, shovel

up

up on the sidewalk, where it was left for days or weeks to dry. The streets at that time were all dirt or ladle up this decayed

roads.

Much

filth,

and

pile

it

of this that had washed into the

sewer had washed

off the street; it

fore used, as soon as

it

was

was

there-

sufficiently dry, to

up the street again. That, in a single seawould have a tendency to destroy the sani-

build son,

tary conditions of the

member

city.

But when we

re-

same process has been gone through every spring for more than a thousand years, we will understand that most of the surface

that this

soil,

which

is

mud and steam

in the hot,

rainy months of July and August, and blows

about as dust during at least eight months of the other ten, conditions.

is

not conducive to good sanitary

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

186

But tMs

is

not

all.

I have referred to the

Peking was -without a water system with which to flush her sewers. Her only water fact that

system was a well, a wheel-barrow, or a mulecart, and a man. These wells were sunk down through this surface-soil that was saturated with the filth of a dozen centuries, walled up with blocks of stone in such a loose

way

as not

to prevent the surface-water running in;

and

while the deeper ones, from which the water

was used

constantly, obtained

most of

their

wa-

from a deep subsoil, the water in all of them was "bitter, "'and this only because of the filth

ter

from the top so that the people not only breathed filth in the air, but they drank that leaked in

filth

;

in the water.

The Chinese are very fond of fruit, of which they eat large quantities. of melons

eat skins,

They are

and cucumbers, most of which they seeds, and all. All the storesfruit,

dried fruit, grocery, and others the street.

are open to

They are without doors or windows

in front, in lieu of

which they have movable

boards, which are taken

Many

also fond

of the fruit

their wares out

down during

the day.

and melon venders spread

on movable tables on the

street,

BY-PRODUCTS IN ART

187

or carry them about on small platforms or tubs swung on the ends of a pole, cut in slices ready for sale, like the watermelons sold by the Italians and others in our great

China

is

noted for

its

North

cities.

dust storms, especially

during the autumn, winter, and spring.

The

dust blows in clouds, settles upon the slices of

melons and the cucumbers, clings to the fuzz of the peach and the apricot, and is eaten by the

hungry and poorly-fed people because in the autumn fruit is cheaper than bread; and so they not only breathe and drink it

filth,

but they eat

as well.

Again, the homes of most of the Chinese

1

not only in the great as well

cities,

but in the country

are hovels rather than houses.

are built of

mud

They

or brick, thatched with straw

or corn-stalks, or covered with

tiles.

Seldom

do they have ceilings, while the floors are of clay or very porous brick.

Ohe-haJf of the floor

up a foot and a half above the other and this constitutes the bed. It is built

is built

half,

of brick, with a network of front

is

a small

fireplace,

flues.

Under

over which

is

the

a pot

which they do much of their cooking. They build their fire under the bed; their fuel being

in

188

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

or anything weeds, cornstalks, old floor-mats,

The smoke,

that will burn.

go

soot, gas,

dirtall

under the bed, cooking the food, heating

Tip

the room the bricks, and then coming out into soot. and covering the walls and rafters with into The people spit upon the floor; it sinks the porous bricks; they

wash

their

'

hands and

the floor face and their dishes, and then sprinkle

with the water, and various other filth find their

way

fluids

into the brick floors.

windows are paper, which becomes the dust blows in; pigs and chickens

and

Their

torn,

and

also share

Inwith the family the protection of the home. the word for home is a pig under a roof.

deed,

From what we have

said

the great

the people

it will

mass

be seen that

of the

peopleamong filth, and the

live breathe, drink, eat, and hunwonder of the ages is that there are four

the only dred millions of Chinese to-day, and I think, is because it can be accounted for,

way

they live so

Now own

much

out of doors.

us grant that there is much in our that you can cities that is not ideal;

let

great I have said about China by duplicate all that remains a similar conditions at home; it still fact that in China it is the rule

the govern-

BY-PRODUCTS IN ART ment; while here

it is

189

the exception and in spite

of the government, and usually only those of the

first

among

generation in America.

It is

possible here to have pure air, pure water, pure food,

and

their dirt

must be within

their

own

doors for as soon as their feet touch the brick ;

or cement sidewalk they touch cleanliness, which in a generation at least banishes dirt

from the

home.

But the most not

its influence

serious result of this dirt is

upon the

individual, but its in-

upon the public and upon the world. Every few years there breaks out in these great filthy Oriental cities a plague which strikes ter-

fluence

ror to the hearts not only of the people

whom

it

among

starts, but in the hearts of those also

at the remotest ends of the earth.

Cholera, bu-

bonic and pneumonic plague, dengue, beriberi,

and

others.

Do we

these plagues take their rise in

we

why all Asia? And do

ever ask ourselves

why? One word tells the Nay, a better word is filth for

try to answer that

tale.

It is dirt.

dirt does not express

;

the filthiness of Asiatic

can not be expressed in the English language; for the English language, since it has been a language, has never lived long among

dirt.

It

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

190

such Tsang.

That

is

the

word

that expresses

Tsang.

it

There

is

but one remedy for this

dirt,

and

remedy is the gospel. "Wherever the gospel has gone, cleanliness has gone, and up to the that

a clean present the world has never produced where the influences of the gospel have not city

gone.

If I did not believe in foreign missions

for any religious reasons, I would believe in and support them for the sanitary influence they

have had upon the world.

A member of a great

bathtub manufacturing firm told

me

at the

Du-

quesne Club in Pittsburgh recently that since the missionaries have gone to China they are shipping thousands of bathtubs to that great empire.

When any

one of these plagues, such as cholera, strikes a city or a village the people are in terror.

The same

India as in China.

At seven a

is

At

true of the people IE

six o'clock all are well.

father comes out with terror writ-

ten on his face and announces

"My

son

"What

is

:

dead."

disease!" some one asks.

"That disease," he replies, afraid to say the word "cholera;" or, if he be a Hindoo, ha

BY-PKODUCTS IN ART answers,

"The

191

disease of the wind," for they

think the wind brings

it.

In a few moments some one announces another death in another part of the nightfall there

city,

and by

be a hundred people

may

fall

victims to the sconrge.

In a village near Pei-tai-ho, our summer resort of

North China, the cholera appeared. The

people worshiped their gods. resort, celebrated the

August,

New

They, as a

final

Year's festival in

to try to deceive the cholera

god and

persuade him that he had struck the wrong time

They did everything but clean the and clean up the village. The cholera god

of the year. wells

was not cort the

deceived.

god over

They

finally decided to es-

to our foreign settlement.

This they did during the night.

An

English

gentleman who had come from Tangshan

ill

a

day or two before died the next morning; the cholera had had its run in the village, and they persuaded themselves

that,

having gotten a for-

eign victim, he was satisfied.

In the spring of 1897 two members of the senior class of the Peking University, at the close of the

summer

term, went to spend their

vacation preaching at a church up outside the

SOME BY-PEODUCTS OF MISSIONS They passed the summer quietly; and pleasantly, and with renewed health and Great Wall.

vigor at the beginning of September started

back to Peking.

They walked most

of the way,

and when they reached the city gate were tired and hungry. Not having heard any rumors of plague in the city, they purchased some peaches from a fruit-vender inside the city gate.

These they

ate, at

once

fell

ill,

and one of them

died that night, and the other the following

morning. I repeat here that the health of the world

depends upon the spread of the gospel of Jesus Christ. If any one is disposed to question this and say that it is simply the progress of civilization,

I ask,

Why

is it

that civilization

ilization of cleanliness

the civ-

has gone only with the

where the gospel has gone! and it remains for them to answer the question on

gospel, or

some other hypothesis.

CHAPTEE XIV BY-PRODUCTS IN BEFLEX INFLUENCE evening I was going on the trolley from

Bramford, Conn., where I had been giving a lecture, to New Haven, where I expected to take the midnight train for Albany.

On

the

same car with me was a man with

abdominal capacity aldermen. sation,

and

sufficient

for a brace of

We it

were soon engaged in converwas not long until he wanted to

know where I had "I have

been.

come from Bramford," I

just

in-

formed him.

"In business?" he

"No; I was

"What

said, interrogatively.

giving a lecture," I answered.

subject!" he asked.

"China," I replied. "Been to China?" he again

said,

with a

rising inflection.

"Yes; I have been there sixteen years," I informed him.

"Gee! how could you

live

among

the Chinks

that length of time?" he exclaimed. 13

193

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

194

"Teaching," I

replied.

"Government

school?"

again

interroga-

tively.

"Methodist school," said

I, indicatively.

ti-

'What, missionary!" again with surprise.

ll'

'Sort of," I replied.

"Well, you know I think a his

man

is

wasting

time going over there to convert those

heathen," he volunteered. " Ah, indeed You converted ? I asked. 1 '

!

"Not much," he answered.

"What

business?" I inquired.

"Liquor," he 1 1

Saloon ?

"Yes,"

replied.

' '

interrogatively.

sheepishly.

man

"Well, you know I think a

is

wasting

make paupers and heathen

his time trying to

out of American boys," I said.

He

did not answer for awhil; then:

you think all those Chinese will be do not become Christians?"

"I hope not," "Well, Christians,

if

"Do

lost if they

I replied.

they can be saved without being

what

the use of spending so

is

money going over quired, as though

to convert

he had

me

much

them?" he

cornered.

in-

REFLEX INFLUENCE

195

"How much

do you spend annually to get them converted!" I asked.

"

Nothing," he replied; "but that

is

dodg-

ing the question."

"You way

New York by

can go from Boston to

of Buffalo, can't

you?" "Yes," he replied; "but

I asked.

a long

it is

way

around."

"You can

go from Bramford to

by road wagon, "Yes; but

too; can't

it is

New Haven

you!"

not very comfortable," he

answered.

"A bit

slow, too; isn't it?" I volunteered.

"Sure," he

"Why

replied.

do you spend so much money build-

ing railroads and trolley lines instead of going

by road wagon?" I asked. "More comfortable, more

direct,

and more sure," he replied. "That is what Christianity

is

quicker,

as compared

with any other religion?" I suggested.

"But they do not want your

religion," he

objected.

"On

the same principle, Jesus Christ ought

not to have come to the world. not want Him.

It

The world did

had no place for

Him

no

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

196

Him

be born, no house for Him to live in, no pillow for His head, and only a cross on which to die. He did not wait till decent place for

to

the world wanted Him.

He came

because the

world needed Him."

"I

think the

hold on the big

men even

"Well, you know," he

Church

is losing its

said,

here in America."

"Do you

think so?" I asked.

"I think so," he added. "At least most of the men I know do not go to church."

"Did they ever go?" I asked. "Not much, I suppose," he answered.

"Then them

the Church never had any hold on

to lose; did it?" I inquired.

"Well, perhaps not," he answered; "but do

you think that the influential

in

men

biggest, wealthiest,

in

and most

America take much

interest

Church work?"

"I have

just been attending a

number of

laymen's missionary conventions," I replied.

"At a missionary dinner given for men in Der troit we had twelve hundred men present. Then we went to Syracuse, N. Y., where we had fourteen hundred men at a similar dinner. At Schenectady we had twelve hundred. At the

REFLEX INFLUENCE

197

New York we had eighteen most influential men in New

Astoria Hotel in

hundred of the

York at a

three-dollar dinner on the night of

the worst blizzard I have ever been out in." * {

That

's

all right,

' '

among the most York!" he asked.

he answered

those

" That in so

is

influential

' ' ;

but were

men

in

New

a pretty hard question to answer I admitted.

many words,"

think Christianity

is

"But you

losing its hold on America,

do you?" I asked.

"On

the big men, yes," he replied.

"The men tion; do they

control

the*

sentiment of the Na-

not!" I asked.

"Yes," he replied. The ordinary men or the influential men ! ' '

I continued.

"The

' '

.

influential

men, of course," he an-

swered.

"Do you know about how many people

there

are in the United States at present?" I inquired.

"About ninety

million," he replied.

"And how many

of those are Christians'?"

I continued.

"You Ve

got

me now," he answered.

198

SOME BY-PEODUCTS OF MISSIONS

"There are about

thirty-three millions," I

explained.

"Yes; but most of those are women and "Those are not all children," he objected.

men."

"But

"Quite right," I admitted. thirty-three millions,

most

of

them women and

children, control the sentiment of the

States and

make

it

that

United

a Christian country."

He

opened his mouth as if to speak. Then he dropped his head as if to think. Just then the car began to slow

up and the conductor

called out:

"Change for the New York, New Haven, and Hartford Depot," and I got up to leave for the train. his hand,

My

saloon-keeper friend offered

and as I took

it

he

me

said,

"Well, old man, I didn't believe much in missions, but

you 'know your job

all

right;"

and I took the compliment as a confession on his part that his argument had been answered,

As

I boarded the train at

New Haven

there

were a score or more of gentlemen in dinnersuits who got on with me. I noticed them but ;

as I entered the train I was thinking of what

he had said that the Church :

upon the men.

is

losing its hold

REFLEX INFLUENCE

199

I had not had time to change after the lecture,

and

my dress-coat and as I took off my overcoat

laid it down, one of the gentlemen sat

down

beside me.

"Well," said

"What

he, "it

dinner!"

"Weren't you

was a big dinner."

I asked.

at the dinner?" he inquired,

my coat, without answering my ques-

looking at tion.

"No; I have been' giving a lecture up at Bramf ord, I explained. What dinner do you ' '

' '

refer to?"

"The dinner

given to President Taft," he

answered.

"Where?" I inquired. "Here at New Haven at Yale," he Did n 't you know about it ! " plained.

ex-

came down from Albany

this

' '

"No; I

just

evening." I answered, trying to justify

my

ig-

norance of such an event. "Well,

it

was a big dinner," he went

"There were a

lot of

"How many?"

men

on.

there."

I inquired, with as

much

in-

summon. " he hundred

terest as I could

"Eleven at

me

ished.

!

answered, and looked

as though he expected

me

to be aston-

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

200 I self:

was not a

particle surprised.

"Twelve hundred

hundred

I said to

my-

at Detroit, fourteen

hundred at Sche-

at Syracuse, twelve

nectady, where they have scarcely any students in college to draw from, and no Bob Taft, son

have at Yale, and eighteen hundred at a three^dollar dinner in an of the President, as they

awful blizzard"

it all

ran through

in less time than I can write

it

;

and

my mind

all

these at

and I looked at

laymen's missionary dinners

him calmly and asked, "Could any one go that wanted to!" "Could

he had a ticket," he replied.

if

"College students and all?" I continued. "Certainly," he answered.

"And men from try!" I went

"We

are

swered, by

all

the surrounding coun-

on. all

way

from out of town!" he anof explanation.

"Yes, a good big dinner," I admitted, remembering that comparisons are always odious to the fellow

on

whom they reflect. But I

could

not forget our laymen's dinners, nor could I help silently rejoicing that the Master draws better than the President.

did

my

Not for a moment

thoughts reflect upon the President.

REFLEX INFLUENCE No one would rejoice more than I larity of the man who is using all to

bring about

201

at the popuhis influence

the governments

among

peace the Master taught.

But I went

the

to sleep

that night with a glad heart.

The next morning, when

I boarded the train

at Albany to go up to Saratoga Springs,

Fred B. Fisher,

friend

down

of Boston,

my

came and

sat

beside me.

"Well, Headland, we had a big time in Boston last night," was his first remark.

"What was

"A

it?" I asked.

dinner given to

Chapman and Alexan-

der," he replied.

"The

revivalists?" I asked.

"Yes," he answered.

"Ah!

Is old Unitarian Boston giving din-

ners to revivalists in these days ? " I exclaimed.

"Yes; we had a big time," he repeated. "How many were present?" I asked.

"Four thousand

people," he replied.

"What! Four thousand revivalists!" I exclaimed.

had eleven hundred

people to meet two

"Why, they

last night at

only

a dinner in

honor of President Taft at Yale."

"Oh, well," exclaimed Fisher, "Taft may

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS be President of the United States, but Jesus Christ is

my

King

' ' !

And I could not but wish that

saloon friend of the trolley car and every

one else who thinks that the gospel is losing its hold upon the men could have heard Fisher's bass voice ring out the words above the roar of the railroad train, "Jesus Christ

is

King!"

I then began to reflect upon some of the incidents which

happened during our laymen's campaign which were themselves by-products of missions in their reflex influence

home Church or Churches.

It is

upon

the

a well-known

fact that missions, or the call of the world, is

about

Churches can unite. sionary rally, and rian,

upon which all the But call a general mis-

the only subject

every

Congregationalist,

Christian, Methodist,

Church

Presbyte-

Baptist,

Lutheran,

and Episcopalian

are

all

ready to join forces.

At the Syracuse convention

all

nations were represented, and

with an equal

zeal.

Among

the denomi-

all

joined in

those

who were

present there were two young Episcopalian

They were both enthusiastic. With beaming face one of them said to me, "What a pity we were ever divided!"

rectors.

REFLEX INFLUENCE And

as I looked at

Ms

203

black cloth, clean

white linen, and sparkling eyes, I could not but echo,

"What a I continued:

pity!"

And

as I gazed at

"Here we are

we Methodist

The cream

Episcopalians are the milk.

good deal richer than the

You

all together.

Episcopalians are the cream, and

them

is

a

milk, but there is a

good deal more milk than there is cream a pity we were ever skimmed I" Is n't it a misfortune that

we are not

what

all

go-

ing as one great moral and spiritual army, knee to

knee and shoulder

to

shoulder, with the

sword of the Spirit and fighting the devil and the dark, non-Christian world in the interests of truth and the light of the shield of faith

the gospel of Jesus Christ, instead of focusing

our minds on our own

little

denominational dif-

ferences?

What would you

think of a lot of neighbor-

ing farmers who, when their

fields

were ripe

unto the harvest, instead of gathering in the golden grain, sat about discussing their boundary lines, while the rich harvest rotted on the stalks? fields,

When we come home from

where we

the mission

have divided up our territory

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS and united our educational

forces,

and

find

a

half dozen little Churches in a village where there ought to be only one, or at most two, and

as

many

pastors

half-supported

their denominational differences,

it

discussing

often seems

to us that, while the rich harvest of the is

we

waiting for reapers,

about, wasting

much

at

world

home are going

of our time tinkering our

line fences.

I have no disposition to complain of our

But

Protestant Churches.

think, if

you

can,

from the names of our Protestant Churches, of a single one that

is built

principle or doctrine.

upon any great saving Presbyterian a Church

where presbyters or elders have an important influence in the government, but whose doc-

same as " wants to those of the Congregationalist, who

trines of salvation are practically the

own priest, his own bishop, elder, his own preacher, and

be his own pope, his his

his

own presiding own boss." Or

which

is built

like that of the Baptist,

upon one

single rite,

which the

greatest of the apostles would not administer,

but

left to

some

less

important functionary.

Episcopaliana Church governed by a bishop. a Church whose Methodist Episcopalian

REFLEX INFLUENCE

205

founder was never anything but an Episcopalian on fire with an evangelistic spirit; and so

on to the end. Any two of these Churches could be trusted with the spiritual interests of any village of two or three thousand people.

Another interesting incident in the laymen's campaign was at Dayton, Ohio. I expected a

good big meeting, but was hardly prepared for what I found. I knew that Dayton was a city of less than a hundred thousand people, and I

hoped that there might be a thousand at the dinner. When I arrived. I went to the Young

Men's Christian Association

secretary

and

asked,

"How many

tickets

have you sold for the

dinner?''

"Sixteen hundred and twenty," he answered,

"and then we had

to stop because the

chickens refused to enter the ministry."

That was an old chestnut that I had heard before; but then

it

struck

me

that this

was not

a ministerial meeting, and the chickens had no reason to object on that score and so I said, ;

' '

it

Why did n

you persuade the chickens that was a lay movement, and they would have 't

given their necks to be in it?"

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

206

But there was no occasion for having more present, for the largest church in the city was far too small to hold the people

who crowded

to the meetings.

At the

meeting in St. Louis, Mr. Campbell White asked that any of the men who wanted to do something worth while should close of the

meet him in the church parlors. about twenty-five or thirty tainly

present

the most influential

men

cer-

of the

Mr. White told them he wanted to estab-

city.

lish

among

men

There were

a FOTJB-SQUABE, LEAGUE,

the principal features of the constitution of

which were that each person who joined it would pledge himself to give into four figures, one 'thousand dollars per year or more, to foreign missions, to get three others to join him, to <;

quadruple his own gifts to missions, and to quadruple the gifts of his Church.

Hardly had Mr. White finished reading constitution

when a man

this

in the rear of the

audience arose and said:

"Mr. White, I have been thinking of something of this kind, though I did not have the

genius to express

name down

it,

as the first

I want you to put

member

my

of this league.

"

REFLEX INFLUENCE

207

Three others asked that Mr. White would put their names down. ting in the front

row

"Mr. White, put

Then a gentleman

sit-

said in a quiet way,

my name down/' He was

a friend of Mr. White, who in surprise said: "Why, that is more than you have been giving for missions,

is it

not?"

"I never gave a thousand

he

cents before,"

answered.

Another gentleman arose and said:

"Mr. White,

I do not feel able to give

a

thousand dollars, but I would

like to give five

hundred

like to organize

dollars,

and I would

our whole Church, getting each person to give $500, $250, $100, $50, or $25, and have them all

members

of this league." it

four-

square, not allowing any one to become a

mem-

"No, no;" they

said, "let

us keep

ber unless he gives into four figures." ' '

All right,

Two

' '

he said

* * ;

put

my name down.

' '

others, without rising

from their chairs,

"Put my name down." Then a gentleman to the

left rose quietly

said,

and

said

:

was a boy my father got me a a bank at ten dollars a week.

"When sition in

father left

I

me

po-

My

the heritage of a good name.

I

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

208

now happen to be president of the Bank of Commerce. Put my name down." The men

know what of the

said to

it

me

"Ton do

afterward,

means when

Bank of Commerce,

E

,

not

the president

talks like that

among

group of men."

this

They continued to join until there were nine members out of that group of twenty-five or thirty men.

E to

have ten men out of

boy. his

arose quietly and said:

He

is

"We

this bunch.

ought

I have a

only fifteen, but he will grow.

Put

name down."

The next day these ten men had a luncheon together, and this same man brought the names of his two brothers, I as members.

Is the

the influential

was

told,

and offered them

Church losing its hold upon

men?

In arranging the seventy-five

cities in

which

they proposed to hold conventions, no attention

was given to Grand Junction, Colo., a little' town on the west slope of the Eockies, half way between Denver and Salt Lake City.

Now, an enterprising place. A place where the men drain the mountain streams into their orchards and raise apples by the carGrand Junction

is

REFLEX INFLUENCE

209

load; where they put oil-stoves out if they fear

a frost, and refuse to allow nature to nip their buds.

When

the people of Grand Junction heard

that there were to be seventy-five great lay:

men's conventions held in as many the continent, in their

busy."

"We

across

cities

own words, they "got

They wrote Mr. White, want a convention."

Mr. White wrote back:

"We have we can

arranged for

all

furnish speakers for.

possible to give

the conventions It will

be im-

you one."

They wrote back:

"We

are going to have a convention.

We

arrange for it, and you stop off three or four speakers on their way from Denver to

will

Lake City." It was done. I was one

Salt

of the speakers.

The town* only had some two thousand people at that time; but when we arrived at the hall there were present at the dinner five hundred

men and one woman.

"How is this," I asked, table,

"you have a woman present

men's dinner?" 14

as I sat

down

at the

at this lay-

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

210

"Well," they explained, "this woman rode one whole day on horseback and another whole

day

we

in

a stage to get here.

said 'to her:

" 'This is

"When she arriyed

for

men

not a meeting for women.

is

This

only.'

" 'Do n't you worry,' she replied, 'when I '11 be there.' "

this

meeting opens

And

she was there.

She was introduced

to

that body of five hundred men, and she sat in

the front

row

in the gallery at eivery meeting,

taking notes, that she might go back and arouse

an interest in in the great

world.

all

the

members

of her Church

work of missions throughout the

CHAPTER XV

THE GOSPEL AND THE WORLD'S PEACE I LIKE to discuss world-problems with,

men who

know, or with men who ought to know.

For

instance, I should like to have discussed

war

man

with a

like

butcher.

He was

Napoleon.

such a

Not a great man, but a great to win a battle, Just

bloody brute.

He knew how

decide to win at

all

hazards, then keep out of

danger yourself, and have no concern how many lives

you

sacrifice.

people think,

He thought, as a great many

" that Providence

of the heavy artillery."

Now,

on the side

is

it is

a fact that,

other things being equal, the side that has the

heavy

artillery is the

most

likely to win.

But

the fact that I win in one particular battle

no evidence that Providence

is

on

my

side;

is

nor

the fact that you lose any evidence that

is

The danger with

Providence

is

against you.

most of us

is

in our interpretation of Provi-

dence. is

We

too often take

it

that Providence

with us when we succeed, and against us when

we

fail.

211

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS To have discussed war with "Washington would have been a very different matter. had a different view of life. His views of cess were unlike those of Napoleon,

He suc-

and his

opinion of Providence was not that of a disinterested being

who was on

artillery, regardless of

the side of the heavy

the justice of the cause.

I was invited to give a talk to the Twentieth

Century Club recently in Boston.

After the

luncheon I had a talk with Nathan Haskell Dole,

man

a prominent literary

During the conversation I

"I fancy will

most

of

New

England.

said,

that the great battles of the future

likely

"I doubt

if

be fought at sea." there will be any great battles

of the future," he remarked.

do you mean? " I asked. In my judgment, he returned, within the

"What 1 i

' '

? '

next ten years

we will have

difficulties settled

our international

by arbitration."

"I wish I could be

"But come

all

to think of

as sanguine," I said. it,

war

is

only interna-

any of us members of this club had any differences we would settle them neither with our fists nor with arms. We would

tional fisticuffing.

If

talk the matter over

and

settle

them by mutual

THE WORLD'S PEACE concession and agreement.

vate

life, it is

bum who

is

213

In this age, in pri-

only the uncultured, uneducated

ready to shed his coat and go in to

settle his private differences with his fists."

"Do you think so?" he said. " I am sure of " I answered. it, the world

is

not quite up to

its

c i

Nationally

individual cul-

Twenty years ago such prize-fighters as were popular in America could find a place ture.

almost anywhere to

fight.

tically impossible to find

Now

it

is

prac-

a place in the civilized

world where the law will allow them to make a ring."

"You mean in the "It

Christian world," he said.

the same," I answered.

is all

"I

con-

sider that one of the greatest triumphs of our

have stopped prize-fighting and one of the greatest steps toward international

age

to

peace."

"And you are not quite

say you think that nationally we

up

to our sentiment individually?

' '

he continued. "Certainly,"

I

answered.

"The world

cared nothing for Japan until she knocked out

China and Eussia, and then we began to regard her as a

first-class

power.

I felt like regarding

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS her as a

confess, I looked

John L. Sullivan

upon Japan

whether she is or

as being in the

and it remains

not.

and Russia she seemed that

time, I

a

state of national existence

national fisticuff er

But

and for some

first-class bully,

to be

proven Both in the case of China to

be spoiling for a fight.

was not what I was about

At

to say.

the present time the world has decided against individual fisticuffing, and there are good prospects of its deciding against international cuffing as well.

And why

not?

only a combination of individuals

fisti-

The nation

is

and there

is

;

no reason why we should not soon

rise as

in National as in individual sentiment.

high

The

prospects are that within the next ten years

we

will."

"But do you

think

all

the nations are up to

high standard!" he asked. "All but two," I answered.

this

"And

which two are those?" he inquired.

name them," I replied; "but it would not require much guessing to dis"I do not care

to

cover which two rulers and peoples are the ones

who seem to be most spoiling for a fight." Then you think that there are better meth' '

ods of settling international

difficulties

than by

THE WORLD'S PEACE fighting,

he

and that these methods are practical?"

said.

"That

"Certainly," I answered.

fectly sane idea of Jesus Christ 'If

is

a per-

when He

said,

he strike you on the right cheek, turn the

other.'"

"How! "he asked. Two dogs can't fight 1 '

if

' '

one won't

fight,

I answered. ' '

' '

' '

he replied ; but it leaves the one looking awfully like a coward." Quite right,

"To

those

who are

"But

I replied.

it is

and posterity to go

looking for cowards,"

better for both yourself

off

with a whole head and

propagate yourself, than to be chewed up and

maimed."

"But

the other fellow goes and propagates

himself too," he urged. ' '

' '

Quite right,

up the sword

I replied

;

" but he that taketh

shall perish with the

sword."

"Yes; but do you believe that?" he answered.

"Nothing more true in history," I "It does not mean that the

man who

replied.

takes

up

the sword will not conquer his opponent at that particular time; but the

man who

takes

up the

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

216

sword often enough the sword.

will ultimately perish

with

Of

All history testifies to that fact

the ancient peoples

only two remain

who

started out together

the Chinese

and the Jew.

They never fought except on strong provocation. The Assyrians, the They loved

peace.

Babylonians, the Medians, Persians, Egyptians, the Macedonians, even the Greeks and

who took up while 'the

Eomans

the sword perished with the sword,

Chinese and the

Jew have gone

calmly on."

is

"It does look as though a long perspective in favor of peace," he remarked; "but the

Jew is a man without a country." "But he lives. He has not perished.

He

loved peace, and he has been preserved. He rejected Jesus Christ, and he has been a man

without a country ever since," I remarked.

"But do you Jesus Christ has

believe that the rejection of left

him as a man without a

country!" he asked. 1 '

the

The man with the

man who

best type of religion

is

rules the world," I said, without

answering his question.

"Another thing," I continued.

"He

that

taketh up the dreadnaught shall perish with the

THE WORLD'S PEACE dreadnaught. this.

It

There

is

217

nothing more sane than

has always been true that he who fights

long enough will always find some one fight better than he can;

with him.

Even Jim

Johnson.

He who

and then

who can

it is all

Jeffries will find his

up

Jack

knocks somebody down will

always find somebody or his sympathizers to knock him down; but he who> helps somebody

up

will

to help

always find somebody who

is

anxious

him up higher."

"It sounds very sane to hear you talk that way," he remarked. "I had never thought of it

in that light before,

and I confess that

it

does

seem that the only safe thing for permanent preservation is permanent peace. Then you would not be

in favor of the Chinese

arming

themselves to try 'to withstand the powers of

Europe," he remarked. "If I were the adviser

to the Chinese

Gov-

ernment," I replied, "I would urge them never to build a navy and never to equip an army. I would say to the European Powers: 'You pretend to believe in Christianity, and you pretend to believe in peace.

You want me

to con-

duct a great educational, social, and business

reform.

To do

this will require

a vast outlay,

218

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

and I

will not

to carry

have either the time or the funds

on such an internal reform and at the

same time prepare to resist the incursions of those who have been studying warlike methods I will conduct

for centuries,

my

internal re-

form, and I will trust your principles of justice

and

fair play to see that I

doing

am

protected while

"

it.'

"But, would that be safe!" he asked.

"The

safe," I replied,

be

and

right,

right; is

it

to find out

way

only

"would be

it is

whether

to test

It

it.

was

it

would

almost always safe to do

not!" I asked, with a

"Be-

smile.

sides, the Chinese are not a warlike people."

"That

is

contrary to the general opinion

about the Chinese

;

is it

not 1 " he asked.

* *

They ' '

are usually supposed to be a yellow

peril.

Only by those who do not know, I replied. "Those who understand the Chinese character * *

' '

and the history of the people know that they have never fought a great battle during their whole history.

They do not

in war, nor in soldiers.

believe in fighting,

Twenty years ago they

did not even have police on their streets.

roan was a policeman.

If two

men

Every

got into a

scrap, the crowd would gather around, several

THE WORLD'S PEACE men would

easily art

pull

fight-

for the Chinese never learned the

fighting; 1)

who were

get hold of the two

pulling hair and scratching can be called

if

ing

219

them

of self-defense

them in opposite

apart, lead

tions, allowing

them

-and they

direc-

to revile each other, their

and ancestors,

friends, relatives,

would

anger was exhausted or their spite then send each in his

own

until

their

satisfied,

and

In divid-

direction.

ing up the people they say:

"The "The

highest-grade

second-grade (he

"The

is

man is the scholar, man is the farmer

a producer),

third-grade

man

the laborer

is

(he is also a producer),

"The

fourth-grade

man

is

the merchant

(he is only an exchanger),

"The

fifth-grade

(he

and they

man

is

say,

man

is

the soldier

a destroyer)

;

'Hao jen pu tang ping

will not be a soldier.'

tang ping shih ju

tieli

They

ta ting'

9

'A good

also say, 'Jen

'A man made

made into thing you can make of him.

into a soldier is like a piece of iron

a nail

' ;

it is

the last

Now, a people who

crystallize their sentiments

about the soldier into such statements as that

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS will never, in

my judgment, be a peril, except in

the arts of peace."

"You

say the Chinese have never been a

fighting people; but did not the

Mongols over-

run Europe!" he asked. "Yes, the Mongols.; but not the Chinese. It took the Mongols one hundred years to conquer the Chinese by the arts of war.

The Chinese

then set to work to conquer them by the arts

and digest them, and in eighty years' time there was no Mongol language at court, no Mongol literature,

of peace.

They

quietly began to eat

no Mongol society, and the descendants of the Great Khan, whom Marco Polo wrote about in such glowing terms, were a race of emasculated rulers

whom

the Chinese vomited back on their

Mongol plains and deserts, a better educated, a more civilized, but a less warlike people. ' f

The same

is

true of the Manchus.

It took

Manchus more than a hundred years to conquer the Chinese, and indeed there is no more

the

thrilling chapter in all history

of the Chinese

by

than the conquest

their present rulers; nor is

there any greater evidence of the Chinese be-

ing anything but a warlike people than that

same

episode.

It is as follows

:

THE WORLD'S PEACE " 'Two Manchu

tribes

were engaged in a

dispute which continued through so that the cease.

and

Ming Emperor decided

He

against

it

should

therefore took sides with one tribe

settled the dispute.

whom

mere boy

many years

that

the

The son of the

emperor decided

said to himself,

Ming Emperor when

"I

chief

then a

punish that

will

I become a man.

When

' '

he reached the years of maturity, at the head of his tribe, with one

hundred and

fifty

He

then

to another until all

Man-

conquered his father's adversary.

went from one tribe

churia was under his leadership.

Then he un-

dertook to conquer Mongolia, and long until he had an fifty

thousand

men, he

army

it

was not

of two hundred and

men at his back. He then started

Ming dynasty; but the great wall kept him out, and it was not until he and his son for the

had passed away that

his grandson

was placed

upon the throne. The dynasty against which he fought was the Ming purely Chinese and one. can hardly ' '

l

imagine a great, warlike people, a people who are likely to be a yellow peril with a sword, to

have allowed themselves quered in that

way and

to

to

have been con-

have had forced upon

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS them the world-despised queue; for the queue is a Manehu, and not a Chinese, appendage. They were conquered by the sword but again by the ;

arts of peace they set about conquering their

They gave them the Chinese lanthat the Manchu language in China is

conquerors.

guage, so

They gave them They made them promise

practically a thing of the past.

Chinese literature.

never to interfere with the Chinese social customs, and especially the habits of the women.

And

a,t

the present time, in the history of the

nations and of the world,

who ever

considering the Manchus!

thinks of

People sometimes

speak of the Manchus ruling China, and that is about all the world knows of them. The Manchus are more; civilized, more learned, more artistic,

more

cultured,

more

refined than they

were when they conquered their conquerors; is

only fair to say they are

the arts of peace,

it

now conquered by

and are themselves so emas-

culated as a dynasty of rulers that only one child has been

none

born to the

to the last

two

last three

and a

woman

emperors has held the

reigns of government for the past forty-seven years.

And

it

chapter on her

may life;

be interesting to give a for no greater

woman

ap-

THE WORLD'S PEACE peared in the world during the nineteenth century than Tzu Hsi the great empress dowager of China.

" 'The peace of the world, when it comes and it is far on the way will "be a by-product of the gospel

and of missions.' "

CHAPTER XVI

SOME BY-PRODUCTS IN INDIVIDUAL GOVERNMENT women from England and Christian women of China de-

1894 the Christian

America and the

cided to give a present to the late empress

dowager on

heir sixtieth birthday.

After think-

ing of various things, they decided to give her

a

New

Testament.

Now,

in order to appreciate

the importance of this gift

know something great woman.

to

it will

be necessary

of the early history of this

The empress dowager was born in a little home in Peking, of poor but well-connected parentage, about the year 1834. of age she

was taken

At

sixteen years

into the palace

and made

Emperor Hsien Feng, a no Manchu family would choose

the concubine of the position that

for their daughter; for of the hundreds of girls that enter the palace in this capacity scarcely

any of them are ever heard of again. Unlike mo^t of the concubines, however, this 224

INDIVIDUAL GOVERNMENT girl

began

to study, taught

by the eunuchs and ;

she continued at her books until she could read the classical language as well as officials,

many

of the

and wield her brush in writing the ideo* '

long graphs so well that the character for " life" or happiness" written by heir hand and

presented to an

official is

preserved as an heir-

loom in his family. She then devoted herself to pictorial art, and her name will go down in history and appear in the art-encyclopedias with the

name

of all the great artists of her dynasty.

Heir devotion to her studies, her politeness

and her general character and conduct led her to be selected from the hun" dreds of her associates as the first concubine.

to her superiors,

' '

The empress was peror

the second wife of the em-

his first wife, having died.

a strong character; she was first

She was not

childless,

and the

concubine having given birth to a son was

raised to the position of wife

and soon began

to take a leading place in her husband's favor

as well as in the influence of the court.

Her husband

died

when her son was

years old, and in spite of

much

three

opposition on

the part of certain of the princes she contrived to

have her son placed upon the throne and her15

SOME BY-PBODUCTS OF MISSIONS self

made regent during

gave her

fifteen

his minority, which

years of rule over

all

China,

During these years she was busy also with other matters. She contrived to have her younger married to the younger brother of the emperor, her husband, that in this way she

sister

might provide an heir for the throne from her own family in case of the death of her son.

Her son died just as he reached his

majority,

and on the night of his death she had her

sis-

ter's oldest son, a lad of three years,

into the palace ;

brought and the next morning, when she

announced the death of her son she proclaimed her nephew as his successor, with herself as This gave

regent again during his minority.

years or more as

her another tenure of

fifteen

ruler over all China.

And when

to die she

had her grand-nephew,

she

was about

this

same

ter's grandson, brought, into the palace

to it that

sis-

and saw

he was established upon the throne be-

fore she took her departure.

We

have, there-

empress dowager the spectacle of a born in a humble home, becoming the

fore, in the little girl,

concubine of an emperor, the wife of an emperor, the mother of an emperor, the

maker

of

two emperors, the regent for two emperors, and

INDIVIDUAL GOVERNMENT the ruler of all China for the space of forty-

seven years in a country where

women

are sup-

posed to have no power. Discover,. if you can, another woman who lived during the nineteenth century with such an extraordinary career! It

was

this

woman

whom

to

the Christian

women from England and America and the Christian women of China decided to give a birthday present on the event of the most im-

portant birthday, the 60th, in the

life of

a Chi-

nese monarch.

The

ladies considered the matter carefully,

and after thinking of various things they decided to give her a copy of the

New

They made new type with which

Testament. to print it

on the best quality of foreign

They printed

it

paper in the

best- style of the printer's

art.

They bound it in silver embossed bamboo patternenclosed it in a silver box; this, again, in a red plush box

;

this, in turn, in

carved teak wood box, and dinary pine box.

They

a beautifully

this, finally, in

sent

it

an

or-

to the British

and American ministers, requesting them to send it to the foreign office, and them to send it

to the

empress dowager. Now, there was a lot of ceremony about that.

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

328

But the Chinese love ceremony. Sir Robert Hart tells a story which illustrates how the Chi-

He

nese love ceremony.

went

to

official.

says that soon after he

China he wa,s calling upon a Chinese

He

sat bolt upright

upon

A Chinese official never leans to other

when on

down, took a

official

one side or the

He

business.

roll of thin

his chair.

reached

out of his boot,

paper

quietly unrolled one sheet, rolled the rest

slowly and put

used

it

into his boot again.

this sheet as a handkerchief,

his servant,

who

in a dignified

received

it in

passed

up

then it

to

both hands, and

way he went and

the paper-basket.

He

deposited

it

in

I need not say what one can

not do with dignity and ceremony in China.

We can imagine this ordinary pine box coming into the palace.

It does

not look promising,

and there are some who might think that it would be opened before it reached her majesty.

They do not know what dowager gave

to all

attention the empress

her domestic and private

affairs if they think so.

Her

presents were

opened in her presence, and woe betide the person who took liberty with her affairs. It may not look promising; but, like

all

Chinese, she

did not judge the inside from the appearance

INDIVIDUAL GOVERNMENT The Chinese do everything the opposite of what we do. Go down street in any of our great cities, of the outside.

and you will find all the most beautiful things in the show windows. Not so in China. I had the pleasure of entertaining Mr. William Jennings

Bryan

in Peking

around the world.

when he was making

his trip

And let me say just here that

Mr. Bryan visited the missions, studied mission work, and when he returned to America was capable of talking intelligently about mission-

ary enterprises.

had written a guide-book to Peking, and I offered to show him about the city. As we I

were going down Liu Li Chang, the great book

and curio stores

stopped before one of the

and remarked,

"We

will

"That

"Not

may

street, I

is

go in here." a junk shop, isn't it?" he asked.

entirely," I answered,

"though there

be some junk in it."

We

entered.

There was not a single piece

of good

ware

in the front room.

the next

room

back, where

We went

into

we found some fairly The next room back of that had

good things. some very good things; but

all his

very best

230

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

goods were locked up in a

little

cubbyhole at

the very rear of his premises, the opposite of

what you would find it in America. The empress dowager has this pine box opened, and in it she finds a beautifully-carved teak-wood box, carved the same as the frame of

her portrait

now

in the Smithsonian Institution

in Washington.

"When it

this

box was opened she found within

a red plush box. Eed

in China.

The

is

the sign of happiness

bride's dress

in which she rides is red.

is red.

The

chair

All your presents at

New Year's

time are wrapped in red paper and tied with a red string. Everything that wishes

one happiness is red; and hence these ladies had silently wished the empress dowager happiness on her sixtieth birthday by this red box.

was opened, and in it she found a silver box. The basis of our monetary system This, in turn,

is

gold; that of the Chinese

And when

silver box.

found within

it

is silver;

hence the

she opened that she

the "Word of Grod bound up in

silver.

I do not

know what

influence that

New

Tes-

tament had upon the empress dowager, but that same day the boy emperor, her nephew, whom

INDIVIDUAL GOVERNMENT

231

she had placed upon the throne, sent a eunuch

American Bible Society and bought an Old and New Testament such as were being sold

to the

to his people.

One ought velopment of

know something about the dethis boy, for he was as much of to

a genius in his

way

as his aunt.

Taken out of

a big beautiful world at three and a half years of age, where he had other children to play with, and where he could go about at will, into a little world, a half square mile in

size,

of brick-paved

earth, surrounded by three great walls, what

hope was there of his ever learning anything either about the world or about the people he was to govern? Shut up in the palace with thousands of eunuchs and concubines, maidservants and the two dowager empresses, the

only male figure in the palace, not a child to

play with, what hope was there for the lad?

The eunuchs went out and brought him nese toys.

These he did not

found a foreign store

Chi-

They then on Legation Street, and like.

they purchased some foreign toys, which, by

being

wound

up, would go of their

That was what he wanted

own

energy.

something that

would move. As he grew older they bought him

SOME BY-PKODUCTS OF MISSIONS other

more

toys,

to

suited

watches and cuckoo clocks.

his

age

Swiss

I went through his

There was a long window on the south side of the room which was filled with

palace in 1901.

clocks

from one end

different time.

to the other, all ticking a

"When

telling this to

a friend

not long since, he remarked,

" .

They were not there

to tick-le the

That

is

emperor.

and

to keep time

simply

emperor."

what they were fo
clocks on the tables.

desk with a clock upon

it.

There was a beautiful I sat

down on a large

French, plush-upholstered chair, and a music-

box began

to play in the seat of the chair ;

this set off

an

electric fan that

near by, which kept

me cool

and

was on the wall

on that hot August

was the emperor's reading chair. He could sit and read, and listen to the music, and be kept cool by the fan. The child had gotten day.

all

It

modern times

into

then heard of the huo lun che, the

fire-

the wonderful toys of

the palace.

He wheel

cart,

and he had a small railroad

built

along the west shore of the lotus lake in the palace grounds, and two small cars and an en-

INDIVIDUAL GOVERNMENT gine

made

in Europe,

court for a

on

ride

merry-go-round.

233

and he could take the this

newly-constructed

Then he heard of the huo lun

chuan, and he got steam launches, which he put into the lotus lake

and the lake at the summer

palace and these he could hitch to the empress ;

dowager's barge and take the court ladies for a ride on the lake.

Then he heard of sending

messages by a flash of lightning. That was what

he wanted.

That would move; and so he got the telegraph into the palace, and soon it was established throughout the empire.

then told that

it

was

He was

possible to talk to a dis-

tance of fifty or one hundred miles.

I wonder

you remember the first time you ever heard that. I do, and I did not believe it. We had

if

an old farmer down they told him

it

in Pennsylvania,

was

possible to talk so that

you could be heard to a distance of hundred miles, he said: "It can't be done. as loud as any

man

and when

My

fifty

or a

son John kin holler

in this keounty, an'

he

can't be heard more than two miles,"

Kuang Hsu was ready

to believe anything

he heard about these foreigners, and so he got the telephone into the palace, and now the capi-

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS tal

and the coast

phones. the

cities

are cobwebbed with

Then he heard

officials

came

to

of the "talk-box,"

tele-

and

Peking University, bought

our phonograph, and sent that into the palace. Later we sent him a cinematograph in a word, ;

that child, taken out of this big beautiful world at three

and a half years of

and penned

age,

up inside of three great walls, moved all the great inventions of modern times into the palace.

Then he got the inspiration. of Luke.

I

New Testament. That was He began studying the Gospel

the

know

this,

pastor and one of

my

because

my

assistant

Church members were

invited into the palace daily to talk with the

eunuchs, and the one

who

stood behind the em-

peror's chair while he studied told

my

friends

that the emperor had a portion of the Gospel

Luke copied in large characters every day, which he had spread out on the table before of

him, and he added,

"I can he

is

look over his shoulder and see what

studying

;

it is

Lu cMa

fu yin

the Gospel

of Luke."

After the emperor had studied the Gospel for a short time there were reports about Pe-

INDIVIDUAL GOVERNMENT king that

lie

was going

Indeed, the eunuchs told

peror would

to

235

become a Christian.

my friends that the em-

as to

them up and catechise them whom they worshiped, nor would he pass

them

until they confessed that they

line

worshiped

Jesus Christ; while two of the court ladies told

Mrs. Headland that the emperor said that when

he went

to the

temple he did not worship the

idols, but he worshiped Tien clw, the God of heaven (the Christian name for God). "While the emperor was studying the Gospel

a eunuch came

to

me and

said

"The emperor has heard great many books translated

:

that there are a

out of your hon-

orable Western languages into our miserable

Chinese language, and he would

like to

have

some." I was in charge of two tract societies and the books of the Society for the Distribution of

General and Christian Knowledge, as well as the college text-books, and so I sent him some.

The next day he came again, saying, "The emperor wants some more books. ' '

I sent

him more books, and the following day

he came with the same request. Every day for six weeks that eunuch came from the palace to

SOME BY-PBODUCTS OF MISSIONS

236

more books for the emperor, and I sent him every book I could find that had been trans-

get

Sometimes I

lated or written by Christians.

had nothing but a Christian sheet tract to send him. Finally I went into my wife's library and took out her Chinese medical books and sent

them that

Indeed, he bought every book

to him.

had been written or translated: Eoman

Catholic or Protestant, religious, scientific, or social.

One day

the eunuch

saw

my

wife's bicycle

standing on the veranda.

"Na, cart

is.

shemno chef

skill

"What kind of a

that?" he asked.

"Na

chiu shih

lie

tze hsing che

That

is

a

self-moving cart," I answered. 11

Tsen mo

How

chi

do you ride it!" he

continued.

I took

it

down and rode a few times around

the compound.

"Che

shih kuai, tsen

Hang he lun fall

down.

" When a I explained.

t&e.

This

It only

thing

is

is

mo pu too. 'Chiu yu queer; why doesn't it

has two wheels."

moving it can't fall down,"

Which, by the way,

other things than bicycles.

will

apply to

INDIVIDUAL GOVERNMENT The next day peror wants I sent

lie

came and

said,

237

"The em-

this bicycle."

my

wife's bicycle in to the emperor,

and not long afterwards

it

was reported

in Pe-

king that in trying to ride the bicycle his queue had become tangled np in the rear wheel and

he had had a

fall;

and so he gave up trying

ride the bicycle, as

to

many another person has

done.

But he got ern times

him

to

;

all

the great inventions of mod-

then he bought the Bible, which led

secure

all

kinds of "Western books.

These he studied for three years, from 1895 till 1898, when he began to issue his wonderful edicts.

Among

his first edicts

was one

in which he

ordered that a Board of Education should be established, with a university in

Peking and a

college in the capitals of each of the provinces ; his object being eventually to

have a system of

public school education throughout the empire.

Twenty years ago there was just one school established by the Chinese Government in which foreign studies were taught, and this was opened by a man who went to China as a missionary, and

who remains

there as a missionary

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

238

As a

to-day.

result of this edict

we have

at the

present time more than forty thousand schools,

and

colleges,

which every phase taught; and it is worthy

universities, in

of foreign learning of note that the

is

first six colleges

and

universi-

opened by the government were through the

ties

and under the superintendence of men who went to China as missionaries.

influence

Another of these important establish a

Board

edicts

five

was

to

of Eailroads; for the only

method of travel in China from time immemorial

was by mule-cart,

or houseboat

all

of

mule-litter, sedan-chair,

them slow and most of

them uncomfortable.

As a

result of this edict

generated by the

and the sentiment

new system

of education, in-

stead of the one hundred miles of railroad

twenty years ago, they now have seven thou-

sand miles completed, five thousand miles more projected, and they have just succeeded in bor-

rowing fifty millions of dollars from Europe and America to continue their railroad construction.

A

third important edict

Board

of Mines.

was

to establish

I have seen old blind

a

women

in midwinter, under the old regime, sitting on

INDIVIDUAL GOVERNMENT

239

the bare ground feeling about them if per-

chance they might find a few weeds or cornstalks to light a fire

under their brick bed and

cook their morsel of food and heat their bed, oblivious of the fact that just beneath

were great veins of

coal, if

open the earth and take dare do filled

with

only they dared to

They did not Because the earth was

Why?

so.

it out.

There weire

spirits.

them

spirits in the

earth, in the air, in the trees, in the mountains,

in the valleys

spirits everywhere. One could not dig a well without having a small shrine

to

burn incense to the Ch'eng

sJien

Uao

spirit of the well.

became gods.

Trees

But where

the gospel and its by-products of intelligence

can not stay.

And

so the spirits are practically banished

from

and progress

go, the spirits

China, and they are sinking great shafts deep

down

into the earth

and taking out millions of

tons of coal.

in

The emperor issued twenty-seven such edicts about twice that many days, all of them

equal in importance to those mentioned in the

reformation of old China. the young emperor was

swer, because

the;

Do you ask why

led to

Christian

do this?

I an-

women from Eng-

240

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

land and America and the Christian

China sent a

New Testament

women

of

into the palace.

There were other forces at work, forces which had a tremendous influence upon the young man.

He was

beginning to get a vision of the weak-

ness of his

own country

the weakness of their

old religious system, their old educational sys-

tem, their old agricultural system, their old mil-

and the strength of the countries represented by the, missionaries and the minis-

itary system,

ters of the foreign governments.

man

as

As

Chang Chih-tung wrote, about

in a book which the

great a

this time,

emperor ordered printed in

large editions and circulated throughout the

empire:

" Convert

the temples and monasteries

of Buddhists and Taoists into schools.

these exist in myriads.

To-day

Every important

has more than a hundred.

city

Temple lands and

incomes are in most cases attached to them. If all these are appropriated to educational pur-

poses,

we guarantee plenty

to carry out the plan.

establishment.

money and means

This could be done very

well at the present time.

belong to the people

of

who

The temples

really

contributed to their

Buddhism and Taoism are

de-

caying, and can not long exist, whilst the West?

INDIVIDUAL GOVERNMENT ern religion

Buddhism

every day.

Taoism

is

is flourishing is

and making .progress on its last legs, and

discouraged, because its devils have

become irresponsive and

inefficacious.

If there

be a renaissance of Confuciansm, China will be

brought to order and Buddhism and Taoism will receive secure protection

We

learned.

from the

sect of the

suggest that seven temples with

their land, out of every ten, be appropriated to

educational purposes.

The emperor can

satisfy

the ousted priests by the bestowal of distinc-

and rewards upon themselves, or official rank upon their relatives. By these means our tions

schools will spring

and after

up by the tens of thousands,

their utility has been demonstrated

the affluent gentry will doubtless come forward

with subscriptions for a more extended educational enterprise."

All the great forces that have been at

work

in bringing about the regeneration of China are

themselves by-products of our Christian

civili-

zation, while the direct inspiration that led the

buy and study all kinds of Western books was that which came from his study of emperor

to

Luke and the New Testament; and hence the present great reform movement the Gospel of

16

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS in all phases of Chinese political, business, social,

and religious

educational,

life is itself

by-product of modern Protestant missions.

a

We

say Protestant missions, for while Catholicism

has been working in China for centuries past,

and had had

its influence,

most,

if

not

all,

of

which was for the uplift of China, it was too narrow in its scope and vision ever to have gotten the great Middle ruts of the ages.

Kingdom

out of the

It required a vitalizing, re-

vivifying influence, broad enough to take in

phases of

was able

life;

to

and

this

communicate

all

Protestantism alone to the Chinese.

CHAPTEE XVII PEODUCTS AND BY-PEODUCTS JESUS CHRIST thought in terms of empires and He talked in terms of continents and worlds,

He

and

wants

all

of His followers to do the

His visions were world-visions.

same.

He was

a subject of no ruler, a citizen of no country.

He was

a citizen of the world, an inhabitant of the universe, a subject only of the King of kings. Listen to some of the last

gave

to

His

disciples

reverberating

;

among

commands

commands He that have been

the corrugations of

brain for a quarter of a century.

my

Maybe I have

quoted them in another chapter. Maybe you have read them over again and again to convince others what the gospel ought to do with-

out being convinced yourself to the point of action.

"Go and

teach

all

thought in terms of empires.

nations."

"Go and

He

preach

the gospel to every creature," "to the uttermost

part of the earth." tinents

He

talked in terms of con-

and worlds. 243

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

244

As a young man

this

came

to

me

as a per-

sonal matter, and as I read His last prayer for

His disciples and "for all those who should believe" on Him through their preaching, I heard

Him

"As Thou

say,

hast sent

Me

into the

world, even so (in exactly the same way) have I also sent

' '

them into the world,

understand, and I can not yet,

and I could not

how anybody can

read that sentence without the feeling that he ought to have some special share in mission

By mission work I mean helping

work.

the fel-

low who has never had a chance. It is not

home

to

say that you believe in

may

be enough for you, but

enough

missions.

It

There are peoplelittle people, shriveled souls whose vision is no larger than their own village. There are

you are small

that is because

others

and

who can not

still

others

see beyond their

who can not

own

State,

see beyond their

own country; but they are not Jesus

Christ's

He could see Jerusalem. He could Judea. He could see Samaria and Galilee;

kind.

see

but

His vision reached also to the uttermost parts of the earth.

So I

insist that

your vision

show how big you are. Nor do I mean that a person

is

will

large just

PRODUCTS AND BY-PRODUCTS because he goes

There are

down

settle drill

little

and

in

drill.

to

245

a foreign land to work.

souls go long distances.

They one small hole and drill and

What we want

is

large

men

with large visions, who are ready to go, or ready

sunk too deep at

to stay if their roots are

home, and send some one is

else in their place.

It

just as important to be willing to send as

to go,

men

and Jesus Christ

at the

in this age wants

home base who

more

are willing to pay

their representative on the firing-line, or raise

up a man on the foreign field who will go out and teach, or preach to his own people. Get a vision.

Then take upon

task big enough for you.

task will

a vision

yourself a task

A

a

vision without a

make you a visionary. A task without will make you a drudge. But a task

with a vision has a fair chance of making you

a hero and some one

else

a man.

Then, when you have taken upon yourself a task, be a live wire. And remember that a live wire may be one of two kinds

:

by a dynamo and may carry

it

light or

a thousand neighborhoods, or

dynamo and may mills in motion.

set the

may be charged it

power

to

may run

a

machinery of a dozen

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

246

on your nerves, and remember, as some one has said, that you have two sets of Gret it

nerves:

nerves

sensory

and motor nerves.

There are thousands of people

all

over the

Church who have had missions and a hundred other good things on their sensory nerves for

There were times when they could not There were, times when it brought tears

years. sleep.

from

There were times when

their eyes.

brought a throbbing to their heart.

want now is Get

it to

to switch

they

onto their motor nerves.

move your tongue

to talk for missions,

your pockets and bring out for missions. Let the farmer plant for

and you go gifts

it

What

it

into

and the carpenter build, and the laborer labor, and the millionaire give of his

missions,

millions for missions.

And

as the Master gave, their

then

life,

let

some

their blood for

the sake of sending the gospel to the last in

give,

man

"the uttermost part of the earth." Before I had finished

thing got on that

if

my

my

college life this

sensory nerves, and I decided

I could not

go> to

the foreign field I would

take up a boy in some mission school or college, \

educate him, and send him out as

my

repre-

sentative in the uttermost part of the earth.

PRODUCTS AND BY-PRODUCTS

247

my work in the university I got it switched onto my motor nerves and I was sent to China. I did not get it off my senJust as I completed

sory nerves, however.

and I tried

to put

I

was sent

to

"

so far as I.could, into the boys I taught.

could not get

teach,"

my life and my intelligence, in

away from the thought

But I that

it

would he gratifying to have a hoy with a Chinese tongue and Chinese thought and a Chinese

whom my money had

heart

educated, and

who

would go forth and teach or preach the gospel in

my

stead.

I could educate a boy for thirty

dollars a year; and so I found a boy, and I got

him

in this way.

My did.

wife went to China two years before I

She was a physician in charge of the hos-

pital of the Presbyterian mission in Peking.

One day a woman, dying

of tuberculosis, en-

tered her dispensary, leading a old

little

six-year-

boy by the hand.

The doctor examined her compelled to

tell heir

there

cine could not. save her

carefully, but

was

was no hope; medi-

life.

Nevertheless, as

she was a country woman, far from her native village,

and had about her

all

the evidences of

poverty, she took her into the dispensary and

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

248

assured her that she would do what she could for her. of the

She

told her of the love of the Master,

power of the gospel, and

cine could not save her

life,

that, while

medi-

Jesus Christ could

save her soul.

There are those who think that one ing sentiment

he

is

saved.

is talk-

when he pretends to know that But I want to say that, while I

believe in sentiment in its place, I do not talk

sentiment in matters of this kind. saved.

I

know

I faithed that matter out in

version, just as I solved

ometry while in

college,

my

my

I

am

con-

problems in ge-

by reasoning.

Spir-

problems are solved by faith just as temporal problems are solved by reason, and after

itual

their solution they are just as

much a part

of

our definite knowledge as the products of reason.

The reason why there

is

tainty about the results of faith

so is

much

uncer-

that spiritual

knowledge is of a higher order and there are fewer people who have tried to acquire spiritual knowledge in a scientific and logical way. This woman believed what the doctor told her.

Like most of her

cerned about the sons,

and the

class,

she was not con-

scientific explanation, the rea-

logical connections.

She simply

PRODUCTS AND BY-PRODUCTS knew she was

She was

saved.

change had come into her

249

satisfied that

a

a change which

life

banished the fear of death and brought her a

She did not understand

lasting peace.

did not try to understand

with the thing life easier,

itself,

and

it

She was

it.

whatever

banished

death by substituting for

it

all

it

was.

She

it.

satisfied

It

made

the horror of

a hope of a

life

to come.

But one day the doctor came into the hospital, and there sa,t the woman, with her little boy in her arms, to whom she was crooning a Chinese lullaby:

My little

baby,

boy blue, and cinnamon

little

Is as sweet as sugar

too;

Is n't this precious darling of ours,

Sweeter than dates and cinnamon flowers ?

and great tears were

rolling

"Why, Mrs. Tsan," "what

is

the matter?

down her

cheeks.

exclaimed the doctor,

Are you afraid

to

die?"

"No, I am not afraid to die," she answered; "but when I die, what is to become of this little

And that

sure enough, what was to become of

little

boy?

There are no

hospitals,

no

dis-

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

250

pensaries,

no foundling asylums, no orphanages,

no places of any kind

who

to care for the little folks

are left without parents.

by-products of the gospel,

who are

left alone in

These also are

and the

ones

little

babyhood and childhood

many puppies on the street. But my dear reader, do not know what "pup-

are like so you,

means unless you have visan Oriental city. One of these little

pies on the street" ited

motherless animals finds a bone or a cabbage-

and a bigger dog attacks it, bites it, takes away its bone, and it goes whining and hungry

leaf,

away, until some morning is

its little lifeless

body

found stretched out in the gutter and

it is

hauled away with the refuse. It is the

same with

the* little

human

animals.

was coming from church one cold, bright Sunday morning in midwinter. There were a, lot I

of

little

mat shacks

where the beggars

built against the city wall

lived.

A babe had been born

in one of these hovels during the night or

ing;

it

lay like

On

morn-

was thrown out upon the sand, where

it

a dead rat as I came home from church.

another occasion I was walking on top of

the city wall with one of the ladies of the an's Foreign Missionary Society.

It

Wom-

was

just

PRODUCTS AND BY-PRODUCTS at dusk.

251

I stumbled upon something, and, look-

ing to see what

it

was, I found a child's head,

the body having been devoured by the dogs.

Pardon me for that

is

telling these

the fate of

many

gruesome

of the

little

tales

dead

dren in a land without a gospel. Every morning there is a big black

but

;

chil-

cart,

pulled by a big black cow, comes down the street not two hundred yards from where I have lived

for sixteen years.

gathers up the

up

little

A man

goes with

it

and

packages that are wrapped

matting and placed upon the street These he puts in the cart, drags them

in floor

corners.

out of the

Such

is

city,

and buries them

the fate of the

little

all in

one

hole.

dead children.

Now, what of the living ones? Often, as I have gone along the

streets

on

cold winter nights, I have passed a large pot,

two feet or more in diameter, imbedded upon the top of a clay oven. In this pot the nut dealers roast their chestnuts.

The clay

of the

oven will hold the heat a good part of the night, and often as I have returned from church on I have seen two of these

little

ragged street urchins curled up head to

feet,

Sunday night

clothed in rags, in this pot, the only place they

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

252

At such times one can not help those who care nothing except for

have to sleep. thinking of their

own comfort and

entertainment, of Laza-

rus and the rich man, and of the words of the

Master: "Son, remember that thou in thy

life-

time receivedst thy good things, and likewise

now he is comforted, and thou art tormented." And I can not 'help adding: "God forbid that we should be on the

Lazarus

evil things: but

rich

man's side of that

may

be,

when we long

fixed gulf, whatever

it

for a drop of water for

our parched tongue, because

we have

appropri-

ated the gifts of the gospel and forgotten the

poor."

am to

And

so this poor

woman

said,

not afraid to die; but when I die,

become of

And

this little

the doctor, her

"No, I what is

boy!" woman's heart moved

with compassion for the mother, answered

"Mrs. Tsan, give adopt him as

my

me your

boy,

and I

little

:

I will

boy.

will take care of

him."

And Mrs. Tsan gave doctor.

the

little

boy

to the

Then, some six years afterward, I mar-

ried the doctor

and got that boy, eleven or

twelve years old, extra. I never got anything better in

my life

bet-

PRODUCTS AND BY-PRODUCTS ter for

me and

say right here that a thing

is

let

me

never better for

you have made it better for some one God gives no gifts outright. With some

^mtil

you else.

He

And

better for the boy.

253

deposits ten talents, with others

others one; but the time will will require

with

come when He

an account.

I put the boy in school. I helped to teach him.

He was

ment.

five,

I paid

Ms

expenses.

I watched his develop-

a good boy and a fairly clever

But the year before he graduate my wife and I both be-

boy, and I loved him.

was about

to

came anxious about him, as he did about himself. One day, in his junior year, he came to

me and

said,

"Father, I

am

afraid

if

I remain

in school until I graduate I will go as

my

mother went." "Well,

want

to

my boy," I

answered, "what do you

do?"

"I would like he replied, "and exercise,

go out into the country," get plenty of fresh air and

to

and help some one

else,

and save

my

life."

"Why, God

bless you,

claimed, and, giving ''I

want you

to eat

my

boy, go!" I ex-

him some money, I added, good food and take good

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

254

care of yourself, and

and

tell

if

you need money, write

me, and I will send

it

to

you."

He never wrote for another dollar. He went into the

army and taught

the officers English,

and preached to them. What is preaching? Not getting upon a rostrum and delivering a sermon.

That

down

just sitting train, or

is

not preaching.

Preaching

is

beside some one in a railroad

a trolley car, or in your

office

or home,

or on the side of a well, and telling them of the

water of

life,

or the bread of

life,

the gospel

of salvation.

After he had been in this work for some time there

was an old

official

opened a school in Yang

Chou on the Grand Canal.

He

employed one of our graduates as principal of the school and my boy as assistant principal, and he told them they might take their

New Testaments and teach

them

to.

this

If he

had not allowed

they would not have gone.

Then there was

all

they cared

an old viceroy got send to every

New

official

Testaments enough

in his province,

them they might put them they cared

New

to.

Testament

ilization

And

while

to

and he told

in their schools if

we

are taking the

the foundation of all our civ-

out of our public schools, these Chi-

PRODUCTS AND BY-PRODUCTS nese viceroys and theirs.

And

at

officials

are putting

255 it

into

whose instance are we taking

Because of the objections of the Eoman Catholic and the Jew! the one a people who

it

out?

have lost their power in every country they have ever dominated, until at present there

is

not a

power that recognizes Eoman Catholicism as a State religion and the other a people first-class

;

who have never had a country jected Jesus Christ

and the

since they re-

New Testament.

It

hehooves us in the light of this statement to inquire

what

and then

to

it is

that has

made us what we

from under our government. But, to return to my work and years ago I broke down.

what chair

are,

beware of taking the foundation out

I

am

my boy

;

four

often asked

I have in the Peking University.

I

usually answer that I do not have a chair at all.

I have a whole bench.

I have been teach-

ing astronomy, geology, botany, zoology, physiology, physics, mental science, moral science,

and physical geography. That is my regular But I have taught them (or shall I say diet. that the boys have studied them?) in such a way that our graduates can

come to Columbia, Syra-

cuse, Boston, Michigan, Minnesota, Northwest-

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

256

and California Universities and enter for

ern,

work

post-graduate

without

examinations.

Moreover, I have taught them every winter for sixteen years with an ulster that reached to my feet, arctics

on

my feet, gloves on my hands, and

my head, to keep warm. You ask why?

a cap on

I answer, because every thirty dollars'

coal

we burn

to heat the building, burns

And you

education of a boy.

an education

up the

can not live in a

land without a gospel and turn ious for

worth of

away boys anx-

so anxious that they are

willing to live on food that costs only $1.75 per

month

and keep yourself comfortable.

my

help you,

God

dear reader, to get this thing on

your nerves and spend less upon your own luxuries and more on needy humanity !

I broke down.

Simply overwork.

tropical, Asiatic disease called sprue,

I took a

and ran

'down one pound a day for twenty-one days. said to

I

my physician,

"Look

here, Doctor, I can't keep this

up

in-

definitely."

"Oh,

it

It got

will stop after awhile,"

me down to

he answered.

one hundred and fourteen

pounds, and then it stopped. a milk diet, and kept me on

They put me on it

for nine weeks.

Then they shipped me home for

repairs.

PRODUCTS AND BY-PRODUCTS As I

I was going from Tientsin to Shanghai

was

when

257

sea-sick

and could not take the milk, and was so weak I

I arrived at Shanghai I

When Dr. Lowry and my me off the vessel I said to

could scarcely move.

wife came to take them,

"If you get

me

to Seattle alive

we

be

will

satisfied."

I never expected to reach Seattle.

a

man

with one foot in the grave.

I felt like

And

I

tell

you when you get there you think a good deal. Then comes the time when to be saved is the most important thing in time or in eternity. You do not care for dollars. You do not care for fame.

Nothing but the knowledge that

you go down into the grave satisfy you.

And my wife

if

it is all right, will

will testify that dur-

ing those nine weeks I did not have one blue I

hour.

know what

it

means

you think you are going

to

be saved when

to die.

They took me over to the hotel, and there was a letter from my boy the boy my wife had rescued from the street and I had helped to

make

into a

man.

I opened

it

with trembling

was

hands; not from fear, but from

love.

the last letter I would get from

him before I

17

It

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

258 left

It

China; perhaps the last I would ever get.

was covered

over with tear-stains

all

there were more on it.

He ' '

said

MY I

and

before I finished reading

it

:

DEAR FATHER

:

am sorry yon have broken down.

I

am

sorry yon have to go home. I hope yon will soon be better, and I hope yon will soon be able to

come back

' '

again.

Then he wrote another paragraph

"But don't worry. member I am here, and

:

Ee-

It is all right.

I

'11

do

my

best for

Jesns Christ." If there ever comes a time

you have one foot

when you feel that and some

in the grave,

little

boy or girl whom you have saved from poverty and distress can write and say: "Do n't worry; all

it 's

I

right.

Christ," there

is

'11

do

my

nothing that will come to you

with more of comfort or joy. self

best for Jesus

And I

said to

my-

:

"It Pacific

's all right.

Ocean as

If I do go

my grave,

down

and up

into the

to the throne

of God, I won't try to apologize for

what I have

PRODUCTS AND BY-PRODUCTS not done.

back to

I

my

'11

just trust Jesus Christ

259

and point

boy."

him as I am thus kept away work, and always, as I lie down to

I often think of

from

my

sleep at nighi^-espeeially on Saturday night

for the day begins in the middle of the Pacific

down on Saturday night he on is just getting up Sunday morning. All night while I sleep he is teaching or preaching the Ocean; and as I

lie

Then, as he

gospel of the Master.

lies

down on

Sunday night I get up on Sunday morning; and while he sleeps I work.

hours each day

And

so for twenty-four

my boy and I work for the Mas-

no night with us. We do not change night to day, nor day to night but by being thus on the opposite sides of the world

ter; for there is

;

we can do God's work among two though

my

peoples,

health

China, I have

in

two hemispheres and

and I have a feeling

may

shut

that,

me away from

my representative there, who will

do his best for Jesus Christ.

CHAPTER

XVIII

PRODUCTS AND BY-PRODUCTS IF I were asked what thing to be

the most important done in the establishment of Chrisis

tianity in a non-Christian land, I should say the

The

establishment of Christian homes. vidual is

is

The family

not the unit of a country.

the unit.

a world, did

God, when

indi-

He undertook

to people

by the establishment of a home. Again, when He undertook to save a world from a flood, He did it by saving a home. Once more, it

when He wanted

up a nation into whose could commit His most

to raise

He precious revelation, He did God-fearing man and wife; minds and hearts

important an element as

by raising up a for Sarah was as

it

Abraham

in the

mak-

ing of the character of the Jewish people.

Those who desire a

man

to

know the difference between

with a Christian wife and one with a

heathen wife in a non-Christian land the history of

were

Abraham and

alike called faithful

of the one

is

;

Lot.

may

study

Both of them

but while the record

resplendent with honor, that of 260

PRODUCTS AND BY-PRODUCTS the bther

home

not be written.

in a non-Christian

ordinary dip,

may

and

home what an is

A

community

261

Christian is to

the

arc-light is to a tallow

a by-product of the gospel the same

as the arc-light.

Mr. "Wang, a scholar from the Shantung Province, a graduate of the first degree, was

Peking attending the examinations for the purpose, if possible, of securing his M. A. He

in

and one day while walking down the Hatamen great street he dropped into our street chapel and sat down to failed to take his degree,

rest and, incidentally, to listen to the preaching.

Something that the preacher said caught his attention, caused him to forget his failure, and he became interested in the gospel message. After the meeting was over Mr. Wang sat

and as the missionary, Mr. Leander W. Pilcher, was leaving the church, he said to Mr. still,

Wang, among other things, "I hope you will be among the saved."

"What Ch'en, the

mean?" asked Mr. Wang of gatekeeper, who was then assisting

does he

in chapel work.

Before Mr. Ch'en answered the question, the following conversation took place:

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

262

"What

"My

is

miserable

"Where "I

your honorable name, sir?"

An

"What

is

"Wang."

Province of Shantung, the

live in the

lage of

name

do you live!"

Chia, near Tai-an-fu."

your business, sir!" "I have no business at present, but

Peking

vil-

is

am

in

to attend the examinations."

"Are you

interested in Christianity?"

"Yes, I ain interested in understand

it.

What

does he

it;

but I do not

mean by saying

he hopes I will be among the saved?" Mr. Wang or, as he was always

1

called,

Teacher Wang, was of a delicate constitution, with much the appearance of one in the later stages of consumption; and without directly an-

swering his question, Mr. Ch'en asked,

"Would you

like to

know more about

this

doctrine?"

"Indeed I would," replied the scholar. Ch'en invited him to his home to drink tea

and

talk the matter over, introduced

him

to Dr.

Pilcher and the other missionaries, engaged in conversation, interested

of salvation, and Mr.

him

him

in the message

Wang was

soon anxious

like the Philippian jailer to learn the process

PRODUCTS AND BY-PRODUCTS by which a man past middle

life

263

might attain

that very desirable end.

Ch'en offered him a room in the mission com-

pound where he could

sleep,

as often as possible, gave

and other books preaching, put

him a New Testament

to read, took

him with others

taught him how

him

in a study class,

to

The mission

verted.

him a small salary chapel-keeper and give

offered

he would become their

his testimony in the street chapel

heard the gospel. this for

to

hear the

to

pray and what it meant to and in a short time Mr. Wang was con-

believe,

if

conversed with him

Mr.

Wang

a time; but he soon

where he

first

consented to do

he ought

felt that

proclaim his newly-found Savior to the mem-

own family and

bers of his

native village.

him a

and he

New

number

Testament and the Hym-

set out for Shantung.

When he him

mission, therefore, gave

cart-load of Christian tracts, a

of copies of the nal,

The

the people of his

arrived at

home Mrs. Wang asked

to tell about the trip.

He

did

so.

He

told

of the examination and of his failure to pass; of.

his dejected condition

when he went

street chapel; of the interest

shown

in

into the

him by

the boy Ch'en; of the kindness of those

whom

264

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

he had always been accustomed to think of as "foreign devils;" of the cleanliness of their

homes, their earnestness in their religious worship ; of their schools for boys and girls, their training-classes for

and their care of the

hospitals

way

men and women;

of their

sick; of the clear

in which they seemed to understand the

problems of eternity and what one must do to inherit eternal life problems which had always puzzled him.

That night, and every morning and evening thereafter, he gathered his family about him, as Ch'en ship.

had done

in Peking, for family wor-

All idols were banished from his home.

The worship of his ancestors, whose names he did not know but for a few generations back, was given up, or absorbed in the worship of the all. He told how they sang, how and they played musical instruments in

great Father of us

their worship at Peking.

He was

But he could not

sing.

too old to learn to sing; but he hoped

his children

would some time

learn.

singing he therefore read the

In lieu of

hymns; for the hymn book was almost as sacred to him as the Bible.

PRODUCTS AND BY-PRODUCTS

265

One day he was reading the hymn:

"Ye who seek the throne Do not delay" .

.

of grace

.

"Will you kindly read that again?" said Mrs. Wang.

Her husband did

She thanked him, and he read the remainder of the hymn. She did not so.

ask him to explain the meaning. she understood clear

But

it

was

It is

peculiar.

enough in English; but in Chinese

yao ch'ih yen" or

it.

She thought

may mean either "Do not delay"

"Do

not use tobacco."

Mrs.

Wang

woman not as

smoked. .Almost every Chinese I do not see

smokes.

much

not advise

"Pu

right to

my

why a woman has

smoke as a man. I would

lady readers to take advantage

of their privilege, but the Chinese accord the

same rights

to their

this matter.

"I

as to their

Wang had said to preach to my own

Mr.

will first

my relatives,

women

if

himself,

family and

is

my

neighbors,"

worthy of any man's practice.

What does your wife and children think religion?

in-

I can not induce them to believe

I can not expect to persuade

a principle that

men

They know you

better than

of your

any one

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

266

Do

else does;

peal to

they approve of

them?

It often

it?

5

They can preach

are.

they can practice. for his family.

When

type.

it

ap-

happens that preachers

succeed better where they are not

where they

Does

known than better than

Mr. Wang's life was a model Mrs. Wang was of the same

a thing was worth believing

it

was

worth practicing, and if it was worthy of practice it was worth preaching.

By a

simple process of reasoning

simple process

Mrs. Wang, in the light of this or misunderstood

hymn

as she understood

came

to the conclusion that if she

it,

could not go to heaven. that

a very

Now,

Mrs. Wang, who had never

it,

smoked she

is it

not queer

listened to

any the evils on railing" of tobacco, should without inquiry have acof the temperance people

"

cepted such a conclusion?

and she put away her began

pipe.

She

did,

however;

As her neighbors

to believe, through her husband's preach-

them what the hymn book said about smoking, and she got them to give up

ing, she told

their pipes;

and they had a bonfire of women's

pipes in the

little

village of

An

Chia

the first

temperance crusade, so far as I know, that was

begun by the Christians in China.

And may

I

PEODUCTS AND BY-PRODUCTS just here

267

remark that the great temperance

movement, as

it is

fully in

parts of the world,

many

being carried on so success-

another of

is

the by-products of the gospel of Jesus Christ.

Within a month Mr.

Wang had

induced his

family to accept the gospel, together with certain relatives

and neighbors, and then he began

going about the neighboring villages preaching

and

selling books.

One day he grown boy:

"My books

said to his son, a large, over-

will all be sold before I

another supply from Peking. eighteen names of those

You

who are

can get

take these

willing to join

the Church, go to Peking, and ask the missionaries to

come down and

my home

establish a church in

and bring back a wheel-barrow load

of books."

The boy did as he was self

one of the converts.

told.

He was

him-

He remained in Peking

for a few weeks studying in the training-school

;

and after securing a promise from the missionaries that they would visit his village he took his wheel-barrow load of books and returned home.

The missionaries soon

followed, baptized

some

of the converts, established the church in Mr.

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

268

Wang's home

after the style of the apostles in

the early days, and thus began the building of the Church in the shadow of Tai

the great

sacred mountain of the province.

Mr. about

Wang

preached for three years, going the villages within a radius of a score

all

of miles, often

To

all his

when he was

we ak

too

v

to do so.

wife's admonitions his only answer

was:

"I must work while will soon

it is

day.

The night

come when I can not work."

The night did come, though

it

was only the

beginning of a long, long day for Mr. Wang.

He preached

only as

many years

but where he preached there

is

as his Master,

now a

mission

a men's and a women's hospital, boys' and girls' schools, two presiding elders' disstation,

tricts,

with churches

all

over that part of the

province.

Mrs.

Wang

or

" Old Mother

has long been called acteristic

is

Wang," as

she

probably the most char-

woman that has been developed by the

Church in China. After the funeral of her hus-

band she

called her son Ch'eng-p'ei to her

and

said,

"I want you

to take

me

to Peking,

where I

PRODUCTS AND BY-PRODUCTS

269

can study in the training-school and take up your father's work."

Her son took her

to the capital,

where he

studied in the boys' school, while she entered the training-school, that they both might prepare

themselves for the work that the husband and father

had

laid down.

Shortly after she had begun her studies some

one called her attention to a Chinese character

and asked her what

it

was.

"I do not know," she answered. "Why, that is your own name," they

ex-

plained.

"And I

I began to understand

how

ignorant

was!" exclaimed Mrs. "Wang, as she

related

the incident.

But she

set herself to study,

and

it

was not

long until she was able to read the Gospel of

John with such out as a Bible to teach

facility that she

woman and

asked to be sent

for a time be allowed

what she knew. This she did for a time

and then returned

to her studies,

and after two

years she expressed herself as ready to return

home and take up her husband's work. They

left

nese cart

;

Peking, she and her son, in a Chi-

but they had not gone far when the

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

270

cart upset, the old

and did not want

woman became

frightened,

to get in the cart again.

The

boy dismissed the cart, hired a wheel-barrow, put his mother on one side, their bedding and clothing on the other, and wheeled her four hun-

dred miles to her home, in order that she might take up the work that her husband had laid down. It takes heroes to

and

it

tasks,

requires heroines to bear such heroes.

But both Mrs. answer

perform that kind of

Wang

and her son Ch'eng-p'ei

to that description as the sequel to the

tale will show.

For forty years Mrs. Wang pur-

sued her labors, going about the villages on a wheel-barrow loaded with books, over which a great umbrella was spread.

when

There were times

the people jeered at her and told her she

Her only answer to such was, "You knew my husband, did you not?" "Yes, I knew your husband." "He was a scholar, wasn't he?"

was

crazy.

"Yes; quite right; he was a scholar." "You would not think he was crazy, would

you!"

"No

one would dare to think him crazy,"

they admitted.

PRODUCTS AND BY-PRODUCTS "Yet he preached

this

271

same doctrine that

I ain trying to preach," she concluded; and this usually ended the discussion.

Wang" was

When

eighty years old she

from Shantung

to

Peking in a

' '

old

made

Mother the trip

cart, in spite

of her fear of that vehicle, in order to ask Mrs.

Headland

to take

her into the palace to preach

to the

empress dowager, "because," she said, and her hands and her voice trembled, "because I

am

so old

it

seems to

ability that the 'Old listen to the gospel

it

me

that there

Buddha'

from

my

will

is

a prob-

be willing to

lips."

In spite of her age and her anxiety, however, was impossible to get her into the palace, as

no Chinese woman has ever been admitted within the walls of the sacred Forbidden City

Manchu dynasty took the throne, in 1644, if we except the empress dowager's painting teacher, who before she was adsince the present-

mitted was forced to unbind her

Manchu

feet,

-

don a

garb, and dress her hair in the fashion

of the court.

Some

thirty years ago Miss Clara

went from Massachusetts to devote

her

life to

Cushman

to China, intending

the uplifting of the Chinese

woman. Her father and mother, however, were

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS and twenty years ago she was compelled to return and care for them until they both went

old,

to their reward.

The Woman's Foreign Mis-

sionary Society then asked her to return to

Before

China.

starting

she

"Old

cabled

Mother Wang:" "Don't go to heaven till I come. I want to see you again. " " Old Mother

Wang"

waited, and the next picture that

from the field was the American heroine

came

of fifty-

six sitting at the feet of the old Chinese heroine

of eighty-four.

Then Mrs. Wang went peace-

fully to heaven.

Wang

Ch'eng-p'ei became our second or-

dained preacher in the North China Conference.

In 1893 he was stationed at Lan Chou, when Bev. J. H. Pyke; visited his Church for the purpose of holding revival services.

Dr. Pyke

preached night after night without being able to move the people. One night, after he had finished his address, he asked for testimonies, confessions, or prayer.

Wang

Ch'eng-p'ei's

wanted

No one moved. little

Finally

boy arose and said he

to confess his sins.

When

leader what sins he had, he said

asked by the

:

"Yesterday I was playing with my little sister. She was tao ch'i (mischievous), and I

PRODUCTS AND BY-PRODUCTS That

slapped her.

me I

in the

was

I have

me

I could not get back before dark,

to the store.

was

my first great sin.

Last week grandmother sent

another, also.

and I

is

273

afraid.

I

knew Jesus could

dark as well as in the

afraid.

I did not trust

The confession of this

light,

protect

but

still

Him."

child started a revival

service unlike

any that had ever been known in

North China.

Old men steeped in wickedness

confessed their sins and begged for forgiveness,

and there was started here, as a result of the confession of this child, a revival that overspread schools,

North China, going through the colleges, and theological seminaries as

all

At

well as the Churches.

this

meeting the

chil-

dren became very happy, and the next day, while they were playing in the sand, Dr. Pyke heard

one of them exclaim,

"Oh, I

am

just as

happy as though I had a

double handful of cash!"

" I am

just as

happy as though I had a double

handful of silver," said his scooped up his hands

full of

run down between his bare

At the time 1900,

Wan

18

little

brother, as he

sand and

let it

feet.

of the Boxer insurrection, in

Ch'eng-p'ei was attending Confer-

274

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

ence in Peking.

I think I ought to digress

enough just here to give an account of the cause of the Boxer trouble. It was not a by-product of missions, as has so often been supposed, but

a direct product of the avarice and aggressions of the

European governments. In the spring of 1898 there were two Boman

Catholic priests murdered

by the Chinese in Shantung. They were German subjects, and as the German Emperor had long been anxious to start the division of China

he made

He

a pretext.

this

among

the powers,

sent his fleet into

Chinese waters and ordered them to make the

mailed

fist

a terror in the Orient.

They compelled

They

did.

the Chinese to

demnity to the families

pay a heavy inof these two priests and and houses destroyed. people take life and de-

to rebuild the churches

That was

all right.

If

stroy property they should help to support those

and restore the property. And that was enough. But it was not enough for the

who are

left,

German Emperor. Chiao with

fifty

He

took the port of Kiao

miles of territory around

it,

and

compelled the Chinese Government to promise to allow

him

to

open

all

the mines and build

the railroads within the province.

This

all

made

PRODUCTS AND BY-PRODUCTS the governor (Yii Hsien) angry, and lished the

Big Knife

lie

275 estab-

Society, of which his

own

son was a member, determined ultimately to

When we

drive every foreigner ont of China.

remember that the German minister was the only one massacred, and that his death was de-

was accomplished for it was published in the New York Sun four

termined npon long before

it

we may

days before

it

that

the true explanation of the Boxer

this is

movement.

happened

rely

upon

But Germany was not the

it

sole

cause.

When Russia heard that Germany had taken " a port and a sphere of influence'* in the Province of Shantung, she

Port

demanded and took both

Arthur and Dalne, without any cause

on the part of the Chinese whatever. also without cause, took Wei-hai-wei. in the

England,

France

same way took Kuang-Chou-wan, and

Italy tried to take San-men.

This

all

occurred

was issuing his reform edicts and not the missionaries, was

while the emperor of 1898,

and

this,

the cause of the

Boxer

uprising.

Wang Ch'eng-p'ei, as we have indicated, was attending Conference in Peking when the Boxers

reached that city.

Before the Conference closed,

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

276

in spite of the watchfulness of the missionaries

as well as the native Christians, the railroad was

was impossible for either the missionaries from other stations or the native destroyed, and

it

preachers from other parts of the province to

Some may condemn careless. To those thus inclined let me say that as brilliant a man as W. A. P. Martin, who had been in China for

return to their homes.

them as shortsighted and

fifty

years and was then president and founder

of the Imperial Peking University, remained in his

own home

until,

when he was on

the British Legation, whence he safety, his cart

was

and mule were

his

way

to

fleeing for

forcibly taken

from him by the Boxers, and he was compelled to complete his journey afoot. And Sir Eobert Hart, that marvelous statesman, diplomat, and inspector general of the Imperial Maritime Cus-

toms Service, who had also been in China for half a century, and had manipulated more treaties for the Chinese

Government than any

other person, when he entered the British Legation and was asked what of his property he

had saved, answered, "Only the

clothes I have

on."

We

can not blame the missionaries, there-

fore, for

having been taken by surprise.

Wang

PRODUCTS AND BY-PRODUCTS Ch'eng-p'ei was tians

made

the leader of 'the Chris-

who were organized

into troops to defend

the mission against the Boxers. sionaries

were asked

277

to

"When the mis-

go to the legation, they

refused to go unless they could take the students of the university and the girls school, together to

'

high

with such Christians as cared

go with them.

This was at

first

refused, but

few moments thereafter sanctioned, and they were allowed to occupy Prince Su's palace Here across the canal from the legation.

in a

Ch'eng-p'ei was also leader of the Christian defenders of the palace.

On one

occasion the Boxers got close up to

the walls of the palace and attempted to

kill

the

prisoners with bricks, stones, and clubs, while others were on housetops not far away, ready

down any one who appeared in deof the imprisoned women and girls.

to shoot

fense

Ch'eng-p'ei saw that a sortie must be made,

and so he called

" Who

to his

companions:

me and help to

drive

away

these Boxers and save our women and

chil-

will follow

dren?" ''You lead, and

we will

follow," answered a

Congregational Christian who was also a leader.

"A

good brother!" exclaimed Ch'eng-p'ei,

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

278

and

-with

a flourish of his sword he rushed forth

at the

head of a band of brave Christian

diers.

A Boxer bullet

and he

away

!

"Go

fell.

" he

on,

had

fallen,

their

my

him

in the chest,

brothers, drive

them

Then they with other brave ones who

exclaimed.

carried Ch'eng-p'ei,

struck

sol-

They did

so.

over to the British Legation, where

wounds were as

carefully dressed

by the

physicians and they were as tenderly nursed

by the brave missionary

girls

and women as the

foreigners; but Ch'eng-p'ei's life went out in

name was added to brave martyrs who laid down

a very few hours, and his the long

list

of

their lives rather than give

up

their faith.

A

good product among the many by-products of missions in China.

CHAPTER XIX BY-PRODUCTS IN EXPLORATION AND DISCOVERY Jesus Christ was preaching to His disciples in

Judea and Galilee the world was a

was unknown and unexplored. It had two centers and two seats of civilization, mystery.

It

as indicated by their names the Mediterranean, :

the

center

and seat of the

civilization

of

Europe, Asia, and Africa; and Chung Kuo, the " Middle Country" China the center and seat of the civilization of the

Mongol people of

Eastern Asia. Between these, in the real center of the undiscovered world, lay India, to and

from which the

traffic,

the trade, and the trav-

elers of both the other civilizations

stantly going

and coming.

Each of these

centers

lished its educational

The eastern

were con-

and

had already

estab-

religious systems.

consisted of a kind of speculative

philosophy dealing with man, things, law, government, morals, and life; while the western 279

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

280

undertook to discover God,

sin, eternity,

man

in

Ms

worked independent of the other of his existence.

relation to

Each

and death.

of

them

ignorant even

Confucius in China and Py-

thagoras in Greece (500 B. C.) were struggling

with the same problems at the same time and

answering them in the same general way. Aris-

and Chuangtzu, likewise in China and Greece, and likewise ignorant of each other, as

totle

name

of

Chuangtzu, even in the twentieth century,

is

are most of their successors, for the

omitted from our encyclopedias, while most of

my

readers have never heard his name, were

working on the same great problems with the

same 'masterly

intellects.

Isn't

it

pitiable that

a writer in an encyclopedia of the twentieth century should be allowed to say, "In his eighk eenth year (367 B. C.) Aristotle left Stagiera for Athens, then the intellectual center of Greece

and of the

9

civilised

civilizations of equal

world/

when two other

growth were developed in

the adjoining continent!

These three centers of its

own separate

civilization each

religions: China

had

had Taoism

and Confucianism, neither of which have been 'distinctly missionary systems; for they have

EXPLORATION AND DISCOVERY made

little effort to

281

propagate themselves by

the sending out of missionary representatives

or religious teachers.

India had

Brahmanism

and Buddhism, the former not missionary, while the latter left

gated

itself

Greece,

its

birthplace and propa-

throughout the Oriental world.

Rome, Scandinavia, and indeed

Europe, gave up their native systems

all

of

a strong

argument against those who say that a civilized people will never abandon their native religions for an alien system

and adopted

that of the

Jewish Nazarene. In order to get this clearly before our minds, for we want to be honest in our analysis, let us

admit that these three systems of

civilization

developed three distinct lines of thinking.

The

East was dominated by the thinking of Confucius, which was man's relation to* man in

human government, and

it

has developed the

two oldest systems of government the world has to-day. "While they have a system of worship connected with it is

it

the-

worship of ancestors

not a religious, but only a moral system.

has developed a people who have done nothing toward the discovery of Grod, and little to-

It

ward

the discovery of the world and of things.

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS The Hindoo system was dominated by Brahmanism and developed a great religio-socialistic system, the head of which

had their Menu

to

was the priest. They

draw np

rules of

government

just as the Chinese had their Confucius>, and the

Greeks their Plato but his code of laws did not ;

dominate the thinking of the Hindoo people as Confucius did that of the Chinese.

The

priest

took the place in the social system of the Hin-

doos that the government

official

took in that

of the Chinese, and hence turned the thinking of the people to a contemplation of universal laws, universal principles

the universal.

undertook to think out God, salvation

;

They

infinity, eternity,

and they have sat in mystic contemhave thought themselves out

plation until they

to the border of the universe

and have arrived

everywhere, anywhere, nowhere, unless

it

be in

and universal nothingness. They did not develop a government that would

abstract

infinity

stand the test of time, neither did they get a

grasp of things that would enable them to provide for their people.

One could almost imagine

that the above de-

scription referred to the Jew, except for three

things: the

Jew gave no

place to caste, no place

EXPLORATION AND DISCOVERY and had an

to idols,

value of things his one God,

;

was

infinite conception of the

and hence he kept left

283

fast hold of

without a government, hut

with a fair share of the wealth of the world within his coffers.

Now

let

civilization.

was

us turn to the European type of

As

to think in

the disposition of the Hindoo

terms of the universal, that of

European was to think in terms of the particular. The former was telescopic, without the

the

ability to

make a

telescope; the latter

roscopic, with the ability to

was mic-

make both a

tele-

scope and a microscope, but without the disposition to

thinb in terms of the universal, but

always anxious to divide, dissect, analyze, and classify the universal in terms of the particular.

Hence he was never able

to

make a

was worth propagating, for

religion that

religion deals with

the universal; but he began to

make

all

kinds

of science, for science deals with the particular.

But

to

make

science and discover and under*

stand things he must have schools. given him by his priests,

These were

who were always

in

the beiginnmg missionaries from some country

had already accepted the gospel. Let us admit that these colleges and universities were that

284

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS \

modeled after the

and Plato

at

style of those of Isocrates

Athens and the museums at Alex-

we are told by "Chamber's En-

andria; but "the university," the author of that article in

cyclopedia,"

is,

however, usually considered to

have originated in the twelfth or thirteenth centuries,

and

to

have grown out of the schools

which, prior to that period, were attached to

most of the cathedrals and monasteries, providing the means of education both to churchmen

and laymen and bringing together the few learned and scientific men who were to be found Such an

in Europe.

learning generate.

was

institute of the higher

at first called

When

studium or studium

a teacher of eminence ap-

peared, such as Abelard, or Peter Lombard, or

Imerius at Bologna, a concourse of admiring students flocked round him, and the members of the studium generate formed themselves, for

mutual support, into a corporation, on which the general name of universitas came to be bestowed.

In

this

way

the oldest universities

arose spontaneously.

"The crowds drawn from every country Europe

to Paris, Bologna,

tional resorts,

had

of

and other educa-

first local

immunities be-

EXPLORATION AND DISCOVERY

285

stowed on them for the encouragement of learn-

them from removing elsewhere and the academical societies thus formed ing,

and

to prevent

;

were by papal bills and royal charters constituted an integral part of the Church and State.

"One

great difference existed between the

constitution of the two sities

most important univerIn Paris the teachers

of early times.

alone constituted the corporation; in Bologna the university

who

consisted

of

the

students

or

at first held the

supreme power and appointed the academic officials. In this respect Bologna became the model of the subsescholars,

quent universities of Italy and the provincial universities of France,

which were corporations

of students; while the universities of Britain,

Germany, Holland,, and Scandinavia were like Pa,ris, corporations of teachers, and the Spanish universities occupied

an intermediate po-

Along with a general resemblance, there was much difference in the constitution and sition.

character the

of"

the pre-Beformation universities,

fonn of each being the

result of a combina-

tion of various circumstances

and ideas acting

on an originally spontaneous convocation of teachers and scholars."

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

86

Now,

any one

if

disposed to question the

is

origin of the whole university system of

and America,

let him.

Europe

look up the history of each

John Harvard was a preacher. " Yale was founded under the trusteeship of

institution.

the

of

ten principal Connecticut.

ministers

Princeton

of the colony" is

Presbyterian;

Brown, Baptist; Wesley an, Methodist; Amherst, Congregational. But it is useless to enumerate the

list.

We

have given enough to

in-

Church sent the missionaries, the missionaries established monasteries and

dicate that the

nunneries, and these in the pre-Eeformation

period developed into

and

the

schools,

colleges,

universities, until the post-Eef ormation pe-

riod,

when the Churches began and

to establish col-

and help to build up a Christian government, which opened State universities and a public school system so that all

leges

universities

;

our educational regime

is

a by-product of mis-

sions.

Now

let

us go back to the fifteenth century

and take a view of the map of the world. Asia was a mystery. Africa was an unknown country.

The Atlantic was the bugaboo

of the world,

though Europe, the last of the three conti-

EXPLOEATION AND DISCOVERY nents to awake, was beginning to wonder.

wanted

to

She began

know.

She

to dig in the earth

and read the history of past ages.

She began

to question the heavens and doubt the decisions

She began to want to see farther She began to doubt that the space.

of Ptolemy.

out into

earth was

She began

flat

and

to believe that it

whether on

to question

was round. would

fall

he got too near the edge. She believed that it would be possible to sail around the off if

world, and doubted that

around one side

if

one went down

would be impossible to get Her thought was in a ferment. it

up the other. She wanted to know.

But we

call attention to

was the people who had been developed by the schools that had been estab-

the fact that

it

by the Church, carried first by the missionaries, that wanted to know.

lished

To know, they must

go.

Bartolommeo Diaz,

venturing farther upon the South Atlantic than any others before his time, finally rounded the

Cape of Good Hope, though unaware of the fact, and took possession of ports of the coast of Africa in the 1485-6.

name

of his king, about the year

In 1497 Vasco da Gama, also of Portu-

gal, fitted out

a

fleet

of four vessels,

manned

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

288

by one hundred and sixty men, determined to find a southern route to India. Taking Diaz with him as an under officer, they left Lisbon on the 8th of July, 1497, and after encountering

Gape of Good Hope

fearful storms, doubled the

the 19th of November, and after touching

many

places on the east coast of Africa, reached Cali-

cut in India on the 20th of Kay, 1498.

In the meantime Columbus had been braving the storms of the Atlantic in an effort to discover a passage to India by sailing directly west, instead of which he

made

the greatest dis-

covery the world had reserved, so familiar to every American school boy that

it is

unneces-

sary to record here what happened in 1492.

What Columbus

failed to do, however,

served for Fernando de Magellan,

on September five ships

struck the coast

of

20, 1519,

of the

Patagonia,

who

re-

sailed

from San Lucar with

and two hundred and

mouth

was

La

men, rounded the Plata, thirty-six

discovered

and

sailed

through the Strait of Magellan, and reached the Philippine Islands, where he lost his life in a fight with the chief

on the 26th of April, 1521.

His companions continued their voyage, reaching Spain on September 6 1522, thus complet?

EXPLORATION AND DISCOVERY ing the

first

289

voyage ever made around the

world.

would be interesting

It

who

Drake,

to follow Captain

lost his life in his discovery of the

Sandwich Islands as did Magellan in the Philippines. It would be equally interesting to follow the Cabots, and Boss, and Cook, and Wiley, and hosts of other naval officers who rank the explorers, all from countries devel-

among

oped by the gospel, in vessels made by gospeldeveloped men, often discovering and revealing to the

world! islands in the Pacific Ocean with

missionaries already upon them.

We

do not

many of these discoveries were made by men who were far more interoverlook the fact that

ested in discovering a passage to India for pur-

poses of trade; and hence the

man who

is

writ-

ing the history of the development of trade could reasonably claim that these discoveries

are the results of the merchants rather than the missionaries.

But a long view of the growth

of trade will reveal the fact that these traders

themselves are the result of a Christian rather than a pagan system of civilization, and hence, in a last analysis, are the result of the

of the missionaries. 19

work

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

290

My

friend Oscar Huddleston, of the Philip-

and handsome man, with a very large suit-case, and I were compelled

pines, a very large

a hack early one morning at Summer-

to take field,

Kan., while on laymen's missionary work,

motor car some seven miles

to catch a

I had two suit-cases of

my

own.

insurance agent also in the hack, and difficulty in storing

distant.

There was an

we had

our luggage between the

seats.

"Pity that the cannihals hadn't eaten the

missionaries,"

the

insurance

agent

all

re-

marked.

"In that case you would have heen out of business," I answered.

"What do you mean?" he "Why, a world without a

asked.

gospel means a

world without insurance companies. Life and property are not protected where paganism ' '

reigns.

"Oh!

I guess the white

man would have

developed insurance companies,

all

right," he

continued.

"The

white

man

never worked in that

di-

rection before he got the gospel," I answered.

"Look up

the early history of Europe."

EXPLORATION AND DISCOVERY "Well, I would have run the risk," he replied.

"Your

business

much

take too

induce people not to

is to

risk, isn't it?" I asked.

"Sure," he replied. ' *

Then, are you quite reasonable in this mat-

ter?" I asked.

"Well, I

'd

run the risk on the cannibals

and the missionaries," he believe

much

in missions,

replied.

"I don't

anyhow."

"Well, you do believe in government, do n't

you?" "Yes."

"And

in education!"

"Yes."

"And

in trade?"

"Yes." "Well, you just look to give

him the contents

and three of

this book,

"My

until I

I went on

of chapters one, two,

which made him want

to discuss other subjects.

him do so

up" and

But I refused

gave him

to let

this parting shot

friend, if the missionaries

carried the gospel to your ancestors

:

had never and mine,

instead of our riding in a spring carriage in

Kansas, America might have remained a wil-

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OP MISSIONS derness until this day, and you and I might

have been squatting on our haunches gnawing a breakfast bone after the style of our unevangelized ancestors of

Europe."

"We then talked of other things until we reached the railroad station; but as we had

been good-natured* throughout the discussion,

me

he came to

after

we

me

he sat down beside

"Say, you are the I ever met." * *

entered the car, and as

he

said,

best-fortified missionary

Perhaps your experience has n 't been very

extensive."

"Well," he continued, "the difference between you and me is that you believe in inspiration and conversion and I do not."

"Then you have

not been converted?" I re-

marked, interrogatively.

"Not much," he

replied.

"Well, I have," I answered.

"You

think you have," he continued.

"I know

"How

I have," I insisted.

do you know you have?" he asked.

"Let me explain answered.

"You

in a round-about

will

way," I

admit that the brain

is

the highest type of physical creation, won't

you?

EXPLORATION AND DISCOVERY "Yes."

29$

-

"Well, you will also admit that connected with the brain in some mysterious is

a thinking

way

there

man?"

"Yes."

"And

that reason

state of the

is

the highest faculty (or

mind) of this thinker!"

"Yes."

"And

that

it is

this reason that enables us

a problem in mathematics ?"

to solve

"Yes." ' '

Now, if your reason was not developed, if had not exercised your reason, you could you not solve mathematical problems'?"

"Yes."

"You

admit also that thinking relates

will

us only with things, won't

you?"

"Yes." "Will you admit also that above thinking man we have another man, which we call the moral

man?"

"Surely." "Well, will you allow that that moral

man

has a conscience?"

"Most assuredly."

"Do you

think that conscience

may

be de-

294

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

veloped by exercise or dwarfed by lack of exercise?"

"It certainly can."

"Then

it is

just as

much

a faculty (or state

of mind) as reason, isn't it!"

"I hadn't thought

moral

man

it

it

in that

way," he

'11

admit

it."

holds the

same

relation to the

replied; "but, yes, I

"Then

of

as reason does to the thinking man.

It is the highest faculty."

"Looking at it that way, yes." "But the moral man relates us

our

to

low-men," I went on, "just as the thinking relates us to things."

"So

it

"Now,

fel-

man

seems."

you take another step and

will

.ad-

mit that, besides having a thinking department

and a moral department, we also have a ligious

department

"Some

"Do know

to the

re-

mind?"

people have," he admitted.

not

all

peoples?" I asked.

of a people without

or worship?

I do not

"Do you

some form of

mean a

religion

person, but a

people."

"Yes,

all peoples, so

some form of religion."

far as I know, have

EXPLORATION AND DISCOVERY "Well, will you admit that faith religious

man what

man and

reason to the thinking

conscience

295

is to

the

is to

the moral

man

the high-

est state of the religious mind, or the highest

faculty?"

"Yes, I suppose so." ' *

Then

may be

faith

"I suppose "But faith

' '

developed.

so." links us to

God

just as reason

links us to things."

"Yes, I presume so."

"Then is to

the

way

set faith' to

to solve religious

work on them,

problems

just as

we

solve

mathematical problems by setting reason to

work on them."

"So

it

"Now,

would seem." if

I had never studied mathematics

would you have much respect for on geometry or trigonometry?"

my

opinions

"Not much." "Well, that

is

just

how I

feel

about your

opinions on religion and conversion."

"Say, old man, you've got me," he admitted. "I can't talk with you on theology." "Well, I think I could pay you the same

compliment on insurance,

And, franWy, I

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

296

would not try to. I never try to pose as an authority on a subject that I do not know much about." And I parted from the man with a cordial handshake on his part as well as mine,

and a

bit wiser, I hope,

on both missions and

religion.

Let us turn, now, to the exploration of Africa during the nineteenth century. the time of

Pharaoh Necho, about

six

From

hundred

years before the Christian era, who, as Herodotus tells us, sent an expedition Sea, with orders to sail around

down

the Bed,

what was then

considered an island, and which they succeeded in doing within the space of three years, until

the beginning of the nineteenth century Africa

was a closed

Something was learned of the shores both east and west, but little was

known

continent.

of the central plateau.

"The

discovery of diamond fields and coal

mines in the Transvaal Bepublic," says Bayard Taylor, "and of a gold region to the north of

Limpopo, promises to change the character of the country in a very short time.

new

Indeed, these

sources of wealth 'have already given a

fresh importance to

South Africa and

will

hasten the complete exploration of the regions

EXPLORATION AND DISCOVERY first

297

penetrated by Moffat, Anderson, and Liv-

ingstone."

In a later chapter Bayard Taylor goes on to say: "The Protestant missionaries were really the

first

explorers of South Africa, and to com-

prehend how much those missionaries dared, in their zeal for the conversion of the native tribes,

we must remember how

the hostility between

the Dutch Boers and the Hottentots, especially the

Namaquas and Bushmen, had been

firmed by generations of warfare.

It

con-

was a

and the suspicion which engendered could 'only be overcome by slow

settled, chronic enmity, it

degrees."

Mr. Taylor goes on to rehearse in a book of " Lithree hundred and eleven pages, in the brary of Travel," the history of the opening up of South Africa, two hundred and fifty pages of

which are culled from the writings of these three missionaries and their travels, and says:

"The

patience, zeal,

and integrity of the Scotch

character was admirably adapted to this ardu-

ous work, and in the annals of missionary enter-

no more deserving names than those of Campbell, Moffat, and Livingstone." prise there are

In

Ms work on

Central Africa, after review-

298

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

ing the explorations of the ancients as recorded

by Herodotus and Eretosthenes, and the further explorations of the Portuguese during the eighteenth, century,

specially the Portuguese

traveler Lacerda, he tells us that

"two German

missionaries,

Krapp and Bebmann, who were

stationed at

Mombas, on

the Zanzibar coast,

learned, through their intercourse with the natives, of the existence of

high mountains, cov-

ered with snow, in the interior and in the year ;

1850 [six years before Captain Burton, the

first

of the explorers of Central Africa, started on his expedition] the

former succeeded in pene-

trating far enough to attain a distant view of

the great peak of Kilimandjaro, the height of

which has since been estimated at twenty thousand feet above the sea. Although Dr. Krapp, in subsequent journeys, did not reach the

moun-

tain range, he established its existence, with

the fact that the peaks of Kilimanjaro and Kenia rose above the limit of perpetual snow.

He

also brought reports of a large lake beyond the

mountains, and waters flowing northward, which

he conjectured to be the sources of the Nile."

"By ' '

1810,

glancing at the

says Dr. Barton,

' '

map

of the world in

as printed in the story

EXPLORATION AND DISCOVERY

299

American Board, we see that when this board was organized all the interior of Africa of the

and Australia

is

understood that

known with

marked as unexplored. It is practically nothing was then

certainty about the interiors of

China and Japan."

It is true that

Marco Polo

has given us his travels of the thirteenth cen-

though it was these travels that inspired Vasca da Gama and Columbus to undertury, but,

take to discover other easier passages to the Indies, the story itself

most of

pa.rt

pure

Abbe Hue

fiction.

was regarded as for the It was not until the time

notwithstanding the travels

Church

'of

Roman

Xavier and the other fathers of the

that a reliable record of the interior

of China, Tibet,

and Mongolia was given to

Europe.

Now, it would have to be admitted by a writer on explorations that the discovery of the world was largely directly due to the inordinate desire for wealth and trade on the part of the explorers.

But when we come

these traders

were we find them

to inquire all

who

coming from

the Christian countries of Europe, and

forced to the conclusion that trade

is

we are

a result

of the intelligence developed by the schools

800

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

which were established by the Church, and that these explorations were but an indirect product of this same intelligence.

But now come

to the

more

direct testimony,

and without hesitation we assert that the

his-

tory of the exploration of Southern and Central

Africa can not be written without the credit 1

be^-

ing given most largely to Moffat, Anderson,

Campbell, Livingstone, Krapp, and Bebmann.

When we

turn to China

we go

at once to

Hue

and the other early Jesuit and Lazarist

fathers,

while for a detailed study of the empire

we must

go to the records and reports of the various mission stations that are scattered throughout the country.

CHAPTER XX BY-PEODUCTS IN LANGUAGE AND LITEEATUBE AT

the beginning of the nineteenth century

tle

effort

had been made

lit-

to reduce the lan-

guages of the less-favored peoples to writing, and of course nothing had been done toward giving them a literature.

The business

of the

missionary was to preach the gospel, but this

he could not do until he had

first

learned their

language or taught them his own.

Merchants,

travelers, and explorers had sometimes preceded him, but they were interested, for the

most part, only in learning enough of the

lan-

guage of the natives to serve the purposes of travel or trade, and one of the most interesting productions of trade throughout the world is the jargon that has been produced

by

the com-

bination of the languages of the traders.

At the head

of all these jargons stands "pid-

7

gin English,' the combination of the two greatest business languages of the world, for I think it

will

be readily admitted that there are no two 301

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

302

peoples in the world

who can

surpass the Eng-

lishman and the Chinese as traders.

What hap-

when they came together?

pened, now,

Englishman could not

talk Chinese,

The

nor could

the Chinese speak English, and they were both too anxious to barter translate

when

and

learn.

and earn

to take time to

Am I saying too much also

I add that in most cases they were not

of such caliber that the making of a

grammar They make money, and not to make

or a dictionary was an easy matter?

were there *

to

books.

Englishman was the stronger of the two, had ferreted out the paths of the sea, and As- the

come a long

man

distance, he compelled the China-

to take the

men

heavy end of the

job, as all su-

making him learn the English words, while he consented to speak them after " the Chinese idiom. For that is what

perior

do,

pidgin

English"

is

English spoken according to the

Chinese idiom, for business (pidgin) purposes; and, as Dr. Barton has well said,

"

'Pidgin Eng-

seems quite good enough for their uses, and in fact is one of the mercantile contribu-

lish'

tions to the philological

Nor

will the

museum

of the world."

Chinese accustomed to this jargon

LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE

303

understand a word you say so long as you talk

good English. I

remember on

my way to China, at the hotel

which we were stopping, one of the ladies wanted to give her children a bath before putat

ting all

them

She

to bed.

called the

"boy," as

servants are called in China,, no matter

may be, and said to him, Get me some hot water, I want

how

old they ' '

children

a'

bath.

to give the

' '

The boy looked dazed, but did not go. The lady repeated her order in a bit higher tone.

The "boy" looked about him with an anxious, if not frightened, look, for

his place if

he might lose

he could not understand his orders,

but did not move.

Again the lady gave her order, with perhaps just the least little bit of petulance; but the

boy

did not move.

Just then her husband, quiet gentleman,

who was a suave and

and who had traveled in

countries and could

all

make himself understood

in all languages, entered the room.

"Papa,"

said his wife,

a stupid 'boy' as this one

"I never saw such is.

I have told

him

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

304

again and again to get

me some

hot water, so

that I can give the children a bath; but he

doesn't seem to understand a word I say."

The husband turned

quietly to the

boy and

said in an even tone,

"Catchee one piecee bath, chop, chop;" and the "boy" went off like a shot from a gun.

But the Chinaman does not have a high gard for the

man who

talks

re-

"pidgin English"

to him.

For years the East India and other companies had been trading with China, but it was not until Eobert Morrison went out, in 1807, that a dictionary of the Chinese language

made

that they could use.

was

"When Dr. Morrison

was impossible for him to enter China he became the translator for the East India

found

it

whose employ he remained for many years, putting both the Old and the New Testament into Chinese.

Company,

in

But Dr. Morrison's work was only a beginning, and the world is inclined to overestimate the

work of these beginners, as compared with

their successors, because of the interest that al-

ways attaches liams

to first things.

made a very much

Dr. S. Wells Wil-

better dictionary

and

LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE

305

prepared a book, "The Middle Kingdom," which has revealed China to the English-speaking peoples, while Dr. James Legge performed the herculean task of putting all the Chinese classics into English, thus giving us, in

language, the best products of

erary work.

all

our own

Chinese

lit-

These, with the works of Chal-

mers, Edkins, Martin, Smith, and other missionaries,

have given us a reasonably clear idea of

the philological, sociological, political, and literary character of the Chinese people. While

for studying the language, it will be admitted that Mateer has given us the best of all helps.

."How much

the world owes to the philo-

logical achievements of the missionaries," says

Dr. Barton, "could hardly be recorded in a single volume, even of large proportions.

have made a far greater contribution subject than all other students

They to this

of language

combined.

"Commissioner Sir H. H. Johnston, of British Central Africa, emphasizes the huge

debt that philologists owe to the labors of missionaries in Africa.

He reports

that nearly two

hundred African languages and dialects have been illustrated by grammars, dictionaries, vo20

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OP MISSIONS

306

and Bible translations that many of these tongues were on the point of extinction,

cabularies,

;

and some have

we owe

all

since

become

the knowledge

extinct;

we have

and that

of

them

to

the intervention of the missionaries.. * '

When we turn to the Pacific Islands we find

that our knowledge of the

spoken there

is

due almost,

the missionaries.

many languages if

not wholly, to

As we go over

the.

groups,

the Sandwich Islands, Ponape, the Mortlocks,

the Marshall and Gilbert Islands, as well as the

more remote, the Fiji, the New Hebrides, and the Solomon Islands, we can not but be impressed with the value of the missionaries' contribution to the world's knowledge

by

their

discovery of the languages spoken by these peoples and the embodying of the same in an

seems but yesterday that Dr. Hiram Binghain was with us, who, together orderly literature.

It

with Mrs. Bingham, gave to the Gilbert Islanders their

own

tongue, with a

grammar and

dic-

hymns, a New Testament, a Bible dictionary, and other books.

tionary,

is

embodying

it

in

"Starting with "William Carey in India, who credited with translating the Bible in whole

or in part into twenty-four Indian languages

LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE and

307

dialects, until the present time, the mission-

aries

have been searching out the unknown

tongues spoken by that great polyglo.t people in order to put them in permanent form as the channel through which Christian truth

may

be

conveyed.

"In a word, wherever missionaries have gone they have been students of the vernacular before they were preachers of the gospel and ;

they have been architects of grammars, vocabularies, and lexicons, and creators of a Christian literature in the

form of Bible translations

be-

fore they erected churches.

"If missionaries had not done

who would have undertaken

it?

this

work,

It could

not

have been expected that independent students of philology would .have been content to bury themselves for a lifetime in the center of Africa

or upon an island in the midst of the Pacific or in the interior of China,, simply for the pur-

pose of giving to the world a correct knowledge of the vernacular spoken by the people in those different

regions.

The

1

sacrifice

demanded

would have been too great for the promised reward. No one would expect that the merchants

who touched but

the fringes of the great East-

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

306

and Bible translations that many of these tongues were on the point of extinction,

eabularies,

;

and some have

we owe

all

since

become

the knowledge

extinct;

we have

and that

of

them

to

the intervention of the missionaries.. * '

When we turn to the Pacific Islands we find

that our knowledge of the

spoken there

is

many

due almost,

the missionaries.

if

languages

not wholly, to

As we go over

the.

groups,

Sandwich Islands, Ponape, the Mortlocks, the Marshall and Gilbert Islands, as well as the

the

more remote, the Fiji, the New Hebrides, and the Solomon Islands, we can not but be impressed with the value of the missionaries' contribution to the world's knowledge

by

their

discovery of the languages spoken by these

peoples and the embodying of the same in an orderly literature.

Dr.

It

seems but yesterday that

Hiram Bingham was with

us,

who, together

with Mrs. Bingham, gave to the Gilbert Islanders their

own

tongue, with a

grammar and

dic-

hymns, a New Testament, a Bible dictionary, and otheir books. tionary,

embodying

it

in

"Starting with "William Carey in India, who is

credited with translating the Bible in whole

or in part into twenty-four Indian languages

LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE and

307

dialects, until the present time, the mission-

aries

have been searching out the unknown

tongues spoken by that great polyglot people in order to put them in permanent form as the channel through which Christian truth

may

be

conveyed.

"In a word, wherever missionaries have gone they have been students of the vernacular before they were preachers of the gospel and ;

they have been architects of grammars, vocabularies, and lexicons, and creators of a Christian literature in the

form of Bible translations

be-

fore they erected churches.

"If missionaries had not done

who would have undertaken

it?

this

work,

It could not

have been expected that independent students of philology would .have been content to bury themselves for a lifetime in the center of Africa

or upon an island in the midst of the Pacific or in the interior of China, simply for the pur-

pose of giving to the world a correct knowledge of the vernacular spoken by the people in those different

regions.

The?

sacrifice

demanded

would have been too great for the promised reward. No one would expect that the merchants

who touched but

the fringes of the great East-

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

308

ern countries would give much attention to the niceties of the

whom

language of the people with

they traded.

'Pidgin English' seems

quite good enough for their uses, and in fact

is

one of the mercantile contributions to the philological

"It

museum is

of the world.

only the missionaries, as a class,

who

have had a motive strong and permanent enough to carry men and women of the highest

and training into the uttermost parts of the earth and there hold them at the

intelligence

task of language study until

it

eventuated in an

extensive and orderly literature. ' '

Over four hundred

effective

and living ver-

sions of the Bible, translated for the

most part

by missionaries and native co-workers trained by them, are now in use. These have stood the and are the crowning proof of the thoroughness with which the chief languages of Africa and the East have been test of scientific scrutiny

mastered by the missionaries,

"It

is

not claimed that the missionaries have

done extensive work in comparative philology. Their task has been to make themselves masters of one, two, or, as in the case of Dr. Elias Biggs, of Turkey, of several languages, not for the

LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE

309

purpose of comparing one with another, but solely for the purpose of

relations with those to

coming into the closest

whom the

conquered lan-

guage was a household tongue. Philologists of the West have made the accurate preliminary;

work of these pioneers the field for investigations and comparisons.

"The

literary

introduced into

work

all

own

their

of the missionaries has

of these countries the

mod-

ern art of printing and has built up extensive printing establishments in

all the

Eastern cen-

ters of population which are producing millions

of pages

annually

of vernacular

literature.

This includes not only the Bible in whole or in part, but all kinds of educational books, besides

and original productions, religious, and literary, for the general enlight-

translations scientific,

enment of

all classes.

"This work has now made such progress that many presses which began under the direction of missionaries

and were aided with funds

from the missionary societies are now owned and conducted by native firms. Much of the publication in

some

work

of the missionaries themselves

countries, like

Japan and

India, is

done entirely by native companies.

now

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

310 U'

we have digressed from

'But

philological

contributions to literary output, which is nevertheless a part of the this extensive

ogy

is

same

subject.

It is through

output that comparative philol-

kept up to date and that the rapid

changes taking place in so many of the Eastern languages are traced. This study is materially aided by the great number of vernacular periodicals

published upon mission presses

and

forced to keep up with the modern linguistic

command the attention of their Educated native scholars are now

trend in order to clientele.

carrying on this work.

"The

missionaries are following closely, as

are the native scholars, the linguistic changes that are taking place in languages spoken by

peoples that are making rapid progress in general education,

like,

the Bulgarian, the

Arme-

and Turkish, some of the languages of India, the Chinese, and the Japanese. It is the

nian,

business of the missionary to keep close watch of all literary changes in order that he his

message into such form that

it

will

may put

command

respectful hearing.

"If

it

were possible

to bring together in

one

place samples of all the grammars, dictionaries,

LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE

.

hymn

311

and works of

books, Bibles, school books,

and from

general literature of every kind

all

parts of the world which have been written or translated dnring the last century

by missionait would make

under their supervision, one of the most complete exhibits of the lan-

ries or

guages and dialects spoken by more than fivesixths of the people of the world that could be produced.

On

the other hand,

collected all that has been

if

there could be

done in

this direction

by others than missionaries, or by those working with them, we would find but a meager exshowing conclusively how indebted we have been and yet are to the missionaries for

hibit;

their persistent, scholarly,

and accurate endeav-

ors along philological and literary lines.

While

work in this respect has been unquestionably missionary, it has at the same time been highly

the

scientific;

and while

it

has contributed directly

to the success of missionary work, it

has added

enormously to the philological knowledge of the world.

" The

results of this labor are

now

available

for the Church to employ in reaching the intellects as

East."

well as the hearts of the people of the

CHAPTER XXI BY-PRODUCTS IN NON-CHRISTIAN SYSTEMS WHILE

giving a series of lectures recently at

the Boston University on

"The By-Products

of

Missions," Sir Wilfred Grrenfel was delivering

a similar series at Harvard on of Life."

"The Adventure

I afterwards met him, and in talking

over the matter he asked

me what

the "by-products of missions." attention in a brief

foregoing chapters,

I meant by I called his

way to the contents of when he exclaimed:

the

* '

Why, yes I had never thought of it in tha.t way before. The fact is that all our civilization ;

and progress, traced back to a

last analysis, is

the result of the gospel of Jesus Christ as car-,

ried by the missionaries!" is

I wonder

if

there

any one who would feel disposed to deny that

statement.

For some time I had been thinking of the changes that had been brought about in the nonChristian religious systems by the influence of 312

NON-CHRISTIAN SYSTEMS

313

the gospel, and while attending the " Orient in

Providence" I had an opportunity to talk the matter over with an eminent Japanese professor.

"What

influence, if

any," I asked him, "is

Christianity having on the native religions of

"It

changing them entirely," he an-

is

swered. ' '

Can you point out any definite changes

that

are being brought about?" I inquired further;

"for there are a great many people who are ready to make assertions, but the world wants definite facts."

"Well," he answered, "take, for instance, the Young Men's BuddMst Association. This has been established since the Young Men's Christian Association went to Japan, and

modeled after the same pattern. tures, holds study classes, has a

is

It gives lec-

gymnasium and

reading-rooms, as well as methods for entertaining the

young men

Christian prototype.

after the style of its

It

never had anything

of that kind before, indeed

Buddhism never

thought of making any effort for the saving of the young

men by

gathering them off the street

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

314

from the Young Men's Chris" Association.

until it learned it

tian

"That

"You

is

an important change," I admitted.

are sure that

it is

the result of the sug-

gestion and influence of the

Young Men's

Chris-

tian Association?"

"Where

else could

"No

asked.

developed

it

have come from?" he

Buddhist would deny that they as a result of seeing the work of

Young Men's

the that

it

Christian Association.

But

not the only change," he continued,

is

"that has come to Japanese Buddhism as a result of Christian influence

and Christian

ex-

ample."

"Ah, indeed!" I exclaimed. "Before the opening of Christian

schools

the Buddhists never thought of opening schools for the instruction of the children of their fol-

lowers."

"And have they schools now that correspond Church schools?" I inquired; for this was a suggestion of change which I had never

to our

thought of before. only have schools for men," he "but schools for women and girls answered, as well and these schools are modeled after the

"They not

;

NON-CHRISTIAN SYSTEMS style of our own.

of

They teach the leading

Buddhism outside

315 tenets

of the regular course of

study, just as our schools

aim

to instil into the

minds of the children the great principles of the gospel.

Indeed, I regard that as one of

the greatest social influences that the gospel

has had in Japan.

It is

an

of the Buddhists to put the

effort

on the part

new wine

of

-the

gospel into the old skins of Buddhism."

To me

was very interesting, more so, perhaps, because I had been thinking so long upon

this

this subject; but I

fail to interest

do not see how

any one as a

it

can

sidelight in the illu-

mination of the world.

"And

are there any other results of this

character?" I inquired.

The BudMany of them, he answered. dhists are now publishing newspapers and mag' '

' '

' '

azines similar to those of the Church in ica,

and these are having a large

the people

Amer-

influence

upon

a wider influence, though not per-

haps as deep and lasting as that of the schools. It is simply an adoption of Christian educakeep their people with them. These newspapers and magazines are not of a

tional

methods

to

bad type and are doing a good deal toward the

316

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS They furnish and bind them

enlightenment of the people.

them with something

to read,

together into a kind of a social community."

"I was not aware,"

I said, "that the

Bud-

had gone so far in adopting our methods. Perhaps they have taken others!" " Indeed he answered. dhists

"They

they have,"

now have Sunday

schools similar to our own,

in which they sing

hymns and play on organs

we

not very unlike those which

They have

churches.

use in our

established orphanages,

in which they rescue children and care for

much

as

we do

in ours.

where they care

fo>r

They have

them

hospitals,

the sick and thus

win for

themselves a large numbeir of adherents that

they could get in no other way. established

women's

taking to do for the

own women 's

societies,

women

societies are

They have even which are under-

of

Japan what our

doing for the

women

of Christian lands."

From what my Japanese will be seen that

Buddhism

friend told

me

it

in Japan, if not in

other countries, has been materially altered by its

contact with Christianity.

Has the

been true? "Who can

tell

tianity has adopted

from Buddhism!

reverse

of anything that ChrisIs there

317

NON-CHRISTIAN SYSTEMS

not some significance in this for those esoteric

Buddhists who have never seen Buddhism in the countries where

it

has had

its

opportunity

for centuries^

"And may I ask," I went

on, "if there

have

been changes in the customs of the Shintoists similar to those

you have

just described in

Bud-

dhism?"

"I have not

tried to tell of all the changes

Buddhism," he answered, "because those which have come to one religion have come also

in

and what I

to the other,

shall

now speak

of as

peculiar to Shintoism might just as well have

been described in connection with Buddhism.

In Japan

we have had our to

all

national shortcom-

non-Christian peoples.

ings,

peculiar

Some

of these are connected with our marriage,

and others with our funeral ceremonies. s

In-

deed, under the old regime the ceremonies con-

nected with both marriage and death were

Some men

either very loose or very uncertain.

would take a wife with but very

and get rid

little

of her with even less.

strict rules of the

ceremony,

One

of the

Church was that a man should

take but one wife; she should be given to at the altar,

and except in an extreme

him case,

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

318 lie

might not put her away.

This appealed to

the better element of the Japanese, and

it is

too nuich to say that the faithful Buddhists Shintoists

"And

were among these better people.

and

"

so they adopted the marriage cere-

mony, did they!" I inquired. " It They did, he replied. ' '

' '

mon

not

is

not uncom-

at the great Shinto temple, Hibiya

Dai

JingUf in Tokyo, to see marriages being sol-

emnized, and

it

is

worthy of note that the

priests will never

mony

at this

perform a marriage ceretemple for less than fifteen yen,

so that they are

making

it

a source of income

for the temple."

"And

do they take part in funeral ceremo-

nies as well!" I asked; for he

had spoken of

both marriages and funerals.

"Before the

coining* of Christianity to Ja-

pan," he answered, "neither the Buddhists nor the Shintoists would have anything to do with

But they soon found two occasions when the

funerals or marriages. that these were the

heart was most susceptible to influence, and

when people .were most in need comfort. tians,

And

taking their

sympathy and cue from the Chrisof

they conduct the funeral ceremonies of

NON-CHRISTIAN SYSTEMS

319

their dead just as they take part in the

wed-

dings, but they will not officiate at a funeral

more than

any

at a wedding without remuneration.

They charge for conducting a funeral according to the number of priests they furnish, and, of course, according to the length of the family's

purse or their reputation for wealth in the com-

munity." In China, so far as I have seen, little if any influence has been brought to bear upon Bud-

dhism that has

any change. China is a large place; the people are a great people, firmly bound to their customs, and it is not effected

likely that these religious changes will

at an early date

appear

them.

among The same can not be

said of India.

I was

talking with a noted Hindoo professor,

was a

delegate, to

some

who

religious meeting in

America not long since, and I put the same question to him that I did to my Japanese friend.

"What

changes, if any, have been brought

about in Hindooism by the influence of the gos-

pel?"

.

"Among

the

greatest

changes," he

an-

swered, "outside of the regular preaching to

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS

320

the people, are the development of such societies as the

Brahma Samaj and

the

Aryan Sa-

maj, which, though they are strictly that

is,

are yet

Hindoo*

in no

way connected with the Church-^ believing in a God and preaching a doc-

trine that

seem

more from the

to be learned

Bible than from any other source." I began looking up the matter, and I was

not surprised to find that the is

to

a

theistic

Raja

communion which owes

Bam Mohan

district of

Bordwan

Sanskrit, Arabic,

early age,

Brahma Samaj

Rai,

its

origin

who was born

in the

in 1772.

He

mastered the

and Persian languages

was impressed with the

at

an

fallacies of

the religious worship of his countrymen, studied the

Hindu Shastras,

the Koran,

and the

gave up polytheistic worship as first

false,

Bible,

and

at

taught the principles of monotheism as

found in the ancient Upanishads of the Vedas,

though most

likely influenced

more by the mono-

theism of the Bible.

In 1816 he established a society consisting only of Hindus, in which tests from the Vedas

were recited and

theistic

hymns were

"In 1830 he organized a meetings, which

may be

chanted.

society for prayer-

considered as the foun-

NON-CHRISTIAN SYSTEMS elation of the present

321

Brahma Samaj," and one

need not go far to find the example and the inspiration which led ing.

him

to start

While the society at

first

a prayer-meetadmitted only

Hindus, when they dedicated their

first build-

ing,

we

ple,

without distinction, who shall behave in an

are told that "it was a place of public meeting for all sorts and descriptions of peo-

and

orderly, sober,

religious manner.

"

Those who are interested in the trust-deed " of the building will find it under the Brahma

Samaj" in the "Encyclopedia Britannica," where we are told that "the new faith at this period held to the Vedas as its basis. The founder, Earn

Mohan

Eai, soon after left India

for England, where he died in 1835." ciety maintained a bare existence

Babu Debendra Nath Tagore,

till

The

1841,

so-

when

of Calcutta., took

a printing-press, established a paper, "to which the Bengali language now owes much for its strength and elegance." it

up, gave

it

About the year 1850 some of the followers discovered that the greater part of the Vedas is polytheistic,

place.

"Be-

societies

were

and a schism took

tween 1847 and 1850 branch

formed in different parts of India, especially in 21

SOME BY-PRODUCTS OF MISSIONS Bengal, and the ' '

ress,

says the

' *

new Church made rapid prog" f or which it was ' '

Britannica,

largely indebted to the spread of English edu-

cation

and the labors of the Christian mission-

aries," It is not necessary to follow

them further in

their progress except to say that later, about

1860, the younger

Brahmans, headed by Babu

Kesab Chandra Sen,

tried to carry their reli-

gious theories into practice by excluding idolatrous rites

from

their social

all

and domestic

ceremonies, and by rejecting the distinction of caste altogether."

This was a definite charac-

Church from the beginning; it not improbable that it was from this source

teristic of the is

Kesab Chandra Sen got his inspiration. " This caused the schism to widen into a visible that

separation," and the two parties were

known

thereafter as the progressives and the conservatives.

The former have made considerable

progress.

"They have

cutta which

built a

church in Cal-

crowded every Sunday evening, and they encourage the establishment of branch is

Samajes in different parts of the country." After the death of Kesab Chandra Sen the leadership of the sect

was taken up by Moo-

NON-CHEISTIAN SYSTEMS

323

zoomdar, whose "Oriental Christ" and other books on the doctrines of the Brahma Samaj are an exhibition of a deep piety which only an Oriental

could set

and I was about to add, a Hinduforth. But not simply a Hindu of the

Hindus, but a Hindu who has been touched, whether consciously or unconsciously, by the Spirit of the Master.

Headland

BV 2060

of

.H43

145882^ JAN

1 9

1940

1

-

UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO

48 437 903

W.

j

,

UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO

1912
Missions
English