Remarks on the mineralogy and geology of Nova Scotia [microform]

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1

2

3

J

S(^i/njon4^

)

;

\ IX. Remarks on

the

Mineralogy and Geology of JVova

BY CHARLES Communicated

The

to the

Scotia.

JACKSON AND FRANCIS ALGER.*

T.

Academy, August, 1831, by Thomas Nuttall, A. A. 8.

peninsula of

Nova

and 46lh degrees of north

Scotia

latitude,

included between the 43d

is

and between the 6 stand 67th 1

degrees of longitude west of the meridian of Greenwich.

• In justice to our readers,

it

becomes us perhaps

offered to the public through the

paper

to state, that the

American Academy's Memoirs,

in

is,

republication of an essay which originally appeared in Professor Sillinian's

Journal oi Science in 1828-9. siderablo extent, by

the

;lic

It

is

ihat essay corrected

additional facts collected

and enlarged

now

part,

a

American to a con-

during a more recent, and, from

method adopted, we believe a more general and accurate

Peninsula of Nova Scotia in the

It is

examiiiiition of the

summer of 1829; undertaken

with the view of

determining the charRctur of some few spots which had not been our former excursion, or on which, from causes beyond our control,

visited

during

we were then

unable to bestow that minute attention, to which their structure and interesting geological rul.ilions have since

shown them so

fully entitled.

Some paragraphs

the former paper have been omitted in this, in a few places, where

it

in

became ne-

cessary from a more particular examination of the subjects to which they related

subothers have also been substituted in a few places, where the description of a

Btance would be

madynore

brief, or

where a

stance could be brought in with advantage.

with as

much

still

more interesting form of a sub-

This paper

is

order as the blending of old observations with

60

intended to comprise,

new would

admit, such

Messrs. Jackson a7id Alger on the

218

connected with the continent by a narrow isthmus, and

is

bound-

ed on the north by the Strait of Northumberland, on the northeast by the Gut of Canseau, by which it is separated from Cape Breton, on the south and southeast by the Atlantic ocean, and

The whole Province

on the west by the Bay of Fundy.

nearly three hundred miles in length, by one hundred and in breadth,

and embraces not

less

is

fifty

than fifteen thousand square

miles of surface. face of the country presents, with

The

some

irregularity,

three distinct ranges of high land, two of which have some claim to the title they bear, of mountains, although they rarely attain an elevation of

more than

five

hundred

other range consists of rounded

hills

feet

above the sea.

districts of

extending through the county of Cumberland, and the

The

Colchester and Pictou.

and North mountains in

;

first

ranges are called the South

two

the former extending through the Province

direction east-northeast,

the

The

of inconsiderable elevation,

and crossing the counties of

Annapolis, Kings, Hants, Colchester, and Pictou.

This range

is

bounded, on the north and west, by the valley through which the

facts relating to the geological

as

that a large blank remains to

We

he

filled

up on the subjects of wliich

these interesting branches of the natural history of that region can

dated or

its

real mineral resources

made known

;

whom, more said, to

up,

own countrymen,

show that the country,

which

will

afford

ing trade.

in

and

will

treats, before

be fully eluci-

it filled

But we

up by the exami-

Nova

trust that

Scotia, to

enough

will

her mineral constitution, has treasures

ample materials

industry of her citizens,

to sec

as well as of the inhabitants of

properly, the labor seems to belong.

it

Scotia,

are aware

and we can only repeat, what we

have said on a former occasion, that we hope soon nations of our

Nova

structure and mineral productions of

have come within the scope of our ])ersonal examination.

for

be

laid

the exercise of the native skill and

always secure to her the advantages of an export-

m

219

Mineralogy and Geology of JVbva Scotia. Annapolis river winds rying with

the rich

it

it

along

alluvium of

and torrents

rivulets

this beautiful river,

depos-

course, and thereby forming a part of the fertile

its

this valley.

The North

much more generously

mountains, however, contribute the pecu-

to the fertility of the lantl, from

rocks of which they consist, producing by their decay the

liar

The North mountains form the southwestern Province, skirting the Bay of Fundy, and having the

most luxuriant coast of the

soil.

Annapolis river

at their

single interruption

in

They extend,

southern base.

The

encroachments.

it

is

northeast and

Bay

of Fundy, to

direction of this range

southwest, with a gentle curve towards the

which

with but a

one hundred and

their continuity, nearly

and present to the sea an insuperable barrier against

thirty miles, its

course for more than eighty miles, car-

their waters to swell

which contribute iting

its

loam brought by the

presents a series of lofty mural precipices, well adapted

encroachments of

to resist the

its

overwhelming

This range formed by

tuous waves.

far the

tides and tumul-

most

fruitful field

of

our researches, and rewarded our labors by presenting the most interesting appearances,

We

shall

describe

it

were examined by peculiar

facilities to

and many rate and

nearly in the order

us,

in

beautiful specimens.

which

different parts

its

beginning with Digby Neck, which affords

the researches of inquirers into

its

geological

structure and mineral productions.

This narrow

strip

of land

is

a continuation

of the North

mountiiins from Annapolis Gut, and, extending thirty miles to the

westward,

is

bounded on the north by the Bay of Fundy, and

on the south by territory.

At

Brier's Island

;

St.

its

Mary's Bay, which separates

western extremity are situated

it

from the main

Long

the former separated from the latter by

sage, and from the main peninsula by Petit Passage

;

Island and

Grand Pasbut geologi-

PP^^

/

Messrs. Jackson and

220

Mger

on the

land, with they are a continuation of the neck of narrow channels, they which, though separated from it by these They are composed composition. are identical in structure and

cally considered,

of trap, under

exclusion different modifications, to the entire

its

of every other rock freely

exposed

;

and Hke most

islands of a similar nature

when

unrivalled to the ocean, they present scenery of

On

grandeur and magnificence.

the south side of Brier's Island

near the entrance of the channel, the

cliffs

present a very striking

masses, which someassemblage of neat and regular columnar of steps for many ranges times descend in lofty and continuous rising up here yards into the sea; their serrated ridges

hundred

and there from beneath

and appearing,

surface,

its

much pier-work reared in defence of the purpose, indeed, they may be said to answer in an like

so

ner, since

many

at first sight,

island

;

which

admirable man-

of the of the masses scarcely break the surface

depths below it, as, water, and others are so concealed at shallow render with the currents that set in among them, to in

connexion

ordinary occasions, an approach to the harbour dangerous even on

We met mariners. and when directed by the most experienced them a upon in driven been had that with the wreck of a ship that

the cargo

Situated sels

as

bound

and

this

informed by the inhabitants,

we were

year or two since, and part

island

of is,

the

unfortunate

nearly in

to St. John's, or up the

ger of such accidents

is

not a

little

storms that suddenly close in upon

sometimes known

and four weeks.

to

endure

From

the

Bay

lost.

direct route of ves-

of Fundy, the dan-

increased by the fogs and

this

for the

crew were

region, and which are

continued space of three

the prevalence of these fogs, the island

is

surcomparatively barren of vegetation, and presents a dreary that sheep miserable the to support scanty affording only face,

221

Mineralogy and Geology of JVova Scotia.

upon

are kept

Thus driven from

it.

the

soil,

the hardy inhabi-

their chief tants of the island resort to fishing as

But

remark cannot be applied, as

this

it

employment.

unjustly has been,

to

respects s,)il and other parts of the Province, which, as section of New any by believe, we climate, are not surpassed,

many

England.

The columnar

or basaltiform structure of the trap

in greater perfection

and

than upon the opposite its

much

to a

but this

;

not so

much

to

any

intrinsic

exhibiting, externally, ally

in their

internal characters

;

its

all

present five or seven

very variable

to

exhibited

greater extent, on this island is

owing

in a great

degree

to

ravages of the

ocean, which

a greater extent,

and probably

being more exposed to the

have developed the columns

is

deficiency of the

rock

characteristic marks.

sides, very

itself

They

m

usu-

smooth and perfect, and are

length and proportions, no less than in their

but as far as

we

traced them, they did not

corresponding exhibit in their superposition, the depressions and convexities, so

common

to the trap of

some

regions.

It is

merely

greater compactness in for the want of these characters, and a that this trap comes particles, its of the mechanical arrangement short of the genuine basalt of the most noted

Indeed, the difference

in

European

respect to internal characters, on com-

parison with masses of basalt from the Hebrides, slight to

erals

be made

is

a point of distinction between them.

were observed on

localities.

this

found too

No

min-

island, excepting a few narrow veins

columns ; the amygdaloid, of red jasper occasionally encircling the far as we usual gangue, not appearing along the coast so their

followed

it.

We

regret that foggy weather prevented us from

where, as passing round to the opposite shore of the island,

were informed by the

inhabitants, the

cliffs rise

to a

we

more remark-

51

/

9s*

Messrs. Jackson and Jlger on the

222 able height

;

but

its

long character was clearly indicated by the

" runs out into the sea lor more causeway, known as the Bar," that were heard to roll in with billows and over which the than a mile,

From

great violence.

the information

that the substrata of

beUeve

we

obtained,

we

sandstone are there seen

are led to

to

crop out

the western terminus of from beneath the trap, thus making Eastern. the to the North mountains similar

At

the northeast point of

Long

Island, the amygdaloid,

on

and

its

which the irregular columnar rock are found tilled

cavities

is

with nodules of chlorite, to the exclu-

sion of the zeolites, which, as

more generally occur

rests,

accessible,

in

we

shall

other places.

have occasion to show,

These nodules, when

color, radiating broken, present lamina, of a beautiful leek-green crystals, tabular in low from the centre, and rarely crystallized The chlorite has often been intersecting each other.

often

rock a vesicuremoved by external causes, thus imparting to the were natucavities the cases, few but in some lar appearance ;

vesicular rally left void, constituting real

The

amygdaloid.

amygdaloid, veins of jasper, as they traverse the

become

being converted into a subsingularly altered in their character, imperfectly burned bricks of stance, resembling in appearance the interior of the vein, from The specimens potters' clay. upon by exposure, presented the

where

it

had not been acted

same appearance

As

the veins

;

some

entered

parts

were

in

fact perfect

clay-stone.

the superincumbent trap, they

became

of a few yards, were altered in appearance, and in the course Three or four veins jasper. converted into a very perfect red

were observed, presenting

similar appearances.

precipitous channel, In crossing Petit Passage, a deep and into the the flood tides rush with great violence

through which

223

Mineralogy and Geology of JVbva Scotia.

BayofFundy, and form

we

a dangerous "race-way," requiring, as

found, a very strong

wind

to

counteract

the

it,

spot

first

deserving of notice on account of remarkable geological features, is

an indentation on the south side of Digby Neck,

Little

Valley.

River

symmetry, to the

sea,

its

Here the

displays,

trap

where the

with wonderful

river empties into St. Mary's

and

quently broken horizontally, articulated, apparently ;

as

basaltiform structure, and presents a lofty precipice

posed of prismatic columns of three,

by the sea

known

by

their

live,

Bay, com-

and nine sides,

fre-

some places imperfectly

in

motion on each other, occasioned

thus resembling in a striking manner, the basaltic

rocks of the Giant's Causeway on the coast of Ireland.

These

prismatic blocks are usually two or three feet in diameter, and

sometimes as many yards

in length

Not unfrcquently

unbroken.

they have been dashed from their pedestals, and tumbled in confusion against each other, forming irregular Gothic arches, which,

by

The

their rude forms, give additional wildness to the scene.

exposed surfaces of the trap, from the additional oxidizement of the iron fracture,

it

its

contains, exhibit a brownish red color, but internal structure

is

fine-grained, and of

aspect, the hornblende being alone visible to the

heavy, tenacious, and sometimes sonorous.

some other

like the trap of

by the

fact, that

surveyors find their

fluenced in running lines this influence

countries,

in different

we

homogeneous

naked eye.

That

think

on recent

is

it

is

clearly

proved

compasses very sensibly parts of

in-

But

Digby Neck.

they have hitherto erroneously attributed to large

deposits of magnetic iron, of the existence of which there little

It is

magnetic,

is

but

evidence.

We

have

already observed that the local peculiarities and

external forms of the trap rocks in this region, give

it

unquestion-

;

m the

Messrs. Jackson and Jlgir

224

able claims to the

title

partiali.v for this term,

we have no particular internal the rock may differ in its conhave we basalt from Ireland,

of basalt

and as

characters from most of the

;

but as

columnar trap, leavmg the cluded to make use of the term deeded basalt of Ireland, to be question of its identity with the we are though ourselves ; do it than

by those better able to admit writers on geology, do not aware, that some of the best James Sir of The experiments any distinction between them. Hall

show very

plainly, that the

mechanical structure

ot trap

may

which it proportion to the rapidity with form liquid state, into its columnar passed, from its igneous or masses with meet we expected, and therefore, as might well be

be coarse or fme,

in

respects at the that differ widely in these

The next which

i

is

place of interest

about

we

shall

five miles east of Little

same

locality.

mention, River.

is

Mink Cove,

It is

a harbour

m

presents nothing very pecuhar of inconsiderable depth, and however, few interesting minerals, its geological features. red, yelare They amygdaloid. occur in the columnar trap and irom veins in traverse the precipice low, and ribbon jasper, which distance run for a considerable eight inches to a foot wide, and

A

through the rock

;

the amygdaloid on the yellow jasper occupying

which the columnar trap

rests, passes, as

it

enters the

more dense

jasper of fine texture, often ren-

superincumbent rock, into red of various colors winding dered more beautiful by zones mass. centric circles through the lapidary's wheel,

mens

A

and when

They

are

fit

in

con-

subjects for the

specipolished, constitute ornamental this occurs in the amygdaloid of

curious mineral also

parallel lamella of quartz, disposed in place, consisting of broad calcarewith filled interstices and intersecting plates, having the appearance of alternations of the specimens ous spar, giving the

226

.Mineralogy un
and calcareous

siliceous

geodes

(juartz

ol'

and

anietliyst,

white chahasio measuring planes

The

sinter.

veins of jasper present

enclosing crystals of transparent

nearly

an inch

the rhombic

across

they are usually indented by the quartz crystals, over

;

which they are scattered.

The next

place worthy of notice

Sandy Cove, about

is

miles from the last described locality.

This cove

situation,

it

is

considered the fmest harbour.

the largest

is

indentation on the coast of St. Mary's Bay, and from Its

five

its

favorable

surrounding

walls consist of trap, rising from the strand in huge sheets, nearly in

a vertical position, and sometimes divided

separate blocks or tables, that

connecting surfaces perfectly structure, the beautiful

lie

flat.

one above another with

They do

symmetry observed

River and Brier's Island

;

transversely into

not exhibit

in the

columns of

from which also, they differ

their

in their

in

Little

being

of coarser texture, and in containing a large portion of green earth,

by which they assume a

distinct

greenish

This

hue.

difference in mineralogical composition and external figure, which

we

have also noticed

local causes, of which

difference which

is

at

we

other places, seems owing to certain shall

speak

in

another place.

observed no less distinctly

in

It is

Nearer the head of the cove, the precipice gradually

falls

away, and a bank of brecciated and amygdaloidal trap takes place, and abounds with nodules and geodes of crystallized minerals.

a

other countries.

many

its

beautifully

Their inner surfaces are sometimes lined

with a delicate white filamentous substance, resembling (ibres of cotton

;

apparently fibrous mesotype, similar to that found by Dr.

jVrCulloch on the Isle of Skye.

We

also

met with interesting

specimens of quartz, exhibiting the form of the primary obtuse rhomboid,

in

a few instances perfect, and

62

measuring more than

/I

^

Messrs.

226

'

Jacksm and Alger on

the

But usually the crystals are replacement goi solid angles and mochtied by the absence of common extension, tend to produce single planes, which, by their and amygdaloid is traversed by narrow

diameter. three eighths of an inch in

six-sided pyramids.

The

and eniron ore, sometimes hollow, indistinct veins of specular insulated frequently, un whke transparent chabasie. Not closing^

ore are cryst Js of the specular

imbedded

ir.

limpid chalcedony,

variety of agate. thus forming a singular

But a substance more thi. place, is laumonite. ertin.^ the

amygdaloid

in

likely to

ir.terest

the

mineralogist at

itseli, travThis curious mineral presents running in wide, foot veins sometiu.es a

The substances ot these directions. vertical, inclined, and zigzag situamore or less decayed, especially the crystals, are

m

veins, tion,

and the best specimens were most excluded from moisture ; were regularly covered by the only in those places which

found

pi.^jects

m

veins, the laumonite Into the cavities of these the prima.vhich exhibit the form of beautiful groups of crystals, implanted at one extremity, and ry oblique rhombic prism, firmly from single rl.oml>ic plane, inclining the other terminated by a tide

at

one acute angle

to the

other.

The

crystals

inch =. transparent, and frequently an spar which

length.

forms the walls of the veins,

is

are colorless and

The

calcareous

often scattered over

considerably more obtuse -roups in insulated rhoml)oids, hemitropic and exhibi.s examples of than the primary crystals, spanbrilliant are these, Interspersed also with combination. to beauty additional which give much gles of specular iron ore, crystals the support at the same time to the specimens, and serve that we have been sin^^ular little a not It is of this fragile mineral

these

unable

to discover, in the

the least form of the crystals of laumonite,

edges or solid angles ; while modification by the absence of either

m

h

ofJWwa

Mineralogy and Geology

specimens from another as dilficult to

227

Scotia.

be mentioned hereafter,

locality, to

it is

discover a single crystal which has not the addition

of secondary planes.

calcareous spar, like that similarly associ-

The accompanying Brittany,

ated from

exceedingly phosphorescent, emitting a

is

when thrown upon

beautiful gold-yellow light

But

iron.

this

thus associated

of

Nova

property ;

for

by no means

is

we have

exami:.

specimens from other parts

and

Scotia, as well as from various localities in P]urope

the United States, and find that

possess

I

a heated plate of

peculiar to this substance

this

property,

when

without a single exception,

all,

Count de Bournon observed that from Brittany phorescent than any he had seen from other are unable to say whether

The

placed on heated bodies.

this

to

be more phos-

localities

from Nova Scotia

is

;

and

we

equal to that,

not having a specimen from Brittany in our possession. east of

About one mile referred

appears

to,

mens not

inferior

massive,

occurs

and

it

striated

faces,

substance from

in

in in

Sandy Cove, the specular

iron ore

more important veins, and affords specibeauty

those from Elba.

to

When

not

tabular crystals, often with curviUnear

flat,

resembling

volcanic

of the specimens of this

many

Crystals, exhibiting

districts.

some

someportion of the planes of the primary acute rhomboid, are very usually are they but times met with attached to the gangue ;

much modilied by replacements on Magnetic iron ore also occurs veins

in

the amygdaloid

quantities worth

;

exploring.

at

their

edges

this locality,

ai\d

angles.

forming narrow

but neither of these ores occurs

The

in

best crystallized specimens of

the soil that has the latter, are found along the water-courses, in

been produced by the degradation ;,urrounded them.

Indeed, the

soil

o."

is

the amygdaloid that once

abundantly mixed with

if

the Messrs. Jackson and Alger on

228

the primary octacrystals, in the form of large and very perlect form into rhombic dodecaexhibiting the passage of this

hedron,

hedrons, which

they

sometimes complete, and thus

become

which generally presents tins isomorphous with the FrankUnite, oxide sometimes imbedded in earthy decrement. They are also occurs very sparingly. of mai ganese, which of from Sandy Cove to the Bay

Crossing

distance of one mile,

we came

to

Fundy, about tne

an indentation called Outer

the inner cove, Sandy Cove, between which and

a small but

is

water, with a sandy bottom, extremely beautiful lake of fresh

Fundy. outlet into the Bay of and having a very diminutive The this little lake. two coves are nearly connected by

These

at this

rocks

The

shore

phous at

composed

variety,

of

of Fundy, which shelve or dip towards the Bay its beneath degrees and finally disappear

an angle of 10 or 15

^vaters.

I

is

of structure. cove present no remarkable pecuUarities the amorof trap of immense sheets

The most

are the large interesting features of this place

in in parallel ridges, resembling, veins of red jasper which appear roofs inclined the upon battlements a striking manner, the brick to the highest part of the shore from extending and of houses, the show to These ridges stand as monumenis low-water mark. which has worn away the continual eflect of a turbulent sea,

rock they traverse with comparative or slightly polished, as ob>tacles

They'contain, rich

in

some

places,

specimens of agate, formed

facility,

to

its

geodes of l.v

and

left

them

entire,

further encroachments. (luartz,

narrow threads

amethyst, and ol'

red jasper

in a zigzag manner, and traversing white transparent chalcedony,

when

polished, constitute beautiful specimens.

Following the shore of leave

St.

Mary's Bay, eastwardly as

Sandy Cove, and examining

at

we

low water the fri.gmeuts

Mineralogy and Geology of JVova

229

Scotia.

which have been detached from the precipices above, and profusely scattered along their base at the water's edge,

we

found

in abundance agates of various kinds, and possessing great beStity.

of the variety called fortification agate, from a resem-

Some were

blance to military works, on the polished surface of the specimens. This variety is often found well characterized on the shore;

sometimes tion,

times

in

small nodules,

which have been polished by

and resemble the Scotch pebble it is

found

every respect

many

The base

tions in the compass of a few inches.

attri-

other

fortifica-

of this agate

rows of

white chalcedony, alternating with

is

trans-

last generally constituting

parent quartz and yellow jasper, the the external layer.

at

The specimens

overhanging trap rocks.

of this vicinity frequently contain the outlines of

an opaque

:

tabular masses, which are evidently the

in large

ruins of veins from the

in

Fine brecciated agates were also met with,

composed of angular masses of red and yellow jasper cemented by transparent and amethystine quartz, often enclosing,

in

geodes,

beautiful crystals of purple amethyst, which, covering the whole

with interior of the cavity with protruding crystals, vie in beauty

any specimens brought from the banks of the Rhine. A large geode was found on the shore of St. Mary's Bay, which, weighing

more than

forty

pounds, was composed almost entirely of the

richest purple amethyst, the mass having but a thin coat of fication agate externally.

geode,

we found

On

forti-

an examination of the crystals of

a substance of a

reddish brown

this

color, traversing

the the amethyst, in fibres or acicular crystals, which, beginning at

implanted extremity of the crystal, shoot out into diverging, scopiform, and fasciculated groups, to the opposite extremity.

exposure

to a full

red heat, this amethyst loses

transparent, and has a vitreous lustre

63

;

its

color,

On

becomes

the included fibres, at the

Messrs. Jackson and

230 11

changed

time, are

same

one

fracturing

a reddish

the

On

color to a dark brownish black.

we

of amethyst,

crystals

the

of

portion of the fibres,

showed

in

Mger on

obtained a

which, on examination with the microscope,

brown substance, with specks

of a brass yellow,

color being very which we recognised as sulphuret of iron, the before the blowspeedily changed to brownish black by exposure brown surrounding the did as magnetic, it became pipe,

when

substance. pyrites,

had

its

We

and the brown

fibres

red oxide of iron,

which

by

it is

this

substance,

is

iron

The ame-

much deeper

color than

not present, and the color appears deepest in

the immediate vicinity of the fibres think that a portion of

The fibres

of a

is

which doubtless

origin from the decomposition of the former.

thyst, traversed

that in

are then led to conclude that the yellow

its

;

color was

are so minute, that

we

hence we should be led

to

derived from this mineral.

are unable to ascertain

if

man-

ganese be present in them.

lie

Large masses of red jasper, weighing more than a ton each, scattered along the base of Titus' Hill, which rises abruptly

from the shore of

St.

a fine texture, and times

it

is

Mary's Bay.

banded by

This jasper

is

frequently of

stripes of various colors.

Some-

appears to have been made up of rounded fragments of

red jasper, cemented by chalcedony, thus being converted into brecciated agate

;

ments are more

but

this is

not uniformly the case, for the frag-

frequently encrusted

which unite them

to

each other.

with druses of quartz,

Cavities of considerable size

are found in these masses of jasper, having their interior surfaces lined with a covering of crystallized quartz,

which projecting

in

stalactites from the superior part of the geode, to Avhich they are

attached by a slender neck, hang the

dependent

down

into the centre, having

extremity enlarged by a radiation of crystals.

231

Mineralogy and Geology of JVova Scotia. Small portions of jasper are frequently included

in the crystals,

and give a beautiful appearance to the specimens.

On name

The

Bay of Fundy, about

the coast of the

Sandy Cove,

is

of Trout Cove.

It

presents but few interesting minerals.

situation of the rocks, however,

nar trap

is

six miles east of

an inconsiderable indentation, known by the

is

picturesque.

recumbent on amygdaloid, which

narrow and almost inaccessible bed

at the

The colum-

here exists in a very

base of the precipice

;

each the rocks have been tumbled in great confusion against The walls. their under passages irregular other, forming rude only minerals to reward the collector for visiting this place, are

some

varieties of agate,

which do not occur elsewhere on Digby of highly translucent chalcedony

They have a ground

Neck.

included, of a blue color, with angular fragments of red jasper fine texture

and are of a very dary's wheel, variety.

and

;

they improve

much on

the lapi-

constitute beautiful specimens of this curious

The chalcedony

has sometimes, imbedded in

it,

slender

several differthreads of blood-red jasper, which alternating with and preserving ent shades of color, twisted in zigzag directirns,

combination parallelism with the others, constitutes a smgular the specimen, same the in of fortification agate, and bloodstone

its



outworks of the

The

fort

being delineated by

this

blood-red zone.

trap, which agates occur, constituting veins in the columnar Chalcedony, of a very than three inches wide.

are seldom

more

fine texture

and smooth surface, and,

perfectly pure white, also occurs at this

oi)

agates above mentioned, in veins rarely in the

columnar

trap.

recent fracture, of a

pla.oe.

It

occurs, like the

more than an inch wide,

This variety, on account of

adapted to be ture and good color, appears well

cameos and other ornaments.

its

fine

worked

texinto

onihe Messrs. Jackson and Jlger

£32

The next Fundy,

is

place which

a cove,

Gulliver's Hole.

we

on the coast of the Bay of

visited

appellation of which has received the singular indentation which the This cove is the largest

Bay on the iron-bound coast of the sea has been able to effect, the into mile a of three fourths It penetrates about of Fundy. by protected is narrower at its entrance, which land ; and being the to retreat secure trap rocks, it affords a massy columns of

wind frequent these waters, when the small fishing-vessels which This coast. them to ride on the unsheltered is too violent for of a account on mineralogist, of interest to the locality will

prove

curious variety of

stilbite,

walls which here occurs incrusting the

deep and perpendicular

of narrow, but

fissures in the trap.

On

compressed the stilbite occurs in either side of these chasms, the rock to with angles right at or laminfB, projecting horizontally, an inch. about of distance which they are attached, for the of the form the in extremities, They are crystalized, at their free terminated right rectangular prism,

The

rous other modifications. irrp-ular manner, crossing

angles, so as to produce

various forms. tinge of grey

;

The it is

by pyramids, and with nume-

crystals are arranged in a very

and intersecting each other

between them

color of this stilbite

at

right

cellular interstices of is

white, with a slight

and somewhat peariy on cleavage without melts easily into a porous glass,

glistening

before the blowpipe

it

color and transparent.

Large sheets of

from the rock, by means of the

it

are easily detached

hammer and

chisel,

and they

variety of this mineral. form fine specimens of a singular foot wide, associated with Magnetic iron ore in veins about a the trap rock at this place ; but as jaspery red iron ore, occurs in often irregular in their course, and the veins are exceedingly

terminate abruptly,

little

dependence can be placed upon them

233

Mineralogy and Geology of JVova Scotia. This remark

for mining.

we

which

very rich, yielding as tered

in

apply to

will

discovered on Digby Neck

much

the veins of iron ore

all

;

as sixty per cent, of iron,

narrow, unprofitable veins, that

the ore

for although

it

it is

is

so scat-

can never do more than of the objects of his

supply the mineralogist with specimens science.

Proceeding

in

shore, nothing of

our researches eastwardly along the opposite peculiar interest presents itself, until we reach This bay

nearly the extremity of St. Mary's Bay.

is

separated

which the town of from Annapolis Basin, by a narrow isthmus on

Digby

is

situated,

and which connects Digby Neck with a moder-

ately elevated range of hills, to

when we

treat of that formation.

elevation of

attains an

be mentioned more

particularly

This isthmus, which no where

more than one hundred

feet, is

composed

so far as our almost entirely of sandstone without presenting, other organic examination has gone, any traces of marine or trap rocks of neighbouring the underlies undoubtedly It

relics.

the North mountains, and supports

them through

their

whole

observed at extent ; but its junction with the trap was not the North mountains place, though in a distant section of seen rising up from beneath

On

erable distance.

feet in height

the

natural

is

against

barrier

its its

broad face violence,

appropriate nppellation of " the sea-wall."

and grey strata,

away

varieties,

running

at

to the sea,

and being

has received the

it

consists of the red

It

alternating with each other

in

long parallel

inclining nearly north and south, and gradually

an angle of about ten degrees,

the surface.

for a consid-

presented, of about one hundred and

spreading

;

and forming the coast

secthe shore of St. INIary's Bay, a vertical

tion of this sandstone fifty

it,

this it is

The

strata vary

54

much

in

till

it

disappears beneath

thickness, but from four

It

Messrs. Jackson and Jlger on the

234

The variation. include the limits of their inches to four feet will alternauniiorm include feet of the precipice first ten or twelve beautifully alone ; above this succeeds a variety tions of the grey grey, and variously shaded variegated kind, made up with white, continually widening strata, red-colored stripes, which, rising in

become gradually of a deeper into

and

the red sandstone, retaining this strata.

remaining superposition of the sists

red,

of minute

or

the

This red sandstone con-

and calcareous matter, mterAttached to it are small beds of

the red chalk, usually occupying

approximate

d.stmctly,

character through

grains of siliceous

spersed with spangles of mica. reddle,

finally pass,

strata,

and preventing

spaces between

their actual contact.

This

more readily acted upon by variety is comparatively soft, and has a much coarser, and by external causes than the grey, which no means so uniform a texture.

Both effervesce

briskly in nitric

calcareous a greater portion of the acid, but the grey contains or gypsum of veins This sandstone does not contain ingredient. which mineral only simple In fact, the reddle was the limestone. from the feeble coheprecipice, entire we observed in it. The causes of acted upon by the ordinary sion of its parts, is rapidly

decay;

large masses

above, and adding inclines

from

its

are

hold almost continually .losing their

new matter

to

debris,

the slope of

which

base into the sea. ^^

miles from " the sea-wall, the road to Digby, about three iron ore, although magnetic we met with an interesting deposit of collection of one. extensive did not prove to be a very it soil, and the in twenty tons, were found lying

On

A

masses,

in all

about

the south side of Nichols' confined to a very narrow space on occurred, and The rock, in which they originally mountain.

whirh, by

]>

»i

its

decay, had

left

them disconnected,

is

amygdaloid of

Mineralogy and Geology ofJVova Scotia. a

fragile

235

mineral ingredients. character, presenting few or no

found to possess a coarse breaking these masses, they were

On

octato present, in their cavities, granular structure, and sometimes of great briUiancyand perfection. hedral and dodecahedral crystals masses possessed pohighly magnetic, and some of the

They were They presented larity. tals,'projecting from

violet crysbeautiful druses of amethyst in containing small glob-

grounds of chalcedony

They also contain spar. masses of mesotype and calcareous stalactitic presented in botryoidal and brilliant druses of quartz, are chalcedony and the amethyst, quartz, ular

forms.

Occasionally,

imperfect crystals of magnetic united in one specimen, enclosing singular variety of brecciand constituting, when polished, a iron,

concretions deeply imbedded ated agate, showing the metaUic

m

the transparent mass.

Near

this place,

a small stream takes

tains, called William's

eastwardlv, empties

banks

of' this

its

rise

from the moun-

southBrook, which, running some distance the On St. Mary's Bay. its waters into

stream, near

its

source,

we

discovered veins of a

amygdaloidal trap, coated externally radiated 'milk quartz in the green earth, and having vacancies with a thin incrustation of geodes, a enclosing, in some of the internally crystallized, and heulandite, with stilbite often radibeautiful pearly white fohated by the laminae of heulandite. ated, and sometimes intersected tegether in the same speciThe two minerals being thus exhibited

men,

are their distinguishing peculiarities

obvious. the bright

rendered much more

readily distinguishes Indeed the most unpractised eye from the dull greyish pearly lustre of the heulandite,

white rellection of the

stilbite.

In the

same geode with the

of mineral, crystallized in the form heulandite. occurs a greenish chabaof characters possessing all the the obtuse rhomboid, and

Messrs. Jackson and Alger on the

236

excepting color.

sie,

It

probably that mineral, colored by

is

These masses

green earth.

occupy the whole

often

interior of

the geodes, and are deeply indented by the pyramids

surrounding quartz crystals of

more recent

;

formation, or at least of

than the quartz enveloping

have been

more recent

induration,

it

Botryoidal cacholong also occurs,

it.

encrusting the interior of the vacant cavities of the quartz. locality will

a visit

of a the

is

not already described, worthy

we have

from the geologist,

North mountain range

This

I

only place which

visit

a correct guide to the

is

may be procured.

spot where specimens

The

is

is

interrupted by the Gut of Annapolis.

ated the Light-house, which serves entrance

of Annapolis Basin, the for

large vessels in

Digby Neck where

that part of

two miles from the town of Digby.

harbour

This

repay the mineralogical traveller for the trouble of

and the course of the stream

;

the

of

to

whence we suppose

Nova

to

At

this place, is situ-

guide navigators

most capacious and

to

the

secure

Scotia, and one in which, as

is

observed by an historian of the country, a thousand ships may ride, secure

The

site

from every wind. of the Light-house

is

on a projecting rock of colum-

nar trap of the most compact variety

been

crevices have

filled

;

ami the numerous irregular

with chalcedony, jasper, and agate,

which, adhering firmly to the contiguous rock, give firmness, enabling

which,

it

in boisterous

and wash from

its

to resist successfully the

it

additional

fury of the waves,

weather, dash completely over the precipice,

surface every trace of

soil

or vegetation.

The

centres of the columns of trap appear to be more readily acted

upon by the veins,

sea, than the parts contiguous to the chalcedonic

and thus concavities are produced,

in

which the spray from

the sea, slowly evaporating, leaves crystals of as in natural salt-pans.

its

saline contents,

237

Mineralogy and Geology of JV&va Scotia.

The

rocks at

this

place are columnar trap, incumbent

on

amygdaloid, and present a surface exactly corresponding to that

on the opposite side of the Gut, which

is

but half a mile wide,

if it

had been separated by violence, and not worn

away by the action

of the sea, which, however, at other places,

and appears as

has been a wonderful agent

in

ture of columnar rock that skirts

markable of

we

these

shall

lofty superstruc-

undermining the

To

coast.

this

the

most

re-

occasion to refer hereafter.

have

Barres, in his " Atlantic Neptune," has given several beauti-

Des

drawn views of the scenery of Nova Scotia, exhibiting the bold and magnificent features of the Bay of Fundy (equalled only

fully

by northern Ireland and the Hebrides), and more

as well as of the tamer

varied scenery of other parts, taken during the survey

of this coast in the year 1779, by order of the British govern-

Among

ment.

these,

alterations

have a picturesque view of the

Annapolis Gut, just referred

the entrance of

some

we

making

it

more conformable

to the present

character

ance of the spot, conveys so well the true scene, that ing

it

we

again before

we met

of this

the public eye, especially as the

with

in

Nova

rare

appearof this

;

work

of

one perfect copy being

[See Plate

Scotia.

I.

at

the

end

volume.]

Leaving Annapolis Gut, our attention Chute's Cove, which diate coast it

at

gladly avail ourselves of this opportunity of bring-

Des Barres has now become very all

cliffs

which, with

to,

we

is

will

next be directed

about twenty miles from

it.

The

to

interme-

did not examine particularly, but sailed by so near

as to observe

its

more prominent

features.

It

presents lofty

precipices of trap rocks, and affords the mariner no harbour of sufficient security

coast.

Even

from the sudden gales that spring up on

Chute's Cove, although

it

is

this

considered the best,

56

II

Messrs. Jackson and Jlger on the

S38

and has a small settlement, ing certain winds, as

it

will afford

him a safe retreat only dur-

The

stands nearly open to the sea.

composing the bottom of

this

cove,

in

is

distinct

trap,

columnar

action of the sea, masses, the surfaces of which present, from the pebbles, shallow, basin-like assisted by the motion of sand and cavities, regularly curving

from the centre up

to the

edge, which

is

in some places harder, and formed of quartz and jasper, and are interjasper and quartz The highly polished.

has become

posed between the columns tached

to

them.

of the sea, which

like

a cement, and very firmly

at-

We observed several columns beyond the reach exhibited to a less extent the same appearances,

direct tendency to proving, however, that ordinary causes have a we produce these depressions on their surfaces. The minerals west mile one obtained in our visit to this spot, were found about waste of waterfrom the cove, where we met with an immense

worn and nearly

globular masses of

a pavement into the sea.

Many

trap,

running

down

like

of these masses are highly pol-

on their surfaces, ished by attrition, and they frequently exhibit, imbedded bloodstone, small globular concretions of heliotrope, or interesting This color. in a chalcedony of a very deep green mineral also occurs not far

ofl'

in veins traversing amygdaloid,

and

to owe its color exhibits, in the green chalcedony, which seems thread-like, minute, it, invests the green earth that frequently

to

and diverging branches of a high crimson ic

color.

The

chalcedon-

part has a milky hue, and passes into carnelian.

At Chute's Cove, the rocks resume

six miles east of the locality just mentioned,

their abrupt character,

and present

lofty preci-

abounding with pices of columnar trap resting on amygdaloid, by this amygdapresented The shape of the cavities zeolites. loid,

'4;

is

very singular

j

for instead of the spheroidal shape, in

Mineralogy and Otology of JVova Scotia.

which they usually occur, we are here presented with cylindrical cavities,

more

from half an inch to two inches

than a foot in length.

slightly inclined,

The

cylinders

of

heulandite

usually left

is

phcement

incrustation of

A

deposited.

perfect,

thin

beautiful

considerable

many curious The most common

space

of the

modifica-

exhibiting

on the primary form.

tions

but

manner.

curious

in a

void in the centre, and the projecting crystals

k mark ably

are

is

and often

diatneter,

usually coated with a

is

layer of green earth, over which an crystals

in

are mostly vertical or

and sometimes branch

of these

interior

They

angles,

solid obtuse

and the

is

the

lateral

re*

acute

edges by single planes, thus producing a hexahedral prism with dihedral summits. often entirely in

tills

The

heulandite

an irregular manner, as

if it

space too limited to allow room

They

fect.

is

not always crystallized, but

the tube with laminte, intersecting each other

had attempted

crystallization in a

for the crystals to

become per-

are evidently the product of one crystallization, for

there are never concentric layers of this mineral in the tubes.

These

cylinders, studded with brilliant

crystals of

heulandite,

constitute specimens highly interesting to the mineralogist

the form and position of the cavities

evidence in accounting will

;

but

may be considered valuable

for the origin of the trap rocks.

Our limits

not permit us to dwell on this subject sufficiently to weigh

the evidence against any theory, but

we may

venture to hint at

the evidence which may be derived from their form and position. If the cavities were produced by the expansion cf an elastic fluid, the

pressure being equal in

all

directions, a

spherical cavity

V ould necessarily be produced; and this might be converted into a cylindrical cavity or tube, by the of

the rock

to

which

hardening of that portion

the upper hemisphere

was

attached,

r

Messrs. Jackson and Alger on the

240

tenacious mass below, containing and by a subsidence of the The tubes are often bent at right the

other hemisphere.

angles, as

the rock

if

regular

elevation

copper

in

had been subjected

and depression.

a similar cavity,

to

an alternate

The occurrence

a few miles to

the

ir-

of native

east

of this

proevidence might probably be adduced as instance with heat. In the of this rock was attended that the

place,

duction

to,

referred

analcime there was a crystal of green

attached to a

projecting from the rock, probfilament of native copper, which, ably served

it

as a nucleus

of heulandite &
on which

to crystallize.

The

crystals

were doubtless deposited subsequently

to the

incrustation always received its formation of the cavities, as the the tube, and never left any, impressions from the irregularities of

although

it

slightest prominence received an indentation from the account for these can The only way in which we

in the rock. cavities,

of aqueous origin, on the supposition that the rocks were been produced suppose the upright tubes to have

would be, to gas ; but as the cavities are soon by the ascent of some elastic rock, and have no outlet, arrested by a dense superincumbent and

at the

reason to

same time diminish

in size as

they ascend, there

is

produced by some suppose the cavities to have been shows the force fluid, as steam. Their position

condensible elastic

which produced them and

have acted in a direction up and down, perhaps indicate the rising and falling of

to

their irregularities

the Uquid mass.

The inadequacy

these appearof any hypothesis to explain

trap, is clearly founded on the aqueous origin of the in favor of the opposhown, we think, by the evidence we have the peculiariexplains satisfactorily site theory; a theory which

ances,

ties

if

referred

to,

and which derives no

little

support from,

if it is

241

Mineralogy and Geology ofJVbva Scotia.

presented not confirmed by the precisely analogous phenomena

by rocks of known igneous

origin

;

such, for example, as the vol-

cited canic lavas and obsidians of Iceland and the Lipari Isles,

by Mr. Scrope,

The

in his able

work on Volcanos.*

occurrence, too, of similar cavities in the secondary trap

several writers on geolof other regions, has been mentioned by

Professor Hitchcock, who, ogy, and in this country especially by on the Connecticut bordering in his valuable notices of the trap they there occur, River, aptly remarks, that the rocks in which

" appear as in

if

bored through repeatedly by an auger."

we have

a paper which

recently noticed in

the

And

f

"Trans-

written by Mr. actions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh," J in the trap of occurring as Trevelyan, we find them mentioned

one of the Ferroo

Islands.

This careful

ol

server

fluid through the their origin to the escape of an elastic

rock while

this

We

ascribes

mass of

soft.

shall take occasion hereafter to

show the

relations of shale,

tuff and amygdared sandstone, and trap, in the production of trap vicinity of the trap is loid ; which will lead us to infer, that the

that the producnecessary to the formation of amygdaloid, and But before leaving this of that rock was attended by heat.

tion

cove,

we would

mention, that foUated heulandite occurs

in

vems

that mesotype two or three inches wide in the amygdaloid, and is

found abundantly

in

of the soil formed by the disintegration

this rock.

Croix Cove, pursuing the coast easterly, the aiiiygand forms an abdaloid, crowned with columnar trap, continues

From

St.

rupt precipice for about five miles, where

Page 113.

t Silliman's Journal, Vol,

56

VI.

it is

p. 53.

again interrupted

t Vol.

IX.

Messrs. Jackson and Alger

242 by

The

Martial's Cove.

rocks

at

this place,

cannot sented by the neighbouring coast, of

who may

those

visit

this

m the

fail

and the veins prereward the labor

to

a

spot, as scarcely

impending without the downfall of some

week

passes,

that scatters

cliff,

its

shaded by its brink. Here treasures along the shore, before masses as a mere spheroidal to the heulandite is not confined sometimes six veins exists in constituent of the amygdaloid, but the base of the precipice inches wide, extending vertically from the of them, that have fallen with

Some

to its very

summit.

masses of

trap, exhibit

broad

folia

of a pearly white appearance.

transparent, is sometimes This heulandite, usually colorless and and Germany. of a red color, like that from Scotland

But

in

of speaking of the interesting productions

in should not pass over a very curious, and, copper. association of analcime with native

in the

form of the primary crystal,

these planes on

all

its

fact,

this place,

hitherto

The

we

unknown

analcime occurs

and by the replacement of

passage of that solid angles, presents the

color is of a verdigris green form into the trapezohedron. It of many crystals, this color externally, but, towards the centre

diminishes in intensity, and in some

them

transparent.

copper

is

partially

They

it

entirely disappears, leaving

green. also approach the emerald

imbedded

in these crystals,

of a ular concretions of about the size

sometimes

common

The

in glob-

pin's head,

and

at

having one extremity attached to other times in minute filaments, which they both occur. These the amygdaloid, hi the cavities of when scraped, possess the globules are soft and malleable, and, The crystals presenting thembrilliant lustre of pure copper. beautiful, induced us to examselves under an aspect so new and nature of order to ascertain the ine them more particularly in of As the amygdaloid contained u portion their coloring matter.

Minercdogy and Geology of green earth, is

we

known

well

green tinge. thin film of a

243

Scotia.

ascribed the color to this substance, as

at first

penetrate other minerals and impart to

to

But

as a

it

them a

few of these crystals were covered by a

green carbonate of copper,

it

seemed probable

that

substance might be the occasion of the green stain which

this

In order to ascertain

more uniformly pervaded them. digested the

powder

of

mechanically united with in

Mova

the solution

metal

a crystal

and detected

in nitric acid,

it,

by appropriate

we

it,

which contained no copper

tests.

It

is

this

metal

probable that

thivS

yet be discovered at this locaUty in crystals occupying

may

the cavities of the amygdaloid, as has in a similar formation in

been observed by Mr. Allan

one of the Ferroe

Isles.

The places which next demand our attention, are two nences known as Hadley's and Gates's Mountains. They are

emisitu-

ated near each other, and each attains the height of about three

hundred

feet

above the level of the Bay of Fundy.

consists mostly of amygdaloid, in which, in

many

The former

places, nodules

of chlorophEeite take the place of the zeolites that usually occu-

py the

Specimens of the chlorophajite, when

of dog-tooth spar.

cently broken, are of a greenish

leek green. nail is

It is

tinge,

with about the same readiness as horn

On

changes, and the substance

moved from surface.

re-

sometimes approaching

translucent on the edges, and soft, yielding to the

distinctly conchoidal.

peculiar change

crystals

and are sometimes hollow, enclosing

in diameter,

half

These nodules are frequently

cavities of this rock.

an inch

is

silver.

Its

fracture

the

color

becomes black and opaque.

This

exposure

to

the

air,

also observed in specimens, before being re-

the rock, even to the depth of six inches from the

We would

observe, that

tive appearance, has occasioned

this

much

substance, from speculation

its

among

decepthe in-

U

if

81

i

1:'

MM'MiiMMiaMiM'*!*"

Alger on the Messrs, Jackson and

244

"-^^^

company was fo^ed HabUanU. and .ha. a Th s m„.ake an ore of oopper. purpose of working i. a, rod, wh.ch use of the mmeral fo

originated from .he

lave

NoI;:;c"ia, a, wen as

i„

New

speculations. farmer into ruinous were kindly .his .ocaU.y. we

Z

Ue under

a

i^onlnnflad he shown spec^ens of

presen.ed believe, rarely

f»J^™.

One was

^

r„™ wj we

=>

mass ne ^ly

./

by

i:t:: o::rafsrcrco've, space of a eavi.y in

Ibis

mineral.

and ,„,^„, i„„„e, ,o„g ^^__^.^,^^

^^^^

r:L.ire

.n

an hones, England, has led »a„y

„(

aUed a„d obvious,y o„ee

^^-^t.ZZ:T^

:rr:::;rs::re:::iro*:rsa:.ha.piace. Ga Js moumain

is

very similar in

i.s

included „entoed-, b„. .he minerals

s.rae.ure .0 .he one ,a»

in .he

rren' 'characer, and are so numerous labor .aryeven .he ordinary

„«,

by

i.s

^-^-

amyg

as .o

~

aloul are

t

rer,d. unneces

^'^^^^l^:^^ Mos.„f .hem

pf it a wn.ie give »;^;:;;f ex.en. sufficient to a than PePP"-"™' ""' ™°"^ larger no. are in small masses, and mesotype masses of thomsoni.e were found globular broken through pound balls. When ofThe sze f .wen.y-fo»r and slender thomsonite present long centre, the masses of to he cen surface .he of from opposite points r stXtdU.i.g be obmay which form small cells, re they meet and ee.

Z 1

Jwh

m

246

Mineralogy and Geology oj JVova Scotia. served

distinct, colorless,

and transparent crystals

form, and measuring more than an inch

in the

in length.

primary

These

crys-

tals are occasionally replaced on their solid angles and terminal

edges, so as

to

pyramidal

produce low

terminations.

thomsonite agrees with that from Dumbarton in Scotland,

This in its

chemical and physical characters.

The mesotype is in masses of a finely radiated or plumose structure, and when broken, presents, in the less compact parts, small intersecting fibres of a beautiful silky white appearance. Its texture,

near the surface,

a spUntery fracture

;

is

unusually compact, breaking with

and some specimens

in this respect, as well

which they as in point of color, resemble the bones of animals, for them up plough who are sometimes mistaken by the inhabitants, from the

soil

of their fields.

We did not

observe in any of these

specimens, well marked appearances of crystallization.

Attached

masses of foliated to the mesotype and thomsonite, are small of magnetic iron veins Several analcime. stilbite and crystals of in a practical ore occur on this mountain, but they are worthless,

view, from their narrowness and inconsiderable extent.

The next gist, is

place, which will prove interesting to the mineralo-

Peter's Point.

projecting into

This name

is

given to a promontory, which,

the Bay of Fundy, forms a shelter on the west

a small creek, into which saw-mill, called

to

a stream, sufficiently large to carry a

Stronoch's Brook, discharges

its

waters.

The

at St. Croix geological features of this place are similar to those wanting, here are cavities cylindrical the that

Cove, excepting the superand the amygdaloid has been washed away from under

preciincumbent columnar rock, which presents an overhanging beneath threatening to crush the traveller who may venture pice,

67

f

f

\\

H

Messrs. Jackson and Alger on the

246 its

tached by the

almost continually

frosts, are

de-

rock,

of

large masses frowning summit, from which falling.

of an arch of columnar Near this point, under the protection amygdaloid, which, the in a deep cavity was discovered trap internally to the diameter of having a narrow aperture, expanded six feet,

in

The mouth

every direction.

of this cavern

bemg

were found

to examination, its walls enlarged, so as to admit of fine state of encrusted with laumonite in a remarkably

be tWckly

Specimens were

preservation.

easily

detached by the hand, and

of radiating crystals, were found to consist of successive layers of a fine flesh-red color. which, in the centre of the mass, were

the interior of cavities external surface of this crust, and with transparent and which frequently occur, were richly studded They are in beauty. and perfection colorless crystals, of great

The

prism, terminated the form of the oblique rhombic

plane passing from one

acute solid almost constantly replaced on the

on the acute

triangular plane resting

ondary planes are

always small,

form of the crystal. filled

by

a rhombic

other, of the acute solid angles to the

The

lateral

angles by a

edges

;

and

single

these sec-

and never obscure the primary

cavities, in

the laumonite, are often

efflorescence of the with water, which serves to prevent the The state. unaltered which are thus preserved in an

crystals,

surface of this mineral

calcareous

is

frequently enriched with crystals of

spar, exhibiting

the

forms of the

rhomboid more

triangular planed dodeobtuse than the primary, and the scalene apophyllite, in the form of crystals perfect

cahedron.

Large and

replaced on the solid angles by of the square prism, generally degrees of advancetriangular planes, which are in various single

primary form, are found ment, sometimes almost concealing the with specimens in perfectly agrees This mineral at this place.

247

Mineralogy and Geology of JVbva Scotia. our possession, which

The

crystals are

are

from standard

localities in

eminently axotomous, and

easily obtained, that

is

it

this

Europe.

cleavage

is

so

with great difliculty the crystals can be

preserved entire.

The

right square prism

are easily obtained, but the natural joints are

cleavages parallel to the sides of

not so open as in the direction of the terminal plane.

hence there can be no doubt of

;

agrees

characters with the apophyllite from the

likewise in chemical

Bannat

It

the

its

identity with that

species.

In visiting

were unable

to gain

frightful cliif, that

and buried

it

second time

this interesting locality the

access to this remarkable cavity, as

before hung over

among

in 1828,

the ruins.

it,

had

we the

fallen during the winter,

But we met with other

scarcely less interesting in this vicinity, in the

localities

numerous

cavities

and arches that have been hollowed out by the surges from the softer

amygdaloid that

traversed by veins of a yielding nature

;

probably

last rising

from the immediate substrata of

on which the trap

These

reposes. are

this

rock,

inner extremities of the caverns, stilbite,

heulandite, and

rarely with apophyllite, in greenish white square prisms, an

inch in length. foot square, ly

veins, at the

frequently hollow and lined with

more

I

is

such as carbonate of lime and sandstone, the

Masses of laumonite, with surfaces more than a

were obtained from them, and were found complete-

studded over with projecting crystals of great richness.

of these,

possess

we succeeded

all

their native

in

preserving

entire,

and

beauty and transparency.

tendency to effloresce when immersed

in sjririts

which has great advantage over water

in

its

crystals

One now

They show no of wine ; a

fluid

the winter season in

not endangering the vessels in which the specimens are preserved.

Between

Peter's Point and

French Cross Cove, the precipices

||

W:

.?

i1

Mesm's. Jackson and Alger on the

248 which

rise in

hundred

places perpendicularly to the height of three

many

feet, exhibit

very distinctly, as

we

pass them, the parallel

made

disposition of the different beds of which they are

The

precipice at

water,

is

which

is

French Cross, from

is

composition, although is

presents

it

rarely vesicular,

The

trap.

the next

;

is

an amygdaloid

appearance, and contains but few minerals in

common

third

the lowest bed,

a reddish amygdaloid, largely

impregnated with spheroidal zeolites of

Here

perhaps as instructive as any. about twenty feet thick,

and seems

fourth and last

is

pass into amorphous

in fact to

composed

incline

away

an angle of from

at

its

The

many cavities unoccupied.

of tabular and columnar

They

trap rising in irregular columns to the lop of the precipice. all

up.

being accessible at low

its

five to

ten degrees with the

horizon, and are distinctly separated from each other throughout their

whole course.

The

stratified

arrangement of these rocks

uncommon occurrence seen

it

noticed but

in

;

at least,

we do

a very few instances.

recorded an instance of

it

in

his

is,

we

believe, an

not remember to have Dr. M'Culloch has

interesting paper

on the Island

of Staffa,* but there the precipice consisted entirely of the colum-

nar rock, and the three beds composing

it

did not exhibit that

peculiar relation of contact which distinguishes the one '«•< 6-i.

mentioned

;

nor did the precipice, compared with

any thing like an equal altitude

;

and

cult to assign the origin of three beds, ity in structure, to

it

we have

this,

would be much

attain

less diffi-

which exhibit such

similar-

one and the same epoch, than four which pre-

They

sent great diversity in structure and mineral contents.

all

appear to have been deposited at successive periods, and so long

Transactions of the Geological Society of London, Vol. II.

p.

504.

;

249

.Mineralogy and Geology ofJVbva Scotia.

one another, as

after

sandstone, although exhibited,

is

it

have affected no intimate union.

to

The

does not appear as a part of the section

immediately subjacent to

it,

and may be observed

at

several places along the coast cropping out from beneath the trap

amygdaloid, where

the

it

comes

in

contact with

being of a

it,

reddish color, evidently the effect of a partial admixture of the

The

two rocks.

sandstone, in

some

places, to

which we

shall

occasion to allude, enters largely into the composition of the

have

trap breccia, as well as the amygdaloid, and

shows evident traces

of igneous action.

The amygdaloid

near

this

of laumonite and mesotype

contains

and

is

is

precipice furnishes good specimens

but the most abundant mineral

heulandite, which, from the beauty of

here describe.

shall

;

dony and geodiferous

it

we

occupies the interior of veins of jasper,

It

sometimes found

crystals,

its

lining the

quartz.

surfaces of botryoidal chalce-

The

crystals are in the

form of

right oblique-angled prisms with their obtuse solid angles replaced

by triangular planes, and their acute edges replaced by one plane ; they thus pass into hexahedral prisms. They are colorless

and

On

transparent.

cleavage parallel to the terminal

plane of the prism, the laminae present the

appearance characteristic of

landite however, from

stilbite in

None

of the heu-

possesses the red color pecu-

har to that brought from the Tyrol. quently interspersed with

pearly white

while the lateral planes

this species,

often present a remarkable vitreous aspect. this locality,

brilliant

Specimens of

projecting bundles

it

are fre-

of crystals,

which well show the characteristic difference between the two minerals.

and

is

Analcime of a reddish color

is

also associated with

it,

--

probably that variety called sarcolite.

58

:^i

I

.;

S

Messrs. Jackson and Alger on the

260

No

further

arrived at

was made of

examination

Cape

until

coast

this

we

This bold promontory terminating the

Split.

into the eastward limit of the North mountain range, projects and the extremity of the cape, being broken into

Bay

Fundy,

of

detached masses, has given it is

in

now known.

accordance with the

referred

to,

rise to the

appropriate name by which

In our former remarks on

this

cape,

we

stated,

opinion, that the detached masses

common

had been suddenly separated, or

split

oil',

from the

the sea ; main cape by the undermining of the amygdaloid by by the present but this opinion is evidently incorrect, as is shown to those masses columnar their of position vertical or conformable provstationed are they ; of the main cape, in advance of which of degradation ing them to have been separated by the gradual

[See Plate

the rock in situa.

II.

This cape

of this volume.] *

forms the southern boundary of the

strait

called

by the inhabi-

Bay of tants the "Gut," which connects the waters of the with the Basin of Mines.

It

precipice of about three hundred feet, and

The

Cape Blomidon.

Fundy

presents, on either side, a mural is fifteen

intervening coast consists

trap resting on, and alternating with

amygdaloid.

miles from

of columnar

These rocks

half the disoccasionally rise to a great height, especially about

• This plate, from

Des

Barres' Chart, does not give so accurate

present features of this singular spot as

he said also of Plate alter either

I.

taken from the same work.

of them very materially from mere

them copied on stone very nearly changes

we could have wished, and

wiiicli tiie

as

may

Bui we were unwilling

recollection,

we found them.

two places have undergone

u view of the the same

to

ami have therefore had Notwithstanding the

in the elapse

of more than a half

physiognomy of century, they yet convey a striking semblance of the peculiar either,

and

fixed in

it,

to portray.

will inMatitly recall

to

wliiic lielioUling, for the

the mind, the impressions that were previously first

time, the scenery

which they are intended

Mineralogy and Geology of .JVova Scotia. tance

ceed in

Cape Hlomidon, where they considerably ex-

tovvaixls

that of

any other part of

tliis

one place, of four hundred and

the ingenious

261

coast, attaining an elevation,

fifty feet,

rellecting circle of Sir

accomplished Lieutenant Governor of place the amygdaloid

as

was ascertained by

Howard

New

Douglas, the late

At

Brunswick.

veins of magnetic iron ore, coated over with grey oxide of

nese.

The one

show

the passage of the

They

drons.

is

finely displayed in large

are often found sprinkled

and calc-spar

;

imbedded

may be taken

moulds or impressions of

that present

ous lustre,

and transparent

ticles

to

in length.

the natural

folia

These

ing the process

formation,

of a high vitre-

on their

solid

crystals, colorless

uniform apple green color, which

is

line

in parallel

order

thus imitat-

;

by which a small crystal, some time after

converted into a larger one of the same figure. of

separation

between the surfaces

the

of

proves them not to have been formed at the same time

;

an interesting

fact,

which we do not remember

to

its

The two,

or points

out at least a suspension in the process of crystallization. is

joints

massy specimens,

have served as a nucleus, over which the colorless par-

were subseipiently deposited

distinct

in

external laminie, are occasionally found to

enclose a smaller prism of

seems

crystals

rhomboids, some of which are

striae parallel to

regular sqi.are prisms replaced

in their

and quartz,

Grounds of quartz

Also apophyllite

more than an inch

angles,

in red jasper

on fracture, broad transparent

anil in

that

over with limpid crystals of analcimc

the latter in acute

the i)nmary crystal.

manga-

brilliant crystals

out entire, so as to leave accurate

their forms.

hemitropes, and present deep of

and

primary form into rhombic dodecahe-

are sometimes

from which they

thia

marked by numerous small and narrow

is

This

hove seen

noticed before.

in

i

;

Messrs. Jackson and Jlgcr on the

252

We

also

met with interesting specimens of chalcedony,

marked by those regular

ously

shades of color, that are exhibited

They

lapidaries. if

curi-

stripes, or alternations of different in

onyx

the

are sometimes arranged

a-j;ates

of

the

zones, which,

in little

cut and polished, would resemble the stones sold under the

name

of "

onyx eyes."

The chalcedony

sometimes converted,

is

apparently, by decomposition, into an adhesive cacholong, and

These minerals,

earthy and opaque. shall

like

most of the others

among

mention, are obtained most conveniently

masses of rock that

skirt

the shore

and

;

is

it

is

we

the loose

fortunate for the

collector of these objects, that he has thus at his ready

command,

treasures which would otherwise cost him great labor in obtaining,

and

for which,

in

clambering up the

would besides expose himself

with the loose masses to which he

About one mile

lofty precipices,

he

the no litde danger of falling

to

may

cling for support.

east of this locality, the amygdaloid

abounds

with analcime, in dodecahedral crystals transparent and colorless but sometimes of an apple green color internally, and invested

with on opaque white crust on their surfaces. line

is

seen between them

Accompanying the analcime, we variety of

But no separating

as in the case of the

apophyllite.

found a mineral resembling that

mesotype called needlestone.

occurs

It

in letrahedral

prisms terminated by low pyramids, formed by four triangular

One

planes resting on the terminal edges. is

of the terminal planes

often extended at the expense of the others, which

times nearly obliterates.

It

occurs

in

groups of crystals that proceed from a centre, which

compact

to yield a

splintery fracture,

it

some-

radiating and interwoven

and

is

is

sufficiently

white like ivory

;

they are transparent and colorless, have a remarkable vitreous lustre,

and are

sufficiently

hard

to scratch glass.

They

are often

Mineralof^y and Geology of JVova Scotia, beautifully interspersed

with, and

studded

which thoy are never known

analrimc,

which they receive impressions

as

if

(^ver the

253 crystals

to penetrate,

deposited at a later period.

Accompanyini; the analcitne and necdlestone of

this place,

eral

was met with

ical

and physical characters with no mineral described

systems,

in

hexahedral prisms, which,

undoubtedly prove

will

to

identical with no species of the

of

but from

be some

a^^reeiii^ in

new

a min-

chemthe

in

substance.

It is

genus kouphone-spar of Profes-

sor Mobs, and the only minerals with which, from crystallographic characters,

can be supposed

it

be

to

identical, are the colorless

crystals of phosphate of lime from St. (jothard,

from i

Italy

a doubt,

be

to

ness, and

comparing

its it

distinct,

by

its

very ready

it

is

and the sommite proved, beyond

fusibility, its inferior

hard-

unsusccptibiiity of dissolving or undergoing altera-

its

when

tion

from both of which, however,

;

On

smaller fragments arc thrown into nitric acid.

widi the Davync, a mineral

more recently discovered

by Messrs. Monticelli and Covelli of Naples, and described their Prodroino

sess

many

dcWi Mineralos^ria Vcsuinana,*

characters in

same fundamental form, tions,

common

appears

to

it

presents the same modifica-

same proportions between

the

in

pos-

with that substance, having the

of which

and observes nearb

it

the

height and brea'.th of the crystals, but especially reseml)les in its color, transparency, specific gravity, ters.

In

its

mineral, as

of lime, as

hardness, however, it

it

is

it

and pyrognostic charac-

inferior to the crystals of that

leaves no trace on glass, being softer than phosphate

we have

tance, opposing as

before observed

it

;

a character of

some impor-

does the identity of the two substances.

It

yields to cleavage very indistinctly, and only in a direction par-

I'age 405.

59

Messrs. Jackson and Alger on the

254 to the

allel

primary planes of the crystals, though ihey

lateral

present deep transverse

which seem

striaa

cleavage, and which are not stated crystals of that mineral; from

ken up

in

to

which

to indicate an opposite

have been observed

also it differs, in

in the

not being ta-

The secondary

the smallest degree by nitric acid.

planes of the crystals of this mineral, are usually more smooth

and vitreous than the primary, which are roughened by

and rior.

These

But we

shall

suspend any further remarks on car:)ful analysis of

Mr. A. A. Hayes,

its

its

is

identity with

without recording some notice of a complete description of

of the

friend,

its

unknown

to the

were unwilling it,

although

we

present catato

pass on,

have not given

characters, and have attempted only

with some described species.

Hornstone, masses of agate, ruins

substance, until

this

now making by our

as

;

We

logue of mineral substances.

it

it,

we may then be better able to any partially known species, or set forth

completed

claims to the tide of one wholly

to identify

;

inte-

crystals are rarely three eighths of an inch in length.

an accurate and

show

strije

homogeneous

they disclose a perfectly transparent and

trap rocks,

&.c.,

occur scattered among the

which become entirely inaccessible as

we approach Cape Blomidon.

This cape forms an abrupt termi-

nation of the North mountains, or, as they are called in this district,

the Cornwallis mountains, on the east.

It

presents us with

a view of the outcropping of the sandstone, which here gives support to the

trap

precipice, being the

rocks, and constitutes

the chief part of the

more than three hundred

feet high,

and having

columnar trap resting upon, and scarcely attaining the eleva-

tion of

an hundred feet above

jection

beyond the

trap,

country " the offset."

which

The

it.

is

This rock

sandstone forms a pro-

called by the inhabitants of the is

regularly stratified, and dip-

Mineralogy and Geology of JYova Scotia. ping

an angle of ten or fifteen degrees, passes beneath the trap,

at

which

255

supports throughout

it

whole extent of the North

the

mountains. In our

short

first

visit

to

this

cape

we

in 1827,

the sandstone no foreign remains, or veins of

discovered

gypsum

by taking advantage of another landing-place where slopes

down

to the water's edge,

of the gypsum,

some

were more than broken

and had been severed away and

by the

falling of the trap

and were

in

contrast

striking

masses of trap that were lying among them

The

of transparent selenite.

folia

remains

we

gradually

rocks from

of these masses presented the delicate whiteness

of pure snow,

broad

it

have met with numerous veins

of which, the fibrous and granular varieties,

a foot thick,

into smaller masses,

Many

above.

we

were a few

observ-ed,

plants highly carbonized

;

tence of bituminous coal

;

with

huge

the

others consisted of

only vegetable organic

indistinct casts of culmiferous

they indicated to us the probable exisin the vicinity,

and afford very positive

evidence of the igneous origin of the overlying trap rocks,

them

converting

We

were

not,

beds of coal a discovery, inhabitants,

to

remark

in

but since,

;

into

their present

charred or coal-like

however, so fortunate as

in this

sandstone, so near

to

its

meet with any regular junction with the trap

which would be of great practical value

and which may yet be made.

in the

in

state.

JSor

to

;

the

were we enabled

two rocks any very decisive marks, evincing the

former action of one upon the other, excepting that the distinct line of their junction

was

of one into the other;

occasionally obscured

by

the passage

and angular masses of them both were

united into a sort of breccia, which assumed,

in its finer varieties,

the character of genuine reddish amygdaloid, of a semi-vitrified

appearance, and having

its

cavities filled, as usual, with zeolites.

Messrs. Jackson and

266

This appearance

two rocks come

the

almost every place where the

at

"We

in contact.

that occurs with

daloid

observed

is

Mger on

gradually putting on the appearance of

it,

by admixture with masses of the superinduced

ed by some disturbing force

sandstone

in the

to the

finer,

we have

which, as

said,

phenomena,

to

which we

relative portions of its

and

less interesting

we

recourse to

instructive

shall presently allude, give great

theory of the igneous origin of the trap;

together,

a coarse,

first

amygdaloid, the color of

depends on the

These, with other no

materials.

to the

lastly a true vesicular

and

Al-

specimens, in which

detect these fragmentary ingredients, forming

then a

union exist-

but they are deprived of their lustre.

locality furnishes those illustrative

most every

we

;

amyg-

trap, effect-

and the amygdaloid, thus produced,

;

exhibits the small scales of mica that previously

ed

and the shale

find the sandstone

and

support if

explained without

believe they cannot be

taken

having

it.

Before describing the canes and islands of trap rocks which project into the Basin of Mines, or are scattered along

its

north-

ern coast, forming the outskirts of the North mountain range, and the limits of this interesting formation,

it

will

a brief account of the situation and extent of

The Basin

of

Mines is

township

Colchester on the north,

next side, which of Hants

;

and

is

its

shortest

Fundy by

" the Gut," which passes

and Cape D'Or.

sheet of water.

The

The

sixty miles in length. is

formed by the county for the dis-

greatest breadth of this basin thirty miles.

It

a narrow, but deep

between

its

of Parsborough and the

by the county of Kings,

from Windsor to Parsborough,

with the Bay of

is

miles long,

forty-five

tance of twenty-five miles. is

this

of a scalene triangular shape, and, having

longest side formed by the district of

be necessary to give

communicates strait,

the majestic walls of

called

Cape

Split

i

Minfralogy and Geology of JVova

This basin

will

prove interesting

257

Scotia.

on

the traveller, not only

to

account of the delightful villages seated on the banks of some of the

many

rivers

which empty

and imposing scenery of

which here

their

its

waters into

it,

the picturesque

and the enormous tides

borders,

height of sixty feet with fearful rapidity,

rise to the

but also for the remarkably hue illustrations of the geology of the

country and the interesliiig relations of the diHerent formations,

which are here presented geologist will

and

coast,

an unusually distinct manner.

circumnavigate the

to

(Irliglit

in

The

whole extent of

its

explore the connexions of the ditl'eient series of rock

formations, the highly curious and important junctions of the trap

with

the sandstone, shale, 6cc.

natural history, will also he richly

he may

be ex{)osed, by the

beautiiiil

productions

The most

oi'

eliii;il)le,

as

so large

wind

;

for,

traveller

is

to

collector of specimens in foi-

the perils to which

many

acquisition of

of the

only elhcient

from danger,

be inrapal)le of

Ixiing

is

and

mode

of exjiloring this

by means of a boat, not

rowed

in

case of

I'ailui'e

of

besides the dilliculty of transporting si)ecimens, the

constandy

in

danger of being caught, beneath the

insurmountable precipices, by the rapid inilux oH the accident

rare

the mineral kingdom.

anil

coast, altiiough not free

The

rewarded

of

this

kind having nearly happened

to

tides.

An

ourselves in

examining the geology of Cape D'Or, where we were under the necessity of making our escape by clambering up a mural preci-

pice three hundred feet high, which was etfected with great risk of falling with the detached columns on which

support,

we

think

hazards, and to

it

we depended

for

our duty to warn our successors of such

recommend

a boat as the means of safety in such

emergencies.

60

^

Messrs. Jackson and Alger on the

258

The

of the islands that are scattered

compose most

trap rocks

along the coast of the Basin of Mines, and most of the capes that

make

into

We

it.

shall describe

them, for convenience, nearly in beginning with

the order in which they were examined;

This island from the great

proceeding thence to the eastward. height of

seem

to

its

rocky

cliffs,

overhang on

its

which, as

we

are

told

It

of the most interesting character, and, in

some

qualled by it

was the first object

that

in

Nova

it

presents

opened upon our view its

phenomena

respects,

is

une-

In ascending the bay,

Scotia.

only by the looming or refraction of

which

by Des Barres,

northwest side, has been appropriately

designated by the French, Isle Haute.

any other spot

the

Cape D'Or, and

Island situated about five miles off the coast of

;

but

was seen

it

dark surface by the

fog, in

seemed suspended, and which compKHely obscured

we very

real substance of the island, until

the

nearly approached

it.

This beautiful appearance was also no less strikingly presented by the elevated parts of the neighbouring coast, and fornieJ, by the illusion,

We

one of the most curious spectacles we ever witnessed.

reached the island nearly

low water, a circumstance, we

at

should observe, of great importance to

from the great rapidity of the

which here

i-ise

it

is

at

any other time.

in its features

and

it

is difficult

and

is

cliff

On

low

in a regular

cliff.

it,

as

and even

its

Its

considerably undermined at

escarpment, and terminates

features are also

much

less

western

front,

about three hundred its

towards the opposite shore, the surface of the

away

visit

Like the neighbouring

altitude.

rears itself boldly to the surges, in a

feet high,

who may

comjiosed entirely of amygdaloid and columnar trap,

varying greatly it

all

and conlliciing currents,

to the height of sixty feet,

dangerous to land coast,

tides

in a

base

;

while,

Island inclines

comparatively

bold on

its

northern

Mineralogy and Geclogy of JVova Scotia. shore

;

but here the deficiency

and conspicuous manner

edge, in shafts from

fifty

izontally into blocks

blocks

never

are

their

Some

more, and usually much length

gei.erally

is

eye with singular interest

the

strike

These

than

less,

about

a

three

foot

times

posture, by

this

were yet

;

been

a])pearing to have

some power

that had acted

was passing arc

into

aw-are,

its

And

in a state of mobility.

on viewing; them, as

we

flat

before they had completely consolidated, or while

t'.icm

their particles

them,

an hundred feet high, and divided hor-

of them are curved or bent over in groups that

pressed over into

to us,

irreg-

from the water's

diameter, but they rest upon each other with perfectly

surfixces.

upon

to

rise

of variable height and proportions.

Their

diameter.

trap

supplied by the beautiful

which the shattered ridges and

in

colonnadesof columnar trap are seen to

ular

in

is fully

259

if

this

appeared

it

happened while the mass

of

Appearances analogous

to

solid form.

have been observed, doubtless

a

iti

more 'f[

remarkable manner,

if

we

are to jiulge from pictured representa-

tions of them, in other trappean

districts

form an interesting scene, and one, which, with otiier

facts,

and the nature of

aware

ailbrds us th(.>

some

that a distinguished writer. Dr.

of such columns, until in regai

d

to straight

is

it

if

it

;

connexion

in

th.'ii'

M'CuUorh,

in

origin,

We

was attended.

are

some one of

useless to attempt the explanation

we have something more

ones

even here, they

taken

clue, at least, into

agent by which

his papers, has said that

but,

;

rational to olTer

an observation certainly not

looked, but one, perhaps, which could be

confidence ten years ago, than

at

made

with

to t)e over-

much

the present time

;

greater

for

it

can

hardly be supposed that the able investigations of Mr. Scrope,

Professor Daubeny, and other writers on the continent, have not since thrown

some new

light

on the

origin of trap rocks,

and the

Messrs. Jackson and JIgcr on the

260

occasionally assumed by them. anomalous and grotesque forms

They

refer U3 to the striking

sec

analogies subsisting between

volcanic lavas, as exhibondary trap rocks, and the more recent their

in

ited

and

contiguralion

columnar

arrangement,

their

clearly deduce celh.la.i.vandteMure; and, by these analogies,

though, their origin from similar,

be, very remote; causes.

obvious therefore, that the occasional

It is

of the trap referred to,

Avhen >luAvn the

may

it

time

it

in the

effect of

mere

iiu

invated appearance

explained as easily as the same diing probably of lava, aiul is, in both cases,

is

columns

some

was beginning

lateral

motion given

to develop.' its

previous state of igneous

In

lluidiiy.

inineralo-v too,

smaller scale, with similar appearances, thou-h on a pie,

i',1

.he

mass

to the

oU.ers,

if,

in

hardening, they

ha.l

become

is

olf at their

loo brittle too yield

jiomts. any further without separating at those the trap of masses hexagonal the It

exam-

siHimaiiite,

which are not only curved, but are

even broken bent nearlv double, and are sometimes centres, as

its

we meet

as, (nv

scapol.te, curved or bent up crystals of

sappar.< and sonu;

at the

cohimnai- stru.^lure iVom

among

composing

this

symmetry with those possessing the greatest of symmetry the almost have Some of them, indeed, of form. of l)locks regular the smooth as crystals; but they are not so internally, they are of a coarser and, Ireland, from brought trap island, that

we meet

texture, resembling

more nearly some

from the Western Islands of Scotland.

of

the

masses brought

In their simple

mechan-

considerably, as might well be expected ical texture, they vary which has origin; but this is a character in reasoning from their being so its of the very circumstance little or no weight, from variable.

The

island presents

stances that cannot

fail

many

to interest

crystallized mineral sub-

and enrich the

traveller.

But

Mineralogy and Geology ofJVova Scotia.

we have

as they agree with those

already described, with

minuteness, and as the island, in respect to ture,

is

marked by an which

coast, with

them, or enter more its

its

some

minerals and struc-

identity of character with the neighbouring is

it

261

doubtless coeval,

at laige

we

shall

not enumerate

upon the peculiar characteristics of

scenery, but take leave of

it

by remarking

that

it

deserves the

careful attention of naturalists, as well as lovers of the picturesque.

Cape Chignecto we to ascertain

next

to

its

did not

be described.

but approached

so nearly as

it

was personally examined by our

It

Dr. Benjamin Lincoln,

many

visit,

composition to be of trap, like the adjacent cape

who

has

kindly

communicated

friend

us

to

interesting facts relating to the geology of the county of

Cumberland.*

The back it

trap forming the extremity of

in the

meets the sandstone hereafter

abruptly

;

the sandstone

and not dipping beneath this

Cape Chignecto extends

county of Cumberland nearly to Apple River, where to

be described and terminates

coming boldly it

in contact

with the trap,

The

as usually happens.

strata of

rock are nearly horizontal, and Dr. Lincoln suggests the

probability of a fault existing in the strata at this junction.

cape deserves a more attentive examination

be

true, as

it

to

This

determine

if this

must have an important bearing on the theory of

the origin of trap rocks, and would lead to the opinion that the

weight of the superincumbent rock had caused the stone to yield to

fragile

sand-

pressure, and thus accomplished the dislo-

its

cation of the strata.



We

are happy to have

it

in

our power to

state that Dr.

Lincoln

iias

a large collection of the adigenous plants of Nova Scotia, of which

hoped he

will offer the

public some

obtained is

to

be

account, as this interesting branch of the

natural history of that country has hitherto been greatly overlooked.

61

it

Messrs. Jackson and Jlger on the

262

Cape D'Or,

situated at the moutli of the Basin of Mines, pre-

sents a mural precipice, attaining, in four hundred

feet

amorphous and and

some

places, an elevation of

above the level of the sea

irregularly

columnar

From

trap-tufT or breccia.

;

and

trap, resting

is

composed of

on amygdaloid

two

the yielding nature of the

last

mentioned rocks, which form the base of the precipice, deep caverns and irregular arches have been formed beneath the su-

perincumbent rock by the beating of the angry surges against

its

walls, while a shelving platform of trap-tuif remains below the

the water, and

surface of

low lar

This trap-tulF

tides.

daloid,

The sandstone

a small proportion of

are

the

are rarely

where

it is

amyg-

cement

of the

place makes up but

The

crevices

indented by the surrounding matrix.

the action of the waves, the copper

seen

beyond

for

some distance beneath

their reach,

it

is

The

with an individ-

seldom weigh more than one or two ounces, but masses

of rock, one of which weighed

cape doubtless originated

first

always

is

the water

usually coated

are said to have been found lying detached

gold, and

rock

arborescent, and never distinctly crystallized.

incrustation of the carbonate or oxide of copper. ual pieces

this

in

occupied by irregular masses of native cop-

frecjuently

Where exposed to bright, and may be but,

softer

at this

breccia.

per, which generally are

They

a

angu-

of

trap,

masses of compact

and red sandstone, united by

same substances.

composed

breccia

a

is

and irregularly rounded

exposed only by remarkably

left

is

was bestowed by

Europeans

that

fifteen

in the

the

among

pounds.

the fragments

The name

of this

supposition that this metal

was

French emigrants, who were the

peopled Nova Scotia.

The

brilliancy

and

unusually yellow color of this copper might easily have caused this error, as

it

led us to suspect

it

might be an alloy of that or

Mineralogy and Geology of .^ova Scotia.

some other metal

;

)ut

on chemical examination,

to dissolve entirely in diluted nitric acid,

when

tested with muriate of soda, or

water, or nite.

It

when

263

was found

it

and gave no precipitate

when

largely diluted with

ammo-

treated to excess of saturation with aqua

does not contain, therefore, any gold,

silver,

antimony,

The copper

or iron, the only metals suspected to be present.

is

confined, exclusively, to the brecciated and amygdaloidal trap

and never occurs

in the

superincumbent columnar rock.

never collected in any regular veins or beds, but in

small masses

through the rock,

it

is

never be advantageously explored

will

is

probable that at this

As

it is

only scattered

place

;

this

metal

and as

it

occurs chielly below the level of high water, the shafts would be liable to

be

filled at

the periodical inHux of the tide,

if

indeed the

works were not entirely demolished by the violence of the cur-

The sanguine expectations

rents.

this metal, in

excited by the appearance of

a state of purity, must then be disappointed.

Masses of calcareous

spar,

and crystals of analcime, tinged

green by the carbonate of copper, and having slender filaments of copper enclosed in them, occur in the cavities of the amygda-

which rests on the

loid

On

trap-tuff.

the eastern side of

Cape D'Or,

the precipice assumes a

concave form, and has received the characteristic appellation of

Horse-shoe Cove.

Here

the cavities in the

amygdaloid are of

greater dimensions, and are frequently occupied by crystals of

transparent analcime, which are grouped together in congeries of large

and small

crystals.

Calcareous spar here occurs in long slender hexahedral prisms, projecting into

and intersecting the

cavities.

They

are curi-

ously interwoven with each other, and are richly encrusted on their

surfaces with small but perfect crystals of stilbite.

The

a:

Messrs. Jackson and Alger on the

264

would, from specimens are very prepossessing in appearance, and sugar, resemblance, be mistaken for the crystallizations of

their

which adorn the shops of confectioners.

The

occurs, also,

stilbite

forming beautiful

Stellas,

of crystals,

radiating groups

in

which are distributed through the en-

veloping masses of calcareous spar.

Many

we

shall

we

pass Spencer's Island, which

ated about a mile from this cape.

and adds much

although

The

description.

diameter of

its

It

situ-

this region,

no objects of natural history worthy of island

altitude of this

base, and

midst of the waters,

composed

is

is

of columnar

picturesque appearance of

to the

presents

it

they

but, since

not here repeat the notice of them.

Leaving Cape D'Or,

trap,

;

already mentioned as occurring at other

we have

are such as places,

Cape D'Or

other minerals occur at

nearly equal to the the

degree, the violence of

some

breaks, in

it

is

standing alone, like a tower in

the the surge, which rolls into the Basin of Mines from

Bay

of

Fundy. Proceeding along the coast towards the

east,

up the basin, we

districts pass the more tame scenery of the sandstone and shale

to

be described hereafter, and do not meet with the trap,

arrive at

Cape Sharp, which

fifteen

is

which cape

it

is

is

shown

composed of

Plate

the

II.*

*

A

nearer view of this cape, as

it

recuirbent on red sandstone and shale, Silliman's " Journal of Science."

The promontory

amorphous

exhibits any traces of columnar

we

miles from Cape D'Or,

on the opposite shore, with

and about four from Cape Split in

until

trap,

arrangement.

which

The

of this scarcely

trap forms

appears from the east and shows

may

be seen in Vol.

XV.

itself

of Professor

;

Mineraloiry and Geology of JVova Scotia.

a precipice or "biiift"" to (he

low sandstone

ing between its

which

them and

a remarkable contrast

exhi})its

with which

hills

it is

866

connected; and stand-

the sea, serves to protect

them from

ravages.

This cape

not furnish the collector with any mineral

will

specimens of interest

but as this was the

;

first

place where the

junction of the sandstone, shale, and trap was observed,

be mentioned on account of

serves to

The

sandstone and shale, which

will

its

it

de-

geological interest.

be particularly described

hereafter, are seen at this place to dip beneath the trap, at an angle of to

twenty or

become

thirty degrees, and, in their passage, are

The

singularly altered in appearance.

observed

strata of these

substances, before regular and distinctly parallel, are found

together broken up and lying confusedly

changed

the sandstone has

to a

in

al-

various directions

dark red color,

is

more compact,

and has become intimately blended with the shale, so that the eye with

The

the whole it

the substance peculiar to each.

difficulty distinguishes

shai-p angular

fragments of the trap are next observed, and

becomes

a distinct breccia, growing

it

passed

as

portion of the

exhibited the small cavities of

breccia in contact with the trap vesicular amygdaloid, as

more compact

The

dips beneath the superincumbent rock.

into

its

dominion, and led us to

believe that the shale and sandstone combined with the trap, and

produced amygdaloid by in

which

rocks in loid in

this

occurred, as

Nova

Scotia,

their union. it

The numerous

instances,

did in fact at every junction of these

and the absence of

trap-tuff

and amygda-

places where this did not happen, or where, although the

sandstone, &,c. were

not visible,

exist beneath, led us

irresistibly to this

process was attended by heat

62

is

it

could

fairly

be inferred to

conclusion.

inferred from

That

this

numerous circum-

fT

Messrs. Jacksan and Jlger on the

g^

which may be mentioned here, and others in the country which remain to treating of the two great divisions of copper in the trup-tuff native of occurrence be described. The metal in the sandthis of ore unreduced and amygdaloid, and the stances, a few of

may be regarded

stone beyond the inllucnce of trap,

as evidence in

into fine redjasper,

ofclaystone favor of this; while the conversion cavities in the entered the superincumbent trap, the cylindrical

as

it

vacant spheamygdaloid at St.Croix Cove, and even the existence of support of in evidence internal as considered roidal cavities maybe the

same

the sandstone from grey to

The change of color in

theory.

they approach the trap, and the red, the compactness of the strata as

charred state of the vegetable remains atlbrd sutlicient proof, that,

dary trap

in

iVova

the contiguous strata,

during the formation of the seconthere was

Scotia,

in

The

heat.

considerable

the strata, sharp fragments of the breccia, and the breaking up of

rather also show, that the production of this rock, or

its

non-con-

suddenly. formable position on the sandstone strata, was effected the Baof depths inaccessible the from ejected was Whether it

thrown directly

Mines, or was

sin of

sandstone,

we

cannot determine

;

only on the borders of the basin that

this

which,

in

cavity

was the

up through the

crater,

would lead us if

it

may be

former times, the trap rocks issued

mountain range, with but

and but once broken

little

in its

strata of

but the occurrence of the trap

;

to the belief

so called, from

while the North

breadth compared with

continuity,

seems

to

its

length,

have been thrown

unfathomable up by one sudden and violent eruption from the its ancient by depths of the bay of Fundy, which is now skirted lava. If

we were

biased

in favor of

exploring these formations,

it

was

any theory of the for that of

earth,

Werner

;

when

and be-

Mineralogy and Geology of J\'ova Sculia.

coming

I

in

to allow tlie superioiity of the

Playfair,

to

North mountains,

the

and the appearances assumed by the neighbouring

by Hutton,

method

of the insufficiency of the Neptunian

satisfitHl

account for the phenomena observed

induced

267

strata,

we were

igneous theory, as taught

and Daubeny.

In treating of the

South mountains we

shall perceive the ne-

cessity of an amalgamation of both theories, to explain the relations

of that range to the North mountains. Partridge Island, situated near the village of Parsborough, and

from

six miles

Cape Sharp,

the next

is

place to be described.

In crossing the Basin of Mines, after passing the majestic Blomi-

don,

this island is the first

consists

west

side, presents a precipitous

hundred and those

elevated object that meets the eye.

of amygdaloid and columnar trap, which, on

feet high,

fifty

who may

its

It

south-

and overhanging front about two

rendering precarious the situation of

pass beneath

its

Stationed near the verge

brow.

of this precipice, the visitor beholds beneath him rugged, insulated

towers rising abruptly from the sea almost to a level with his standing,

the sea that during the stormy winter months

them

own

which, having withstood the frequent commotions

in the

most

frightful billows,

able barriers to resist the

yet remain as firm and immov-

a thin but luxuriant

few scattered hemlocks and

a

of

thrown among

force of these repeated attacks,

prevent the more rapid decay of the island.

crowned with

is

and

Their summits are

from which spring up a

soil,

low underbrush, that nearly ob-

scure the face of the rock, but at the same time furnish the sea bird a safe retreat

beyond the reach of any

water the

in addition to the

visitor,

beauty of the scene,

will find before

with interesting minerals, that he

invader.

But

at

low

wildness and picturesque

him a

will

field so richly

delight to

spot and gather these objects of science.

linger

(See Plate

stocked

on the

III.)

.'ill

r i^'

Hi:

Messrs. Jackson and Alger on the

268

Before alluding

to

these minerals,

we would

observe that the

coiiipact trap forming the highest parts of this island

masses which may

strictly

is

rarely in

be called columnar, although they have

pena tendency to that form, and, in a few instances, affect the tagonal shape of basalt.

We

among them any appearance arrangement.

were unable, however,

discover

to

columnar

their

of articulation in

contains but a small proportion of iron; and

It

consequently the exposed surfaces of the rock are very su,

metal, which

altered by the oxydation of this

slightly

in other places is

more sensibly observed.

Of

many

the

stilbite

interesting minerals to

with calcareous

associated

spar

This mineral, forming numerous veins base of

the

of the

the

rock,

precipice,

beautiful

presents,

When

crystallized,

it is

at this place,

most abundant.

the

the amygdaloid near

in

open

the

in

projecting masses

interstices

composed

of

long

and sometimes straw-yellow

fasciculated crystals of a flesh-red, color.

be found is

in elongated,

rectangular, four-

sided prisms, terminated by tetrahedral pyramids.

The of

calcareous spar

stilbite in

striated

is

curiously scattered over the surfaces

acute rhomboids, which are often hemitropic, deeply

upon the faces of cleavage,

parallel

to

their horizontal

diagonals, and of uncommon magnitude and beauty. tals,

These

crys-

usually colorless and transparent, are in a few instances of a

rich honey-yellow

appearance.

In breaking the various masses

which are scattered along the shore, one, which,

numerous

composed of yellow

it is

not unusual to meet with

stilbite externally,

crystals of calcareous spar lining

its

contains within

walls in rhomboids,

which, having their faces deeply indented by the projecting pyr-

amids of the

stilbite

on which they are implanted, were obviously

deposited subsequently to the formation of that mineral.

Mneralogy and Geology of

269

JSTova Scotia.

Chabasie in rhombic crystals, transparent and colorless, also of a beautiful orange-yellow color, occurs at this place in the fissures of the amygdaloid.

and are very

faces,

The

crystals present brilliant glassy

large, frequently

measuring an inch across

each rhombic plane. Agates of various kinds, jasper and chalcedony, also botryoidal cacholong, exist in the columnar rock above the accessible

base of the precipice polished masses

they

:

among

may be picked up

the loose rocks

imperfectly

in

A

on the shore.

vein

of magnetic iron ore, about a foot wide, was also noticed entering the superincumbent rock.

On our return to edects

the

many

of the

this island

past

and the neighbouring coast in 1829,

winter were

strikingly

manifest;

for

of the lofty mural precipices, which before constituted the

most extraordinary and imposing features of

were

coast,

this

brought low, and reduced by their downfall to mere masses of debris

heaped up on the sea shore.

This was peculiarly the case

on the west side of Partridge Island, from which the immense

mass of rock had rific

manner, and

common tides

in

this

fallen,

to

that before bulged out in the

a great height.

most

ter-

But these catastrophes are

quarter, and are owing to the violence of the

and currents

in

the

Bay

of Fundy,

driven fiercely by

the winter blasts.

The

fallen

masses on Partridge Island, besides presenting us

with a rich variety of the minerals disclosed one or Scotia.

They

of apophyllite, brilliant,

we have

already described,

two substances hitherto unobserved

are phosphate of

known

in

Nova

hme, semi-opal, and the variety

The

met with

in

very

transparent, hexahedral prisms, with their lateral

and

as albin.

first

is

terminal edges, and sometimes solid angles, replaced

63

;

or in regu-

I'

Messrs. Jackson and

270 lar six-sided

very ly

Mger on

the

whose pyramidal terminations correspond Though usual-

prisms,

nearly with the lateral planes of the crystal.

crystals of smaller, they resemble in color the beautiful

much

of phosphoresthe asparagus stone from Spain; and as the want claim to the said to characterize thtt variety, they lay

cence

is

same

title.

But we

fined to the is

find

on

trial,

phosphorescence

that

is

not con-

varieties of the calcareous phosphate, but

common

even possessed by some of the asparagus stone from Spain.

The

sinter,

that occasionally forms irregular

come down

are often interspersed with small shining

They

clifF.

shaped masses adhering

with which they have

to the veins of calcareous spar

from the

in thin folia of siliceous

imbedded

crystals at this locality, are

scales, or tabular crystals, of specular iron.

The

opal presents itself in specimens that are well character-

ized, of

a wax-yellow color with a resinous lustre approaching

that of pitchstone

tery edges

;

and

it is

;

from the jasper with which

it

is

with elsewhere large

and

is

it

it

splin-

its

principally appears to differ

associated, and into

which

Like the former, and the next substance

evidently passes.

mentioned,

some distance from

translucent at

in these respects

rare in

on

this

Nova

beautiful

The

Scotia.

sheafs

and

island,

of

yellow

has not albin,

stilbite,

been

nal edges

is

single

from Bohemia.

of the primary right-squarp

planes, which, extending over

crystals,

But

in

The

the lateral planes

opake,

striae parallel

modtermi-

of the

result in octa-

usually these replacements

not greatly obscure the primary figure of the crystals. present

met

prisms are replaced by

produce two four-sided pyramids, and thus

hedrons with square bases.

to their base, in

it

be

accompanying

nearly milk-white crystals, some of them rejembling, in their ifications, the crystals of this mineral

to

do

They

which direction they readily

!Bk.

Mineralogy and Geology of JVova

Some

cleave.

271

Scotia.

of them have gone through a spontaneous change,

and separated into a powder, similar to that resulting from the disintegration of laumonite.

any other spot of

which

it

by almost every

crystals of great beauty

drawn the

attention

mention

to

this island

more than

country has been celebrated, and in search

in the

visited

is

But we should not omit

substance for which

in this place, that the

and

traveller,

is

amethyst, in

They seem

brilliancy.

first

to

have

of De Monts, one of the earhest French emi-

Henry IV.

grants to this country, during the reign of

he was so struck with their appearance, that he

It

is

said

took several

specimens with him to Paris, where he had them appropriately set as jewels,

and presented them

tokens of his loyal attachment.

to

They

the

King and Queen

as

often form geodes in the

amygdaloid, and are externally encrusted with chalcedony and

cacholong that alternate with each other. Pursuing

the northern

shore of the Basin of Mines

wardly, the next place deserving of notice

Two

Islands, about six miles

is

east-

the vicinity of the

from Partridge Island.

The

inter-

mediate coast, being composed of rocks of a different character from those which

it is

leave, to notice

more

it

our object

at

particularly

present to describe,

when we

we

shall

treat of that forma-

tion.

The Two rising

on

all

Islands consist of amygdaloid and columnar trap sides abruptly from the sea

;

but, being accessible

only at low water, they will not afford the visitor

specimens.

On

to these islands,

interest.

At

the

he will be favored with a locality of

this

conversion of

many

interesting

main land near Swan's Creek and opposite

place

shale,

we have

also

uncommon

another example

of the

red sandstone, and compact trap,

into a coarse breccia, consisting of loosely united

first

masses of these

'^

Messrs. Jackson and Alger on the

272

rocks, then into a

more compact

breccia, consisting of similar

from each masses more closely united, though distinguishable

by consecutive gradations, into a genuine, well eye would characterized amygdaloid, in which the most critical have m We ingredients. distinguish its component fail to other,

and

finally,

our possession specimens from

changes of which

fectly the

rocks tending to the

shall notice

place,

which

illustrate

per-

speak, and present these three

we

production of amygdaloid.

Having thus adverted

we

this

character of this rock in particular,

to the

more generally

the appearance of the rocks at this

and then describe the minerals before alluded to as occurThe shore is fronted by a steep bank about one ring in them. hundred feet high, from the base of which a slope of debris, deplace,

tached by the

frost,

inchnes

down

One

into the sea.

half of this

bank consists of trap, and the other of red sandstone intermixed with red shale.

Upon

it

a low ridge

rests

of columnar

into contact with

These two rocks come boldly

each

trap.

other,

and

at an angle the sandstone with the shale, dipping beneath the trap

on, of forty degrees, has the breccia and amygdaloid recumbent

or

more properly, inchning

viewed from the columnar

trap.

against it; thus presenting,

when

sea, a section of the two rocks crowned with the The amygdaloid is vesicular, and furnishes most

of the minerals which

we

are

now

to describe.

They

are cha-

sinter, basie, analcime, heulandite, calcareous spar, and siliceous all

of which occur abundantly, and are often seen richly congregated

I in the

same specimen, or included

The

chabasie, grouped with

its

in the

same

cavity of the rock.

a&sociated minerals,

is

usually

of a wine-yellow or flesh-red color; but in a few instances

it is

which are

fre-

nearly colorless

and transparent.

The

crystals,

quently three fourths of an inch in diameter, exhibit the form of

Mineralogy and Geology of JVova Scotia.

278

the primary obtuse rhomboid, sometimes so modified, as to as-

sume

the

lenticular

hemitropic form represented

At other

Mineralogy, p. 138. faces of composition, least

would require,

consummate

skill

for a precise crystallographic description, the

of a Haiiy, a Mohs, or a Brooke.

all

They

are

and often hemi-

lustre,

This chabasie agrees in

tropically united.

Phillips's

they become indescribably complex, or at

slightly striated, of a glistening vitreous

ting color

in

times, from the almost innumerable

characters, excep-

and complexity of modification, with that from the

Scotish Islands.

The

analcime

in

is

white,

opake

crystals, exhibiting the pas-

sage of the primary cube into the trapezohedron, which

quently

and

completes,

thus

forms

equal and similar trapeziums which entirely

four

fre-

it

having twenty-

crystals

obscure the

primary planes.

Over

the

small, but

analcime, the heulandite

extremely

brilliant,

is

thickly implanted

in

pearly-white crystals, which are

transparent or translucent, and usually in the primary form, some-

times slightly modified.

The

calcareous spar

is

crystallized in very

acute rhomboids,

of which scarcely two can be found possessing similar angles.

The

crystals are likewise so modified, as to

assume the form of the

dodecahedron composed of two scalene six-sided pyramids, applied base to base. delicate

slelhe,

They

are greatly elongated,

and grouped

in

occupying the cavities of the amygdaloid.

Delicate prismatic crystals, but not of sufficient size to enable us to determine their form, resembling the Brewsterite from Scotland, occur scattered through the

cavities of the

trap-tuff

and

associated with perfect and distinct crystals of analcime, constituting interesting specimens.

64

fT

'1

JV/cssrs.

274

The

Jackson and Alger on the

of the minerals which

last

ced

in the

shall

mention as occurring

This mineral

siliceous sinter. at this locality is

»

we its

amygdaloid, forming, in

is

usually embra-

spheroidal cavU.es, a flaky

enveloping their entire or lamellar crust, which, on in stalactitic projections,

sometimes depends

mner

quartz.

common limpid observed small crystals of or greyish-white, which is usually snowy-white, ces of a beautiful amethystine

substance found

in

breccia,

coating

bright

internally a

the

of

One

tint.

is

surfaces,

wh.ch may be Its

or two geodes of th.s

on being broken, presented

amethystine

sinter

wUh numebeau-

and chabasie implanted rous crystals of wine-yellow th.s sinter of Many of the specimens it. tifully contrasted with brought to this country from resemble those of volcanic origin, in

J* 11

color,

in a few Mastan-

the Azores

by Dr. Webster.

The next

northern shore of the place to be noticed along the eminence known as the Five Islands, and an

Basin of Mines,

Tower Hill. remains

These

to

is

Our

will include all that description of these places Nova Scot.a. to the trap rocks, of

be said

islands,

relative

grouped together

in a

narrow compass, are about

very abruptlast described ; they rise ten miles from the locality fronts of a lofty part, present, for the most ly from the sea, and entirely ot Three of them consist almost picturesque character. trap

and cannot well be examined

other two are

except

at

low water.

The

red and black composed of red sandstone, with

of these rocks shale, exhibiting the passage

into a

vesicular

and

on the proporcolor of which depends zeolitic amygdaloid, the sometimes form a part of it; it is tions in which the ingredients breccia, or trap-tuff, which made quite black by the shale. The and wh.ch seems as an attendant of this amygdaloid, is a constant the constitution of the intermediate form necessary to

latter, is

275

Mineralogy and Geology ofJVova Scotia.

here observed, as in other places of similar character, superin-

To

cumbent on the amygdaloid.

plate IV. the reader

view of a part of these Islands taken

for a

which two are shown

some distance

at

up

dred

feet,

the rear, the highest of which

in

and

is

of

"Pinnacles,"

steep sugar-loaf masses, provincially termed the that rise

;

of columnar trap, besides the

consist

to

referred

is

The

wholly inaccessible.

about one hun-

is

third,

formed

in part

of sandstone (colored red on the plate), has been worn away on its

west

side, so

junction of

as to exhibit a very fair sectional view of the

rock with the trap

becoming blended

contact,

The

this

trap

is

the two, at the very point of

;

as usual into trap-tuff

and amygdaloid.

not strictly recumbent on the sandstone, at this place,

but more properly rests noticed of the

inclined against

five, is that

The

it.

which stands out

am'^

an idea as a

full

drawn

rphous or indistinctly columnar

most

considerably in ad-

vance of the others, and of which a few words only as accurate

island

picture.

It is

trap, resting

will

convey

composed

of

on a softer basis

of amygdaloid, which has been so undermined as to leave the co-

lumnar rock hanging over from above,

and seeming

These

at

islands,

every moment as with

if

a vast leaning tower,

like

ready

the exception of

to

fall

Tower

into the sea.

Hill,

of

which

the trap forms the summit only, are the last places along the

shore of the Basin of Mines, at which

this

rock

is

known

to occur.

Still farther east, the sandstone, interstratified with the shale, pre-

va"s to the exclusion of every other rock. as

therefore,

of

Nova

the most distant

outskirts

Scotia, which, stretching east

of not less

than one hundred and

of the trap

and west

to

formation

the distance

thirty miles, forms, as a deposit

of trap-rock, one of the most extensive and ralogical

They may be regarded

fruitful fields for

mine-

and geological research that the known world presents.

n

i

Messrs. Jackson and Jlger on the

276

this rock, its

of Unlike most other extensive formations length, altogether disproportionate to its

is

miles,

place "three

worn away

and

in

some

places,

deep ravines on the sea

into

a hundredth part

of

its

extent in

breadth

not exceeding

where

in

any

has been

it

coast, scarcely

exceeding If

direction.

the opposite

whole mass of the North averaged, probably the breadth of the be found to exceed, mountains, including Digby neck, will not at

most one

thirtieth

part

of

its

From

whole length.

rather in the light of

we may

this

an immense

regard it vast beneath the sandstone through some from dyke, thrown up sudden eruptive upncaving and continuous rent, produced by the out laterally only to a very of its strata, which allowed it to spread

circumstance,

limited extent

not

how

thrj

and

if

origin of

be accounted continuity,

;

for in

It oflfers

its

it

be admitted

at all,

we know

Its

regularity of outline,

its

almost exact linear direction, are

being the ejected matter of successive as to the opinion we have above expressed

its

a very striking exception to the

by Professor Daubeny, though applicable to

to

mass can such a singularly disproportioned

and especially

eruptions, and warrant origin.

is

any other way.

against the notion of

its

theory

remark made

his ingenious reasoning

in other respects, that

" the more

is

strictly

ancient volcanic

strata, spreading more uniformrocks seem to form continuous country;" which he every side over a large extent of

ly

on

Giant's Causeway, the the case with the basalt of the of Edinburgh, and the toadstones of Derbyshire, the porphyries * And we have reason to believe that, trachytes of Mont d'Or. remark, although once apparently the progress of discovery, this

says

is

m

true, will



countries. similar exceptions in other

of Active and Extinct Volcanoes, See Professor Daubeny's Description

page 407. 'I

meet with

Mineralogy and Geology of JVova Scotia.

277

Having finished our account of the trap rocks of the country, comprising a complete description of that formation, with the more

which

important and curious mineral productions

and having suggested what appears

to

us

it

includes,

the most

obvious

theory of their origin, which, derived from remarkable peculiarities of color, structure, and other appearances of contiguous strata,

appears

to

account for those phenomena

manner than any

other,

strata of sandstone

and rounded

hills

and

we

now

shall

in a

shale, forming the

satisfactory

moderately elevated

Cumberland, and part of the

of the county of

county of Hants, and part of the

more

pass to the neighbouring

Colchester and Pic-

districts of

tou. It

becomes necessary

to describe this formation before speak-

ing of the South mountains on account of

with the trap, which

we have

its

intimate connexions

previously alluded to in describing

the capes which project into the Basin of Mines.

The of

Nova

sandstone, constituting so large a portion of the Province Scotia,

is

of various appearance, differing greatly at

In the immediate vicinity of the trap, as at

ferent places.

Chignecto, Cape Sharp, and Swan's Creek

it is

dif-

Cape

of a dark brick-

red color, and consists of irregularly rounded grains of quartz, usually very small, rarely exceeding the size of a pepper-corn, ac-

companied by minute spangles of mica, and united by an

argilla-

ceous cement, containing a large proportion of peroxide of

When

in

connexion with the

trap,

iron.

as before observed, the sand-

stone passes insensibly into the shale, or rather, the two form a

compound

in

which the eye can distinguish no

completely are they blended.

and generally,

The

like the sandstone,

the trap rocks, where

65

it

assumes

line of division, so

shale varies greatly in color,

becomes red

in the

presence of

a bright tile-red color,

and when

li

r

Messrs. Jackson and Alger on the

278 exposed

action of the waves,

to the

This rock consists of

surface.

sometimes including a ide

little

folia

tliin

mica, and

Comparatively

of iron.

becomes polishrd on the

it

is

of argillaceous slate,

generally colored by ox-

remote from the

assumes a grey, brown, or bluish-black color

:

trap, the

more

shale

rarely

it is

spotted with green.

Near Diligenct River,

the

shale

is

almost black, and appears

It

here includes a large bed

to

be colored by carburet of

of

compact limestone, a section of which has been formed by the

iron.

A

encroachments of the waters of the Basin of Mines.

yond Fox River, towards Cape color,

seen

is

to alternate

both of which are former world.

tilled

They

little

be-

D'Or, the sandstone, of a grey

with the strata of greyish-black shale,

with relics of the vegetable kingdom of a

are carbonized remains of various culmif-

erous plants, which are converted into a compact bituminous

Portions of ensiform leaves resembling those of the

lignite.

Iris,

or

blue-flag, were here observed, lying be*^^ween, and included within,

the strata of sandstone.

The whole tion of the

northern coast of the Basin of Mines, with the excep-

capes and islands of trap, before described,

is

composed

of strata of sandstone and shale, alternating with each other, and

presenting to the sea the edges of their strata, which are exhibited by this natural section. elevation, rarely to the

They do

exceeding one hundred feet

waves, the strata have suffered

and the

not attain a great

and where exposed

much from

their violence,

is

always worn away, exhibiting the bold ridges of

strata,

contrasted with the deep furrows occasioned by

shale

sandstone

;

finely

The

strata of these rocks

from a foot

to four feet

its

decay.

in

thickness, and are alternately stratified with each other in great

regularity

;

no

limit

being found to

i're

this alternation,

we

are unable

;

Mineralogy nnd Geotogij of JYovn Scotia.

which rock

to say

is finally

village of Parsboroiigh, the

red shale appears to predominate,

tered crystals of yellow iron pyrites. •ai)i)eais

in

more powerful

East of this bed the sand-

and more than compen-

strata,

sates for the thickness of the shale just mentioned.

junction with the trap of Swan's Creek, where the carbonate, and sulphate of lime, and

opposite stone it is

in their

fragile

is

also

slaty,

it

It

in

forms a

includes beds of

where these two

nature, are seen actually

and

salts,

The

contact.

and oi a delicate

crystallized

gypsum

amorphous

varieties.

is

so

lime-

and contains scattered portions of coal

The gypsum

sometimes bituminous.

is

of the laminated

and fibrous kind, the laminae being sometimes more than in length,

which

thick,

and contains occasionally scat-

beautifully spotted with green,

stone

Near (he

subordinate to the other.

and constitutes a bed more than one hundred yards is

279

flesh-color.

not so

much sought

At Tower

Hill,

a foot

But the laminated and for exportation as the

twelve miles east of Pars-

borough, the sandstone again meets the trap, which forms but a small part of the precipitous summit, and has

connexion with exhibit a

it.

The

no amygdaloid

most singular appearance, and, becoming

vesicular, affect

a curious imitation of amygdaloid, the place of which in relation to the trap.

cipice,

are

in

united sandstone and shale, however,

These rocks, forming

it

occupies

the base of the pre-

of a fine texture, and contain a large proportion of

argillaceous matter, colored with peroxide of iron.

Passing beneath the trap

in

its

immediate

vicinity,

it

abounds

with compressed and flattened spheroidal cavities, which, instead of the zeolites, are,

when occupied,

filled

with rounded masses of

gypsum, the mineral which usually occurs facts obviously tuff

in this

tend to establish our theory of the

rock. origiri

These of trap-

and amygdaloid, and render probable the explanation of these

Messrs. Jackson nnd Alger on the

290

phenomena, -that the quantity of complete the process

trap present

was inadequate

to

at this locality.

Beds of gypsum, of

practical value, occur near the

the Hasin of Mines, in

head of

Subenacadie

the vicinity of the

Kiv-jr,

containing the relics where also occur large beds of Umestone. of an ash-grey color, and and impressions of marine shells. It is of galena In one specimen, a few crystals very compact.

not

were observed, scattered through

Much

and

portrayed in plate

county of Hants, and were thirty

River

rising from the

as

shown on

first

years ago. St.

the map.

is

of the

still

which

same work.

gypsum occur

in the vicinity of

furnish

continues to

which

of a bluish color,

is

Wind-

course

its

immense

sent to the United States.*

and

United States as a manure, althoughin

highly valued in the

is

its

native country

it

least to the fertility of the not appear to contribute in the in fact, the hills entirely

composed

with so luxuriant vegetation altogether

wanting

decay furnish a

far

in

the

the

in

there forms a precipitous wall

Croix, and extending along It

quantities, the greater part of

This gypsum

explored

It

shells,

Outlines of Oryc-

vi, fig. 7,

and more valuable beds of

larger

sor about

mass of petrified

in Parkinson's

resemble the Utuites described tologv, p. 165,

a

of gypsum,

as those soil.

more productive

where

The

trap as

soil,

is

does soil

were not clothed this

mineral was

rocks

by

exhibited

their in

the

" Garden of Acadia," township of Cornwallis, justly entitled, the whole extent of the base of the North mountains.

aud along the

Gypsum land

at

• It

is

also occurs

abundantly

in

the head of Chignecto Bay, and

stated in

Mr. Halliburton's History that

the

county of Cumber-

at

several places along

for

the last few years nearly one

been annually shipped to difhundred thousand tons of this valuable mineral have ferent parts of the United States.

3

Mineralogy and Geology of JVova Scotia. the coast of the Gulf of St. sive is

beds

of the most exten-

on the banks of the Maran River, where the gypsum

is

of a bluish color and

The gypsum ical or invertL'd

equal to any in

the province.

Windsor, abounds

in the vicinity of

in those

con-

funnel-shaped cavities, supposed to have origina-

ted in the solution of rock-salt

been imagined once is

One

Lawrence.

281

(chloride of sodium), which has

have occupied those spaces, though

to

it

hard to learn on what evidence such a notion can be found-

ed, as no rock-salt, or even traces of

covered

in this

its

existence have been dis-

part of the province, or nearer to

The absence

county of Cuml)orland.

than the

it

indeed, of anhydrous gyp-

sum, which, according to Mr. Bakewcll, usually accompanies the

show

deposits of rock-salt, would rather did exist here.

that this mineral never

one of these caverns, about ten or

In

fifteen

years

since, the skeleton of a human being, supposed from the relics of

arrows found with

was discovered that

to

it

in

have been one of the aboriginal inhabitants,

opening a gypsum quarry.

unfortunate

this

tion of the

cliase,

was precipitod

dungeon, and being confmed by to

escape.

bones are

Thus

were

Rev.

Mv. King,

other

remains,

been seen little

a

or

view

shown

politely

in

to its

incarcerated, he

preserved

still

they

while

individual,

to

us

perished by hunger.

the above account of

caverns,

determine whether,

of animals both of living

been entombed

;

Windsor, where

of

this

if

and

which, in

in

human

single

no attention, and have never to

in

His

by the Vice-President, the

who gave

these

occupa-

inchned walls, was unable

but

those

presumed

is

the bottom of this frightful

College

the

at

It

pursuing his

truth,

them.

No

being, have

have

excited

been examined with

some of them,

extinct species,

the former, by faUing into

may

the

remains

not also have

them and perishing

66 II

i

n •

I

from hunger, tion, like

if

by

the latter, perhaps

a

on the

more sudden extermina-

Had

those mentioned by Professor Buckland.

been found

to

referred '{i

Mger

Messrs. Jackson and

282

without the

arrows,

the bones

which afforded

character of the lost too true a history of their origin and the individual to lead to further inquiry that the discovery

the cave?

in

would have led

on the subject,

to

search of other remains

it is

probable

the thorough examination of ;

and thus perhaps new

facts

caves, mi"-hthav8 been contributed to science, instead of which the the that fact It is a rubbish. with covered told, are now as

we were

remains of animals whose living types are

now unknown, have

where, been found on Cape Breton, near the Wagamatcook River, we are told by Mr. Halliburton,* an enormous skull has been four across found, with molar teeth measuring eight inches by divided into or furrowed which is surface, the crown or grinding of processes ten in

two rows

ture which proves

m

them not

number

;

have belonged to a carnivorous

to

animal, and tends obviously to identify

the

mammoth

them with the grinders of

or fossil elephant discovered by

South Carolina and Kentucky.

been unable

a peculiarity in their struc-

to visit

;

but

it

The

our naturalists

spot however

we have,

ic

too valuable to

since

it

may

order,

certainly merits attention, in

skeleton to discover, if possible, the remaining parts of the

science to remain

disclose to us the

only

partially

in

as yet,

;

a rel-

exhumed,

huge proportions of an animal

whose remains, common perhaps in some of the Middle and Southern States, have never yet been seen in any of the Northern, or in either of the Canadas, to our knowledge.

On

the banks of a small but romantic stream which empties

itself into

the St. Croix, called

* History of

Nova

Montague River, a remarkably

Scotia, Vol. II, p. 243.

-

Mineralogy and Geology of JVbva Scotia.

*-«W*^.^lf^

itl^.t';^!,^,,.

283

beautiful precipice of siliceous breccia passing into graywacke,

presents

the traveller.

itself to

It

consists of angular fragments

of quartz and felspar, rarely containing a few united without any apparent cement.

The the

an appearance

it

precipice

spangles of mica

is

at a distance

being of a

felspar,

and forming a principal ingredient

flesh-red color,

gives

The

in

the rock,

resembling red sandstone.

about sixty feet high, and rises from a base of

same rock making

bed

the

of the stream,

which has excava-

ted numerous deep holes into the bottom, forming beautiful reser-

The

voirs of limpid water. S.

W.

and the dip 10°

direction of the strata

to the northwest,

which the water rushes, and, duces an agreeable

owing

trees, is

House,

in its

We

from the broken

pro-

strata,

a favorite resort of the visitors of the

now

N. E. and

This place, adorned with overshad-

effect.

immediate

shall

falling

is

forming a declivity down

Montague

vicinity.

advert to the sandstone of Cumberland, and

describe the quarries of grindstones and the coal dsitrict of this region. at

The

sandstone, where

Cape D'Or, and where

it

it

emerges from beneath the

comes

in

contact with

it

trap

Cape

at

Chignecto, exhibits the red color noticed at other places in the vicinity of this rock,

remains. land Bay, into, a it

is

Leaving it

is

its

more compact, and Plutonic

assumes a grey

coarse conglomerate.

color.

is

neighbour It

destitute of organic

further up

Cumber-

alternates with, and passes

At Apple River and the South Joggin

quarried for grindstones and as a building material.

sandstone passes into the neighbouring Province of

New

This

Bruns-

wick, forming the extensive grindstone quarries of Meringuin and

Grindstone Islands, and mation of

this

undoubtedly connected with the

for-

rock that includes the coal measures recently

dis-

is

covered on the Grand Lake

in the interior parts of that province,

i

Mesm.

2g4

Jadtrnn and Jlger o» the

west of the River and ha, even been traced description of

its

characters, either fossil

St.

Jota.

But no

ap. or mmeral, has yet

are beyond he peared, and as those places

limits of

our observa-

thequarne, with abriefnoticeot

Lns, Je must content ourselves River on :.h; south Joggin and Apple

the

Scot.a shor.

Nova

obtatned and best grindstones are At the former place the preferred Cumberland Bay. They are wrought on the shore of strata depth from the superfica. when obtained at a considerable from the water as deep as possible and are always taken at low wh.ch make f.rst removed or three layers are

"rface.

Two

la are procured. and then the best ones roundhard «,.h meet

interior grindstones,

cutting the stones, the

frequently

and wh.ch they call"buli.s eyes,"

ed nodules which

condemn the stones

workmen

as useless.

They

differ

from

matrix only in

havmg being more compact and

ceous basis,

and breaking

..bull's

with a

eyes" vary from one

*e -rrou

less of

concho.dal

to ten inches

.^

m

Near

.^

e

1

d.amete,,

the larger.

in
g

fractur

nucleus smaller spheroid as a sometimes they include a

'he

always

and

w.thm .

mouth

same manner

of

Apple River, grindstones are

.loggin as those of the South

;

,

also qua.i.ed

they are not

they are hke those but in other respects of so good a quality, are made grindstones The rock of which the already described. tra,.sare which rounded grains of quartz, consists of irregularly a w,th or btae, sUghtly tinged red, green, parent and colorless or through of felspar i.uerpersed spangles of mica and grains exceedolten not The grains are usually minute, the mass. united by au argtl lamustard seed. They are ing the size of a to the whole exists in a small proportion

L

ceous cement, which

whtch remains of cnlmiferous plants, This rock contains numerous

I

.'*t».i*i^**iit».~tttke>^i*aik*i.,*^».mi*-.'j
Mineralogy and Geology of JVova Scotia.

between the

lie

injure the

strata

many occur

The

fossils

although

as a secondary rock,

rocks recumbent on

A

which occur

it

and the

shale.

shaft is filled

evidently older than the trap

it is

The bed

about

is

of

which

is

this

at

the

the

sandstone,

five or six

feet thick,

exists

in

is

its

now abandoned,

The

with earth and rubbish.

an abundance of pyrites, which injures vicinity

it

along the margin of the Basin of Mines.

and has been wrought to a small extent, but

coal contains

(juality

as fuel.

In

bed occur several smaller beds, one of

covered by a stratum of bluish compact

limestone,

the upper surface of which Dr. Lincoln observed fragments of

shells resembling those of the

Many

common muscle {Mijtilns ediilis ?) common in the rocks of the coal

of the vegetable fossils so

series in other countries are

bedded

in

found

tolithtis

in

great abundance here, im-

the sandstone, which dips at an angle of thirty degrees

from the horizon, and includes

Specimens of the phy-

the coal.

verrucosus were found by Dr. Lincoln, which exactly re-

semble those

represented

Steinhauer's article on these cal Transactions."* in

stamp

few miles southwest from the grindstone quarries

accompanied by

in

diffusely through

in this sandstone,

South Joggin, a bed of bituminous coal

the

which

the mass,

in

seldom happens, as they are mostly scattered the strata.

They do not

and are much compressed.

grindstones unless

285

in

the

drawings accompanying Mr. " American Philosophi-

fossils in the

Very good specimens of the

Parkinson's " Organic Remains," (Vol.

also found.

L

Substitutes of reeds and of plants

and rushes are likewise abundant. or four inches in diameter and as



New

SericK, Vol.

I.

Some many

Plate IV.

fossil

were

resembUng bamboos

of the reeds are three

feet in length.

fig.

represented

PI. iX. fig. 1.)

1,2, and 4.

They

are

i

67

I

the Messrs. Jackson and Alger on

286

one or more of the

invariably found traversing

des with

its

Some, especially the

layers.

strata at right an-

larger, are

cylmdncal

externally wjth a are generally coated others are flattened and longitudinally as smooth, others striated layer of coal; some are

(PL IH- hg. 3) Parkinson's "Organic Remains," of a trunk segment one Lincoln saw Near the principal coal bed. Dr. about another and inches in diameter, two feet long and twenty-five The diameter. or twenty inches in one foot long and eighteen grindstone-cutpetrifaction had led the external appearance of this canadensts. (Pinus tree have been a hemlock ters to believe it to was standtrunk the of a large part They say that a few years ago to it attached with some of its branches ing erect in the cliif,

represented

m.

'$

in

appear

li

have

to

Some specimens Lignites are very abundant. size, plants, of an enormous succulent been trunks of trees, or rocks hke the traversing the strata of the they are found, not and

but lying between them. stony casts of the reeds, Scotia with New Brunswick, The Isthmus connecting Nova but twelve Cumberland Basin and Bay Verte, is situated

or

between

fourteen miles

wide, and, being composed

feeble composed sandstone, opposes a Bay, where ing waves of Cumberland

hdght of

sixty

feet

;

while on the

of a friable de-

resistance to the rushtides

the

rise

the

to

Bay Verte they One would feet.

shores of

of eight or ten scarcely attain the elevation give way before frail barriers would

the

pres-

suppose such

sure and violence of

tides.

It

is,

however, a

desame waves which cause so much unFundy. of Bay the coast of along the rock-bound

remarkable vastation

the conflicting

fact, that the

dermining and tumbling

in

confusion the lofty trap rocks,

roll

protected by the bold promontories harmless against these shores, Meringuin, depositing their spoils, taken of Cape Chignecto and

Mineralogy and Geology of

Mwa

287

Scotia.

from the opposing rocks, quietly on the shores of Cumberland Basin, and thus fortifying the isthmus in inhabitants assist the process, securing

The

weakest point.

its

by dykes the

soil

deposit-

ed on their lands, and profitably use the bounties heaped

at their

doors by the tumultuous sea.

From

the shores of Chignecto

Bay

the sandstone and slate,

forming the county of Cumberland, extend

Gulf of

St.

Lawrence on

to

the waters of the

the north, and, stretching eastwardly

towards the county of Sidney, constitute a part of the Colchester and Pictou, and include districts.

The

interior of

all

districts of

the coal measures of these

Cumberland county was not examined

by ourselves, but we were credibly informed by

intelligent persons

residing there, of the extent of the sandstone district as represent-

ed on the geological map accompanying Salt springs have

been found

of the Gulf of St. Lawrence.

The

near the river Philip.

this

paper.*

in various places

One

of the

near the shores

most important

larger proportion of salt than the water of the ocean,

and

been economically obtained by evaporation of the water. year 1811 large quantities were manufactured spring also occurs at Pictou, which

• For the

improved

map

at

tions of Messrs.

we acknowledge

Smith and Brown of Pictou.

The

selves of

op|)ortunity

of referring the reader

Halliburton's History of "

remark we make a single

exceptiotj,

as exhibited

on

this

to their

we

gladly avail our-

remarks contained in

Nova Scotia." Our observations, in

few instances in which they relate to the same this

A

this spring.

structure of the eastern parts of

having also been examined by these gentlemen,

Volume U.cif Mr.

has

In the

ourselves indebted to the observa-

the Province tiiis

much it

was advantageously worked

more extended eastern boundaries of this rock, of the country,

exists

brine of this spring contains a

localities, will

be found to agree,

to be considered in

the

if to

a subsequent part of

this paper.

s

Messrs. Jackson and Alger on the

2gg for salt

on an extensive scale

doned, from what cause

we

are not informed

Souiac. have been found on the River

been found

traces of

it

another

;

No

springs, in the vicinity of these

some more palpable

now aban-

for several years, but is

is

said to

rock-salt has ever

where,

if

might be expected

any place,

in ;

nor has the

must therefore refer the ongm rock any perceptible salt taste. springs to such unexplained pheand the occurrence of these salt

We

as are assigned to those in

nomena :i

the western part of the state of

Eaton in his "GeoYork, so ably discussed by Professor adjoining the Erie District the of logical and Agricultural Survey

New

formation indiexistence of salt springs in this sandthe Red Marie, or new red cates it to be identical with rockvast which includes the stone of Phillips and Conybeare, *

Canal."

salt

The

mines of England and Poland

liferous

rock of

;

and also

allies

it

to the sa-

Eaton m the York, described by Professor "American the in and "Geological Survey,"

New

ii^

abovementioned

on the banks of the ConnecJournal of Science,"! as existing Palisadoeson the Hudson nver. as supporting the

ticut,

and

Pursuing

this

formation eastwardly in the direction

of Us

practical occasional beds of coal, not oi any strata, we meet with On peculiarities. geological remarkable value, and offering no crossbridge where the Kempt north bank of the West river,

the

four bituminous coal with lignites, about es this stream, a bed of a section ol in the cliff of sandstone, or five inches wide, occurs which place, this At river. bed of the is formed by the

which

we mention on

account of

Pictou, rendering

it

its

vicinity to the

road from Truro to

accessible to travellers, occur

many

ot

the

mine. before noticed at Cumberland relics of culraiferous plants

• Part

I. p.

109

et seq.

tVol.

XIV.

p.

14H.

Mineralogy and Geology o/JVova Scotia. Carriboo

the township of

river, in

New

289

Philadelphia, seven

miles north of the flourishing town of Pictou, presents a field of great interest both to the mineralogist and the miner. On the

banks of Gulf of

this stream,

tween the

ore,

strata of sandstone passing into coarse

The conglomerate

over the copper ore.

rounded masses of quartz of various slate,

and

felspar, varying in

or four inches in diameter

The sandstone

cement.

;

included be-

conglomerate.

from that of a

size

differs only in

by the naked eye.

tinguishable river to the

The

banks.

east and west, and the dip

The

lignites

mon

charcoal so

stance.

are

Some

black,

much

slate, clay

filbert

until

to three

the size of the com-

they are scarcely dis-

These rocks

from the

rise

height of fifteen or twenty feet above

precipitous

smooth

consists of

colors, siliceous

they are united by an argillaceous

ponent ingredients, which diminish

form

empties into the

it

associated with lignites of enormous size, which generally

It is lie

two miles from where

Lawrence, occurs a bed of copper

St.

its

level,

direction of the strata

is

about ten degrees to the north.

is

and some of

them

resemble com-

be easily mistaken

as to

for

that sub-

are fibrous, and exhibit evident traces

organized structure of plants organization, are

and

nearly

;

of the

others have lost every trace of

compact without any

fibrous structure, break

with a conchoidal fracture, have a pitchy black color, and thus

form the true

jet of

Brongniart.

This

commerce, or the

last variety

lignite piciforme jayet of

M^

take a good polish, and would ad-

mit of being wrought into jet ornaments inferior in no respect to those

thin

brought to

layers over

this

country from France.

The

lignite

forms

masses of the copper ore, which sometimes

presents very perfect substitutions or casts of culmiferous plants

'

!

resembling the stalks of Indian corn (zea mays.)

The

lignite

sometimes contains minute, flattened crystals of

68

111

Messrs. Jackson and Alger on the

290 Hi

translucent and of a crimson red oxide of copper, which are

red color.

the lignites a

and,

;

filling

assume interstices in the sandstone, they

They

appearance.

botryoidal

some of

investing

Green and blue carbonates of copper occur,

also occur in delicate fibres,

now to be

ore investing the masses of vitreous copper

described.

two to four inches This valuable ore occurs in beds from each other, the with alternate thick, which, covered with lignites, It is of an ironcompact. lowest bed being the thickest and most possesses a It black color, with a slight tinge of lead-grey. and breaks with a conchoidal

lustre,

metallic

Some

fracture.

structure, breaking so specimens are of a crystalline or granular others are very commetalloidal surfaces

as to exhibit brilliant

pact,

the

;

and break with a smooth

compact variety

most

in their texture,

more open

is

5.7

;

specific gravity

The

surface.

seldom exceed 4.8 or

6.

of

varieties,

granular

but the

It is

sec-

by a smooth, blunt steel instrument; tile, and readily impressed extenda low degree of malleability, being it therefore possesses polish, high a receives It breaking. ed under pressure without highly poHshed resembling in lustre and color the most this

and retains sphere.

It

unaltered by

action

lighter mixed occasionally with yellowish and a conand which is much harder and not sectile, but no proportion of copper than of iron

a smaller

specimen

;

of this ore gives

when examined

any traces of arsenic or antimony,

before the blowpipe, or

when

muriatic acid and largely diluted with water. tion in nitric acid

added it

;

steel,

atmo-

of the

is

grey pyrites, tains

lustre

the

give any precipitate

when

dissolved in nitro-

Nor does

and sulphuric acid throws down no precipitate

does not contain any

silver or lead.

The

a solu-

muriate of soda ;

is

hence

nitric solution, tested

Mineralogy and Geology of JV&oa Scotia.

by aqua ammonia', became of a

291

blue color, and, treated to

fine

excess of saturation, gave a brown precipitate of oxide of

To

iron.

determine the composition of the vitreous copper, similar

in

were made, which discovered nothuig but copper, sulphur,

trials

and

1^

This ore was called by the miners from Cornwall,

iron.

who were mans.)

made

exploring the mine, grey-copper, (fahlerz of the

according

iiut

of this ore,

(kupfcrglanzerz), which

We

ore.

more valuable than

is

As our

Klaproth,

cellent analyst,

results differ

we

repetition of the process,

was purposely conducted

more disposed

have access

to the

still

* Analysis. gravity 5.7.

It

wish

after the

;

below an account of the

manner

this, as

to see the

scctilc, steel,

but

modus operandi exemplified.*

more of

hundred grains of

showing

We

of this chemist.

some of our readers may not

selected, having

the specific

possessing on the cut surface a brilliant metallic lustre,

pure muriatic acid affused upon boiling

of ex-

work of Klaproth, which has become scarce,

freed from the surrounding matrix

Two

shall give

this

can be discovered on

fallacy

— A specimen of the copper ore was was

resembling polished

A.

the celebrated Essays

possesses no claim to originality, but

it

do

to

in

somewhat from those of

and no source of

method pursued, although

and may

the grey-copper

have taken for our model the analysis of the vitreous

copper ore from Siberia, detailed

are the

Ger-

we have

be considered as the vitreous copper

to

is

it

an accurate analysis which

to

this it,

that the metals

a lead-grey

and envelope of

appearance. lignite,

It

was

and reduced

powder were introduced

carefully

to

powder.

into a matrass,

and

which dissolved nothing, even when heated

do not

to

exist in the state of oxides, but in a metallic

state.

B.

To

was added

the contents of the matrass while boiling, hot concentrated

l)y

drops,

which

at

each addition occasioned a

with the extrication of red fumes. action)

A

The

acid was added until

flocculent greyish-white precipitate

nitric acid

violent effervescence, it

ceased

to

produce

had formed on the surface of the

fluid,

\''

If

Messrs. Jackson and Jllger on the

292

The sandstone, continuing district of Pictou,

eastward course through the

its

approximates to the

slate of the

South moun-

When cool, tlio contents of the the ore. which was the sulphur extricated from wushcd from it. surface, were carefully and beina diluted with pure water, matrass,

thrown on a ed

of

filter

known

precipitate collected on

The

weight.

its

surface,

wash-

to weigh and afterwards with water, being dried, was found alchohol over an platinum This was ignited in a crucible of

with dilute nitric acid,

thirty eight grains.

grains of a dark grey powder, which was a lamp, and burned away, leaving two This was treated with nitrodecomposition. escaped of the ore that had portion

muriatic acid, and being disBolved by

it,

was added

amounts sulphur then in two bundrea grains

to the

lo thirty-six

filtered

The

solution.

grains, or eighteen

per

culor,

and

cent.

C.

The

liquid

which had passed the

filter

was of a

l.luish-groon

In one portion a polished

quantities. It was divided into two equal transparent. i.ad precipitatin forty-eight hours the copper cylinder of iron was immersed, and separated the copper was entirely had it That form. ed upon it in a dendritic

known

by the

itrument.

solution ceasing to give

The

a tarnish of copper

copper removed from the cylinder of iron,

to prevent oxidation,

was found

to

to a polished steel

washed and dried

m-

rapidly

weigh 70.5 grains.

was treated with aqua ammoniiP to excess of D. The other half of the solution precipitate took place, which, when collected on a saturation, when a muddy brown dried, and ignited with a little wax in a washed, double filter of known weight, protoxide of iron attractable by the magnet, platinum crucible, was reduced to the metallic iron. 3.4 grains, indicating 2.5 grains of

and weighed E.

To

divided, and determine whether the solution was cqunlly

correctness of the process

C,

the

ammoniated

solution

to prove the

was saturated and

acidulat-

The copper polished iron was immersed in it. ed with sulphuric acid, and a plate of and dried, washed, separated, when brilliant metallic coating, and precipitated in a

weighed with the

loss

of a

trifling

fraction, like the

result of the former process,

79.5 grains.

This ore conUins, then, in a hundred Copper, Sulphur, Iron,

parts,

(C)

79-5

(B)

'«0

(»)

__^ 100.0

Mineralogy and Geology of JYova Scotia. tain range,

which

meets

if

298

township of Egerton, near the

in the

sources of Middle and East rivers.

In the village of

New

y

Glas-

gow, there occur important beds of bituminous coal near East river,

included between the strata of sandstone, and overlaid by

a decayed, blackish shale. casts

It

The

Blanchard of Truro. appearance, and

coal

to melt

and cake

is

were shown

much when

first

It

Mr.

is

burns with

kindled.

It

Newcastle coal, and when

like the

the bitum' lous matter

fire, after

us by

to

of a jet-black color, has a glossy

highly charged with bitumen.

is

a bright flame, and smokes

on

contains remarkably perfect stony

of culmiferous plants, which

dissipated,

appears

completely

it

burns

like

coke.

There have been

at this place

were

;

or six shafts

five

sunk into the coal

strata,

under the direction of Mr. Carr, who resides

in diflerent places,

but at the time

we

visited them,

tiiese

openings

which prevented us from making

partially filled with water,

any accurate examination of the beds of coal, and the associated rocky

The

strata.

friable nature,

transporting

it

coal that

had been thrown out was of a

and would be soon ground to

any considerable distance.

were then making, under the

direction of

soft,

dust by friction in

to

I?ut

preparations

two very

intelligent

and practical gentlemen of Pictou, Messrs. Smith and Brown, to explore this coal

that the

that coal of the

quality

first

United States, where for

on a larger

scale.

We

are

now informed

mining operations are carried on very extensively, and

it is

is

obtained.

It is

found well adapted for

which other bituminous coal

is

employed

shipped to the all

the purposes

in the various

manu-

factories of the country.

About twelve miles

lortheast

from the coal mines of

New

Glasgow, and eighteen miles from the town of Pictou, the sand-

69

ii

Messrs. Jackson and Alger on the

29.1

transition clay slate of the South mounstone and shale meet the was not But the immediate junction of these rocks range. tain

soil which overlaid discovered on account of the deep, unbroken It is evident strata. and concealed from view their respective

from that the strata unite near this place,

1

the fact that their lines

acute angle ; the bearof bearing here intersect each other at an degrees east, while that of ing of the clay slate being north, sixty slate dipping at an angle clay The the sandstone is directly east. while the sandstone of fifty or sixty degrees to the northwest, to the north, clearly dips at angles of only ten or fifteen degrees anticiuily than the latter, indicates the former rock to bo of greater the fossils it conwhich was before proved to be secondary from we regret that and slate, clay the It evidently lies over tains.

we were unable gravel

had been

two rocks.

to discover a single spot

from which the

soil

and

removed, so as to exhibit the connexion of the

Future explorers by traversing the

forest,

may

per-

the line of their union, haps find an outcropping somewhere along illustrating their relaby research, of labor the which will repay tions

and comparative age.

on the estate of Mr. Grant, a bed of brown It feet in width. and red hematite was discovered about twenty this in usually observed exhibits all the varieties of imitative form

Near

ore,

this place,

brought and resembles many of the specimens of the hematite

It is associated with from the Salisbury mines in Connecticut. proportion considerable a forms grey oxide of manganese ; which

of the bed, and

is

usually disseminated through the geodes of the

fibres, or in distinct conhematite, in sheafs of radiating acicular the individuals possess cretions, of which however none of

determinable crystaUine faces. ular masses,

which

It is

are granular, but

also in

more compact

glob-

without any tendency to a

and Geology of JVbva

.Minemlop;!/

crystalline

and

it

structure.

Its color is

Scotia.

295

hetween lead and

steel-grey,

possesses a high metallic brilliancy emulating that of anti-

mony-glan/, and

not tarnished by exposure to air and moisture

is

while the hematite, with which

it

blended, or sometimes alter-

is

nates in successive botryoidal coatings, has often rusty on its

its

surface.

color

Its

is

the same,

streak or ground to powder.*

The geodes

hematite are also frequently occupied by

in this

crystals of arragonitc, in six-sided prisms,

rytes in compressed or color,

and but very loosely attached

composed

structure, in the soil

with

this ore, will it,

gaged

working

• Tlin

is

The

agrees in

common

it is

entirely of this substance,

prove injurious to the iron

certain that

It is

it.

species.

its

it

it.s

(ilniosi

is

Mr.

evidently his pyrolusite, with which

being associated with precisely the same ore of iron

The

cxchisively attaclied in other countries. is

much

New

harder,

Brunswick,

in druses of acicular crystals,

ing to this acute observer, give

it

is

is

said

precise locality

?

in

an ore to

often in distinct prismatic crystals,

We

have

it

found in No-

from the neigh-

elongated rhombic prisms deeply striated,

answering well

may

;

other species, call-

by him to have been

undoubted claims

not iK)ssible that his specimen its

en-

characters of hardness, color, streak, Ate. and, what must not be

bouring Province of

not cite

operation of

who may be

must exert some injurious

va Scotia, has not yet come under our notice there.

it

found

(Kdinburgh Royal Society Transactions, Vol.

that exhibit a brownish-red streak, and

Is

also

grey oxide of mansrancse 1ms recently been divided by

now

ed by him manganite, which

and

or they are

;

were

in the

importance to those

mineral above referred to by us,

overlooked, in wliich

the matrix

to

Several masses of a foliated

isolated.

a (luestion of

Ilaidinger into two

XI.)

also sulphate of ba-

near " the brook." Whether the manganese, intermixed

smelting in

and

tabular crystals, usually of a pure white

sometimes completely

it

become very

whether exhibited by

to the to

characters wiiich, accord-

be considered a

new

species.

have come from that Province, since he does

influence in the \y

and Alger on the

.Messrs. Jackson

296

smelting furnace, whether

with the iron or not; for in

it

combines chemical-

consequence of

its

existing in

the

carbon a large portion of heat and state of a peroxide of the metal, carbonic or acid, carbonic must be taken up in the formation of oxygen, and the iron, by and carbon the of oxide, by the union taken up from it had previously losing any portion of the carbon preparatory rendered of an inferior quality. The to with resorted be barning the ore might perhaps

the cliarcoal,

process of

is

A bed

advantage.

occurs in the sandof buff-colored limestone and will prove a valuable flux-

stone, n'ear the hematite locality, to the ore, should

ing material

The

co°untry.

be worked

among which may be

River, and Pictou Island, as

Gay

the two last

in this

part of the

sandstone at sevlimestone also forms beds in the

eral other places,

River,

it

named

places,

it

cited the

Shubenacadie

shown on

the map.

contains small but well

Ai

character-

ammonis, with crystals of argentiferous ized remains of the cornu minute crystals, and carbonate of iron, in lead galena, arscniate of

of the the latter Idling the cavities

erucms

in

some places; and, according

in of grotto has been discovered abo'iit

one hundred feet

numerous

stalactites

bed of iron ore

in length,

of this

to

It

is

cav-

Mr. Halliburton, a kind

near the East river of Pictou,

and

depending from

Four miles southeast sive

it

ammonites.

fossil

its

beautifully decorated

by

roof.

place a very important and exten-

exists, in the clay slate of the

South mountains,

generally the whole tranwhich we shall describe after noticing Nova Scotia, commencing at the sition clay-slate formation of of Pictou, and extending west eastern extremity of the district This rock Province. the opposite shore of the

southwest to

than any other in the Province, presents a larger extent of surface, whole face of the country. It preforming nearlv one half of the

.!

*'i.^^

Mineralogy and Geology of

where

seats every fossil

tl)em of the oldest kind,

common

the

ova Scotia.

a uniform geological character;

organic remains, belongii.g to

some of

J\

it

..nd

must obviously, according

to

neighbouring Plutonic rocks

t).e

had emerged from the central regions of the is

and conto'ning

marine world alone,

tlie

geological division, be regarded as transition rock,*

and as having existed long before

rock

297

That

earth.

this

we have additional evidence, which we shall state by and by,

older than the trap rocks

derived from another source,

when our

observations are directed

more

particularly to the iron-

ore bed, which v»c have no hesitation in saying extends throuhg the whole clay slate formation.

That

it is

newer than

the granite

appear evident from reasons to be assigned.

will

The

composing

direction of the strata

this

formation

is

uni-

formly north, 60'^ east, dipping at an angle of 50° or (HV from

The

the horizon.

or bluish-black. rating by a

color of the rock, on fracture,

structure

Its

gende blow

smooth and compact the case at

to

into

it is

fragments, as right angles

it

its

tendency

its

building inaterial as

soil

it

this

want of

a

This

is

purpose, and also

In oUier places being less

break into huge rhomboidal in the

direction

This renders

it is

employed

and lying over

it

and

of,

at

a valuable

in

many

places.

this formation,

is

much

produced by the disintegration of the trap rocks

Tlie torm trrinsition, altlinngli objectionable in some respects, lor tlio

su/Iiciently

\viiting-slat(!.

forms convenient shapes for rearing walls

resulting from,

inferior to that

to

stratification.

of houses, for whic:h purpose

The

is

has natural seams both

wiih

for

obtained for

extensively (piarried for roofing-slate. distinctly foliated,

black, greyish,

broad sheets, which are

bo employed

Rawdon, where

is

slaty or foliated, frequently sepa-

is

better

:

it

ccrlainly conveys what

(Hate character of the rock, to wliicii

70

it

is

is

we have adopted

very apparent,

applied in this paper.

tlie

intcrmc'

on the Messrs. Jacksm and Jlger

298

sandstone

neighbouring

and the of the North mountains, and requiring for vegetation being less luxuriant,

its

its ;

culture great-

a fact which the travel-

husbandman. This fail to observe. the country, can scarcely through Icr, in passing present of late years ; and the The soil has been much improved John Mr. to Nova Scotia is much indebted is

er labor from the

state of agriculture in

series

Young, the author of a

under the signature of "Agncola,"

ters published in Halifax

whose of

its

labors,

let-

and practical

of interesting

we beUeve,

the country

indebted also for

is

to

many

agricultural societies.

rock is interrupted in two continuity of the strata of this which, entering the rock nearly places by dykes of trap porphyry, or interstratification, completely cutoff at right angles with its with the parallel and continuous cept'the bed of iron ore, which is

The

We

strata.

shall notice

another these dykes more particularly in

represented on the place, as also the granite county, which all

the other rocks in

as

feet wide, though,

visited

it,

direction,

60^ east until

Nova

Annapolis

the cluy slaie, and

to, is

apparently about sixteen

had not been explored

it

in

Scotia.

of iron ore alluded

The bed

to

undoubtedly subordinate

is

map

at t!ie

lime

we

Its on this point. we are unable to speak positively north is includeil, which it is like that of the strata in

;

and

may be

it

obscured by

from which

soil

may

it

traced for some distance into the forest,

readily be detached,

slaty. structure, sometimes inclining to

and reddish-brown, but sequently,

it

is

magnetism and

The

and under-brush.

its

streak and

in the state of

is

Its

ore on the surface,

usually of a

external color

powder

and

in

is

are deep red

peroxide of iron.

metallic brilliancy,

compact

It

is

brown ;

con-

destitute of

these respects differs

parts of this bed, in another coungreatly from the ore in other

299

JMineralogy and Geology of JYova Scotia. specific gravity being 4.00

Its

ty.

according to Rinman's method,

it

contains by calculation

per cent, of metal

fifty

a very

;

near approximation to the truth, as proved on assaying the ore in a crucible,

the process. in

for the

and duly allowing It

abounds with

fossil

carbon combining with

remains

;

which they are the most numerous, contain lime

of carbonate, readily efiervescing with acids.

which

a portion ofalumine and silex, tion of a

the

It

in smelting

in

the state

contains besides

perform the func-

flux.

the fossils discovered in this ore, the most

Among are

in

it

and some specimens,

tellenite,

pectinite,

and

numerous

Those observed

terebratulite.

resembling the

less frequently are small lenticular shells,

nummu-

Hte, as figured in Parkinson's " Outlines of Oryctology," (Plate VI. fig.

5

and also very distinct impressions of encrinites, which,

;)

instead of occurring in crylindrical columns as

is

ordinarily the

case, are formed of a series of circular joints or vertebne, that are

smaller at one extremity than the other, so that the

sume Vol.

a conical form. II.

p.

164.)

fossils

as-

(See Parkinson's "Organic Remains,"

The

found had been applied

name

old

"Screw Stone" we

of

by the people

to these fossils

neighl)ourhood, who, struck with

the

singular

in

the

appearance of

these relics and those accompanying them, evincing, as they thought, a former the

life,

had carefully preserved some of them,

hope of perhaps learning something of

fossils are

most

not confined to the ore alone, but

every slate stone scattered

should the ore at

this

entombed

to

in

These

may be seen

through the adjoining

place be explored

a far greater variety of these light,

their history.

fields

in al;

and

any extent, doubtless

relics will

be brought to

and furnish the collector with many rare productions of the

ancient world.

and Jlger on

Messi-s. Jackson

300

Following the

the

ore-bed does not

slate formation westerly, this

Annapseen on Nictau Mountain, in again shuw Itself until it is between shown on the map; it being obscured

polis coui -v, as

the

X

A'o

pUuos by the unbroken

fragments ol

forest,

have been picked up, barely

it

creasing apparently as

immense supply of

is

it

prove

deepens,

;

but, in-

gives the promise of an

it

It

mineral.

about two

soil

its

the width

but six feet and a few inches

this valuable

stratum of ferruginous

few spots

sufficient to

At Nictau

the other. continuity from one locality to

of the ore, at the surface,

in a

except that

is

covered by a on removing

feet thick,

quite which the surface of the ore-bed, being intersected curiously seen smooth as if worn down by attrition, is in

some places

right

transversely or nearly by seams, some of which cross it are filled up with a substance fissures, open angles, and, when not ore a tendency to separate the They give ochre. at

not uulike red

similar to those into rhomboidal fragments, itself often

raising

it.

divides,

The bed

ten feet, and to the

and besides greatly

which the

into

facilitate

slate

the labor of

of eight or has been opened to the depth

some hundred tons

of the ore have

been removed

the southern shore of smelting furnace situated on

An-

napolis Basin.

The

character of the ore at

it is

more

easily

place differs

From its

from that of the Pictou ore.

broken up

this

;

and

it

in

some respects

very uniform slaty structure,

abounds

to a

much

greater ex-

which, shells, the calcareous parts of tent with the casts of marine proporpreserved. It also contains a larger are

sometimes

still

metallic lustre, tion of iron, has a slight

fluence upon the needle.

But

it is

and exerts magnetic

not a

little

in-

singular that this

of millions of once living shell-fish, ore-bed, although the grave traces exhibits in every part, should afford the remains of which it

Mineralogy and Geology of JVova of

301

Scotia.

no other than bivalves, and of those belonging exclusively to

the

This however

genus anomia.

examined

Like many

it.

The

the living shells.

we

have

of this character,

they

slate

as

fact so far

original external fig-

and beauty the

exhibit with great precision

ure of

the

is

substitutions

when

also,

usual to find

one half of

a shell

moulded

which

firmly attached to the ore,

in

immediate

in

contact with the ore, exhibits the same remains, and

is

it

not un-

while the other

it,

is

thus proved to have been

is

of nearly contemporaneous origin with that rock; or. at least,

by

Its

union with

the latter tic state.

plained

;

it,

it

proved

is

have been deposited before

to

had entirely consolidated, or while In for

no other way can it

it

was yet

be

this unio:.

disproves at once any hypothesis founded on the

supposed greater antiquity of the

two bodies should of intimate union.

lie

only

slate,

in contact,

according to which the

without showing any marks

That they are nearly contemporaneous, we

have besides the further evidence derived from the fossil shells are precisely the

union, in

some

in a plas-

satisfactorily ex-

parts,

we

same

doubt not,

fact, that

the

Their more intimate

in both.

may have been

assisted by

the heat attending the production of the neighbouring trap rocks, the effects of which,

of this ore-bed,

we

where

think, are very

it

apparent

in

another part

very nearly apprciiches the trap.

of this sul))ect, involving again the igneous origin of the trap, shall

presently speak more

On a rock

was observed of

is

we

at large.

ascending the highlands south of the

color, and containing

But

falls

a granular structure,

on Nictau River,

of a greenish-grey

imbedded concretions of white

evidently a part of a dyke o; porphyry, as

we have

felspar.

It

repres<>nted

on the map, intercepting the strata of slate and the ore-bed accompanying it, both of which it must cross nearly at right an-

it

71

-j-^.-J..^^-:^^.-

w '4

,

,

Messrs. Jackson and Alger on the

302 gles,

if

it

ore cover the precise spot where the

which, considering the nature so;ne important facts.

long by the miners,

a tew

it

;

a discovery,

progress of opening the bed, as

in the

to

remove the ore

it

is

the depth of but

to

feet from the surface.

hammer,

when

struck with

were sonorous, ringing with a sound not

that

produced on

grey

'color,

with great

observed several irregularly

we

diallage, which,

shaped masses of metailoidal

It

crossed by

dyke, might have disclosed

of this

In the vicinity of this dyke,

the

is

to dis-

ere This spot, however, must be met with

found most advautageous if

But we were unable

continues to any extent.

striking

mass of metal

a solid

It

un'.ika is

of a

and breaks vm interwoven, laminated texture, whicli rofragments, splintery rough, difficulty into has

the metallic lustre peculiar hect from the surfaces of their laminae also noticed several scattered masses this sub-species.

Wc

to

of that variety

characteristic

possessing the of amygdaloid called toadstone,

appearance of

resembling that found

at

an accomplished French

rock

this

Brighton

in

from

Derbyshire,

and

Massachusetts by Codon,

naturalist.*

common trap From whence came these boulders and those of parts of this southern over the that are now extensively spread to which they bear the least Province, so distant from any rock may venture to infer, without being charge1

resemblance

We

a able with a disposition to support

• -it!

mere visionary hypothesis,

(for

carry conviction we believe it founded on data which must vesicular amygand common trap to most minds,) that those of trap-rock ledges of the No-th daloid were derived from the and transported hither by that great and sudden

mountains,

• See his paper on the structure of Boston and vicinity, in Vol.

Academy's Memoirs, page 127.

III.

oC the

Mineralogy and Geology of JVova Scotia. catastrophe which has traces of

its

similar, but often

left

violence in other countries.

afford us proof of the dilnvial flood lieve that the

nearly

more

far

And

they lead us,

and south direction

;

striking,

they not only fuvtiier, to

overwhelming torrent swept across

a north

in

;

303

be-

this peiiinsula

such being always the

direction of these detached and drilled debris from ihe distant

and parent ledges

The same

which

fact

;

for tiiey are

(.irpsent

wh'ch they claim a

with

boulders of granite

common

origin.

atlbrd additional evidence of the

also

never met with on the

JVorlli

mountains,

nothing extraneous of any cliaracter, but are abun-

dandy scattered about

in

the opposite direction.

If natives

of

the couatry, as they appear to be, they also must have originated

from some part of the South mountain range, where the granite is

now

in place

may be

seei>

and forms beds

to a very

considerable extent, as

on the map.

In the " KeHquiai Diluviana^," of Professor Buckland,

the granite boulder^ oi

Nova Scotia

cited

among

the

we

find

many other

proofs he has ably and ingeniously brought forward in support of the diluvial current.

those of

tile

trap

If to

unknown

these boulders of granite, to

his informant (Sir Aiexandei' his

own

this

author,

we now add

or not mentioned by

Croke),\ve may safely conclude,

in

language, " that the present position of these fragments

can he accounted

tor

only by supposing them to have been

ed from the nearest granite [and trap]

districts,

drift-

by the same

rush of waters that transported those mentioned by Dr. Bigsby,

Lake Huron and Lake Erie."*

Of the other

evi-

dences mentioned by him, such as valleys of denudation, the

fur-

in the districts of

rows or parallel scratches upon the surfaces of rocks, and vast

• Sen

tli
work of Professor Bucklan-l, page 217.

the Geological Transactions,

New

Series, Vol.

I.

Also Dr. Bigsby's

article in

'•

i'

^11

the Messrs. Jackson ami Jlger on

804

as

we

far gravel, Nova Sco.ia, as accunmla.ions of sand and expected such may reasonai)ly be know, atrords none ; though attest tie occurthe boulders so fully a country like this, where of Prol.ssor the enlightened labors rence of that event, which as no other regard to taught us Buckland, Cuvier, and others have

m

Ihere are in the Mosaic history. than that so briefly narrated the bcr.pfor the greatest reverence those, however, who, with to relerred .hat the phenomena, usually tures, confidently assert, to do w.lh it, and h-.wi in reality nothing the Deluge of Noah, Among these grounds. dirterent must be accounted

for

on entirely

He refers these phenomena l.gh rank. Dr. McCuiloch holds a since, the Del.perated before, as well as to causes which ha., the bursting in operation; such as uge, and which arc r on now of mountains. rivers, and wearing away of lakes, the action oi strata, he reof elevation the sudden In the currents produced by such alluvia of causes true shall probably find the marks,

we

existing attributed to rivers and other (boulders &.C.) as cannot be which, been attributed to the Deluge, causes, and have so often the effects to produce any one of he believes, was inadequate

ascribed to In

the

township,

» SCO

it.*

alluvium which forms

the greater part ol

two and the valley between the

ranges

Aylesford of

moun-

ofGeolopy, Vol. 11. The opinrecently published system of high consideration ; deserving cautious and experienced are

Dr Mcculloch's

ions or an observer so

high authority o( the instance, they will lessen the but whKher, in the present and concurring t.stnnonies observations .he contains .. Reliquiae Diluviana=," which leave to be .iefriniiied by those is a question, which we of so many different writers, which it has arisen. It is for on with the phenomena are thoroughly conversant

who

i

geologists to see

on

this

cases of diluv.an action, and continent to examine the supposed

with the principles whether they can be explained consistently

Dr. McCuiloch.

laid

down by

305

Mhtemlogij and Geology of JVova Scotia.

extending tVom Minas Basin to the Basin of Annapolis, there

tains

two

about ly as

beds of argillaceous iron ore. These are

extensive

occur very

feet

" shot ore."

known

consisting of concretions

thick,

usual-

of a spongy, or vesicular appearance, and

It is

by the presents, to a great extent, the resinous lustre exhibited But, in

best varieties of bog ore.

some

places,

attributed the cokl short quality of

Bergman

leal)le state,

it is

escaping decomposition but

al,,o

liable as

any

to yield a

not appciu-

ore of the South mountain does until

continuity the bed ot

is

we

reach

ilio

such as to leave but

little

great bed of

again, so far as the

th(! vicinity

But the evidence of

a distance of thirty miles.

and refmery,

this quality.

metal of

been examined,

mal-

no phosphorus are as

Leaving Mctau and the dyke of porphyry,

forest has

in its

explain the cold

smelting-furnace

the

in

to

the impossibility of the acid

that ores containing

from the fact

intermixed

metal

tlie

however proved inadequate

short (juality of iron, not only from

is

il

substance to which

with the earthy phosphate of iron, or the

doubi on

its

this

of Clement's,

intermediate point;

for, in

almost every brook or rivulet descending Irom the fragments to be found, to a greater or less extent,

mountains, are ofthiisore, at

which contain

some time or

body. ers in

other,

Should the

llu;

usual marine impressions, and which,

must have been detached from

spirit

\ova Scotia ever

of competition ecpial

quarters of the Tnited States,

range

will

it

that is

that article, on

which depend

main

which characterizes some

believed that no part of this

long remain unexplored, or so

among

tiie

iron manufactur-

many

lail

to

produce abundantly

other arts and manufac-

tures. at Clement's, Before alluding, particularly, to the iron mine

we

will offer

some

country, renuxrks on the granite formation of this

72

Measi's. Jackson

306 t

>1.

the

This is rock of the boulders of this having already spoken t.tle ol the to claim any Nova Scotia having the only rock in a few mountains, South the fust appears along It nrimitivo. masses, detached generally in large miles east from Bridgetown, been heaps on their sides, ..r have which are piled in confused Between Bridgetown beneath.

and for

the

villnge

valley

the

into

precipitated

-4

midJlger on

of Annapolis,

it

occurs

in

place,

and lorms.

n.ountams, the abrupt and barren nearly the ^yhole extent, comthose ui.h are contrasted

which, haying a rude outline, present rounde.l and gently slopmg posed entirely of >late, which Clement's, road from Annapolis to It also appears on the sides disseminated n>asses blocks, which contain

1

in

immense cubical

of chlorite

and manganesian garnet.

crystallized,

I

Iff

and being

were obtained.

mens

known

to

exist in

it,

The hufr

is

not d.simclb'

of a fragile

nature, lew in.eresting speci-

These are

the only

as

it

in.Iu.dded nnnerals

comdoes not contain nnMallderous

pounds of any kind. not united ... very ingredients of this rock are black, enters ,• il... n.ifi of o. a brilliant ict the mica, pi-oport!on>

The component

.

i

uniform

lar-^cly i.Uo its

;

.

composition.

The

felspar

are coU>r;andtbe quartzy concretions iJi

The

is

,

, son..tinn.s ot a llesh-

t,.u..hn.....

and

v,.,.«o,.s

ot appearance, and i.uludes massc>s roc'k has a brecciated

f^'om .,anitc of a ditrc-ent natu.'e

it^elt;

The^o masses appear

colo,-, than the finer grain a..d darker frequently in patcd.es of a diOer o..ly in tins respec:t granite. Iron, which they

surrounding

The

felspar of this g.-anite

decomposes

rapidly,

is

exceedingly pro.ie to decay, and

rock, on the exposed surface of the

inso-

are angular fragments of the ()uartz ,^uch that large quantities of the ,1/hns, constitute, hy th.s profusely scattered around, a..d first

rudiment, of the

soil.

The

protrudh.g angular fragments ol

!

jMineralogy and Geology o/.Yova Scotia. (juartz

f^ivt!

rock a rough, forbicUling aspect

this

ing loose in a lew weeks, they dislodge any

have clung

tn

them

and compact.

was

the felspar

use

The

internal structure of this granite

imiformly distributed

is

Ih lore

which

intended to

;u

in

South mountains, and

the Province.

ing thioui;h the clay-slate.

That there does

their union.

we cannot

chnilit

formation

oni;

to the

init

extent.

from

its

That

which

tlie

was not how-

and uiuleiwood concealed

a point of contact

The \\lii<'h we

there can be no doubt of

of the clay-slate,

of junction

other.

pearance of stratihcalion, from

its

near

granite

is

this

a few stejis,

in

granite

could estimate

pass

no ap-

exhi!)its its

direc-

age being greater than

evidently supjiorts, throughout

it

other

all

itseli, jirotriid-

:^oil

c^xist

to

its

appears

older than the clay-slate,

laHer,

We

do not however consider

to

ir

in

belong to the transition forination.

the

it

that

whole

containing no relics of organized beings, which oci

and prove

in-

here exhibits

person may,

for a

;

It

'J'he line

ever observed, as the covering of

place,

We

a long time.

last for

if

its

suggested, that this granite was subordinate or

rocks discovered

;

through the

This prevenl^

decomposition.

to

ferior to the clay-slate of the

tion

which may

has a dark appearance, deriveil from the

prone

less

buildings,

ill

from

and becom-

This rock would form an cxccdlent ituilding material,

mass.

have

Ft

which

color of the mica,

;

lichens

supiiort, and thus preserve a barren sur-

for

face, defying all vegetation. is lirni

307

this

oldest primitive, from the alisence of

granite all

as

belonging

to the

those metalliferous

com-

pounds and minerals which characteri/e more ancient formations from

its

brecciated structure, and from

transition rock.

It

being

in

in part

;

a

formation which

from the spoils of one

is

still

;

contact with

probably belongs to what Werner

newest granite formation been derived

its

more

the

calls

supposed

to

have

ancient.

,v^..

IMAGE EVALUATION TEST TARGET (MT-3)

UiKS

1.0

£;

us

§15

112.0

I.I

1.8

11.25

I

U

11^

6"

Photograpnic Sciences Ck)rporation

^•U^ 23 WEST MAIN STREET WEBSTER, N.Y. 14580 (716) 872-4503

#

^f^

Messrs. Jackson and

308

Speculative geologists the bed

Mger

on the

may perhaps consider

of iron ore to this granite, as of

the relations of

some value

in

account-

They

ing for the origin of veins and beds in transition rocks.

from the

the granite

would doubtless regard the protrusion of

central regions of our globe, as the cause of the disruption of the

which was thus raised from the bottom of the

Strata of clay-slate,

sea, bearing with

it

edges thrown up

their

contraction of the

subordinate rocks, the

fixed,

The

the spoils of the ocean.

thus be broken, and

layers

at an angle

would

and by the

;

superior strata being

or the protrusion having carried the rocks so far as to

chasm would be

poise the strata in a perpendicular position, a

formed, into which the ore of iron was afterwards poured from

above by a second submersion. it is

But however

evident, from the facts already stated,

may have

this

been,

the origin of the

tliat

ore and slate n -st have been very nearly contemporaneous.

The

granite might have been, nevertheless,

the clay-slate, and constituted the base

posited in a horizontal manner.

The

much

older than

upon which

it

was de-

formation of rocks beneath

the granite, by oxidation of the metallic

bases of

the

earths

discovered by the illustrious Da"y, according to the views of that excellent geologist, Professor

conceive them,j against

may have caused

and through the overlying

raised from

its

this

(if

we

them on the present occasion, and suggesting

to

American geology. granite, as

we have

Nova Scoda.

to

account for

could not refrain from adverting

to

The

which was thus

and modified, appear

many

facts in geology, that

not mis-

The Wernerian and Hut-

so

to exist in

we do

protrusion of the granite

transition slate,

horizontal position.

tonian theories thus united

I'

Daubeny,

their application

said, is the only primitive rock

known

Besides being found on the South moun-

Mineralogy and Geology tains,

we

are credibly informed of

parts of the province, which left

we

colorless on the geological

it is

its

Scotia.

309

occurrence in the southern

did not

visit,

and have therefore

map accompanying this

the authority of Messrs. Smith and er locahty of this rock,

where,

o/Mva

Brown, we

On

paper.

also add, as anoth-

Cobequid mountain in Cumberland county must hold nearly the same relation

apparent,

it

to the'

sandstone, as

does

it

to

the slate in Annapolis county.

But we

must beg leave to differ very widely from these gentlemen in regard to the character of the rock, which, in different parts of the country, occurs with the clay-slate, and to which we find they have applied the term prhnitive trap*

shall in

be able

to

show

any form, and

the

that this rock

of

McCulloch.

determme whether the ore bed of edly

m

think that

that its mineral characters clearly identify

quartz rock

where cut

We

off by the granite, or

we

cannot be considered as trap

Future

the South mountains

whether

it

with

it

investigations

must is

any

continues uninterrupt-

more elevated parts of the range which pass southward of the patch shown on the map. as we are authorized to conclude from the direction of the the

to the in fact

ore bed at Clem-

ent's.

In thevicinity of Paradise river, a few miles from Bridgetown, smoky quartz (Cairngorm or Scottish topaz) are found among the granite boulders imbedded in the alluvium which forms the banks of the Annapolis river. One of these found on the estate of ]\Ir. Longley, weighed, we were told, more' than one hundred pounds, and was remarkable for its symmetry of external figure, as well as the beauty and varied tints of its gigantic crystals of

inter-

nal substance.

The mass, we

are sorry to say, was soon broken

History of Nova Scotia, Vol.

73

II. p.

417.

Messrs. Jackson and Alger on the

310 into fragments

with the exception of a few of the

these are nearly colorless and transparent,

yellow color,

m

of,

which we had the good fortune

smallest,

Mi

and disposed

while others are of a

We

clove-brown.

place a perfect

were

it

hering to

v.

enough

Its

its it

base, which

is

to obtain

from

into this

and beauty, though

size

crystal, singular for its

of

of a straw-

some are

weight

measures nineteen inches from the point of

nation to

Some

smoky shade, passing

also fortunate

smaller than the one just mentioned.

obtain.

to

is

its

ninety pounds

;

pyramidal termi-

twelve inches in diameter, and has ad-

grains of quartz

and

which indicate

felspar,

mer connexion

with the granite, in a cavity of

ably formed.

Its six lateral

which

it

its for-

was prob-

planes are nine inches in length to

its

acuminating planes, one of which, being unduly extended, nearly obliterates the

two adjoining ones, and

twelve inches

is

in length.

II

This crystal presents, within, the richest shades of color, from light

topaz and straw-yellow, through clove-brown, into a dark and

almost opake smoky color. incrustation of

common in

covered externally by a thin

quartz, which, on being cleaved

open numerous dark and do not exceed

It is

brilliant

off,

lays

prisms of schorl, some of which

diameter the thickness of a

hair,

and arc nearly

transparent, while others are the sixteenth of an inch in thickness

and three inches long.

i

face of the

These slender prisms

crystal, or penetrate

3'

an object of

deeply

into

greater interest.

lie

its

upon the

sur-

substance, and

This remarkable

render

it

crystal,

though ordinarily opake, yet, under the influence of strong

transmitted

light,

has

its

still

whole

interior

.*!,

transparent mass, reflecting the colors

lit

up

we have

into

a beautifully

mentioned, and

is

altogether the noblest production which the country has afforded us

;

it is

equalled only by the rarest of the rock-crystals found in

the Alps and in Siberia.

mmmmm

;

tint ni

III 1

iiMiiiM

1

'

-4-

-r-..,-p. ,f.^.

Mineralogy and Geology of JVova

Having thus

far

appear.

last

This bed

.

...\ -.!i !2*;» >;'i"* ^ ;j

y

y'

'<

1:

Scotia.

311

described the appearances and productions

of the South mountains,

Clement's, the



we

shall

now

advert to the ore-bed at

place along this range where

it is

known

to

three miles from the

is

mouth of Moose river extensive openings having been made into it, during

and, several

the past season, from which

been removed, peculiar

many hundred

facilities

tons of the ore have

are afforded for

its examination. width considerably exceeds that of the Nictau bed, and perhaps ten feet may be assigned as its average ; but from the intimate union of tiie ore with the contiguous slate, it is very difficult

Its

to discover the line of separation

In this respect

where,

to a

it

much

By

presented.

between the one and

the other.

very materially from the ore of Nictau,

differs

greater extent, the walls of the bed are distinctly

the assistance of a compass, this ore

may be trac of two miles, towards Bear river, so powerful is its magnetic influence on the needle. Indeed, land surveyors are more or less perplexed by its influence, while traversing ed

for the distance

the forests in different parts of this range, s'.d these evidences are in support of the continuity of this bed from New Glasgow to

Clement's.

This ore

is

compact or

fine granular, of a bluish-grey or steel-

grey color, and possesses a glistening metallic lustre. When reduced to powder, its color is similar. It is highly magnetic, strongly affecting the needle, as

we have before observed, and magnetic oxide of iron, or exists in the state of the protoxide of the metal, combined with lime, is

in

fact

the

alumina, and

silex.

Its specific gravity

or Nictau ore, and sixty-five

it

4-5; exceeding that of the Pictou

yields

it

per cent, of

the smelting-furnace,

is

soft

by fusion

cast-iron.

in

the

assay-furnace,

But when reduced

has hitherto yielded less, owing to

its

in

ad-

I'i

p u Messrs. Jackson mid

312

r^ mixture with the

The

from which

slate,

Mger

has been

it

cast iron obtained from this ore,

is

on the separate

difficult to

of good quality

it.

for strength

and softness, while that of a harder nature, containing less carbon, is

converted into malleable iron, which,

readily

praise

deserves,

it

is

United States.

the

give

to

equal to the best of this description

The pure

bUstered steel, which, on

iron has also

been converted

the in

into

useful for the

was found equally

trial,

it

made

ill

purposes

The

to

which the foreign

fossil

article

remains contained

had been applied.*

in this

ore are not so numerous But, besides their im-

as at either of the localities before cited.

pressions,

we have

here presented more interesting traces of

them, which strongly indicate the effects of heat both upon their fleshy

and crustaceous

into the substances

we

parts, in

which are now presented

shall allude to this

more

lenites,

and

particularly, after

They

which were recognised. encrinites,

decomposing and converting them in the

ore.

stating the

But fossils

are terebratulites, ammonites, tel-

trilobites.

Nova Scotia, hitherto unobserved

Of fossil,

the last

curious and, in

supposed

to

have been

originally a crustaceous insect,

we

obtained the remains of one, two

and a half inches

It

presents a series of transverse

divided

joints,

in

length.

vertically

is

ly the

width of them both.

the

fossil,

It is to

mine

at

now obhged

They

and has near-

terminate at the lower part of

matrix, to which this fossil

compact mass of •

one of

three lobes, the central

either of the other two,

without showing the caudal projection observed in some

The

species.

iron

into

more prominent than

which

slate,

is

attached,

is

a very

passing on one side into magnetic iron

be regretted that the Iron establis'.iment erected in the vicinity of the

Clement's in 1826, has since ceased

its

to look to other quarters for the supply of

opBratioas, as the country

an

articlo

would yield her in an abundance almost unknown to any other.

which her own

is

hills

mmm

mmm

Mineralogy and Geology of J\'ova Scot in. ore.

probable that remains of

It is

this, will

yet be met with

this fossil,

the slate, or in

in

its

much

313

larger than

included beds of

transition limestone

as rocks similar to these have ; hitherto furnished the most remarkable that have occurred in Europe, some of which, found in the slate rocki. of France, are, according to Professor Bakewell, seven inches in length.* They are found

also of

of equal size

and

in great

perfection at Trenton Falls

remarked by Professor Silliman

"some

that

Those found larely

in Ihe

if still

Dudley limestone, according

exceed three inches

it is

them seem almost

of

looking out of the black limestone rock, as

;

and

animated."

f

to Parkinson,

in length.

In breaking masses of this ore, the fracture frequently crosses the fossils, and lays open their inner surfaces, which are often

covered by a very thin and

brilliant,

crust of the phosphate of iron.

They

crystallized,

in

beautiful

divergent

bluish-green, botryoidal

also present this substance plates,

are translucent and of a bluish-green color

;

or

lamin«,

also

which

lamellar

phate of lime shooting through the cavities from one side the

other.

In

some

cases, the

cavities, left in the

decomposition of the internal part of the up with a yellow friable carbonate of

fossil,

a few bluish spots of the phosphate

;

to

ore by the

are entirely filled

iron, having,

it,

sul-

intermixed with

at other times the crusta-

ceous parts of the

fossil are converted into carbonate of iron, which shows, distinctly, the original appearance of the shelly covering.

In fact, in almost every fossil

met with

in this ore, we have one produced by the combination of its constituent principles, carbonic and phosphoric acids, with the

or both of these metallic

salts,

• Introduction to Geology, p. 27. t

See note on page 48 of

well's Introduction.

74

his

"OuUine," appended

to his edition of

Bake-

mh

I

<

Messrs. Jackson and Alger on the

314

surrounding iron, assisted, as

we

have before ventured

to say,

by heat. existence of the sulphate of lime in the ore, although

The is

no direct proof of the action of heat upon

For

on the case. which was

it

at first united its

with pyrites of which there are yet tra-

decomposition and passage into sulphu-

united with the lime of the shells, and thus given rise to

ric acid,

the sulphate under the form

of the pyrites behind, as

we

without

yet has a bearing

it,

can hardly be overlooked, that the sulphur,

ces in the ore, has, by

cess,

it

we

we have find

it,

described

in a

are aware, might have taken place, as

much heat

;

but

all

the attending

in the present case, as to leave

but

little

leaving the iron

;

This pro-

yellow oxide.

does take place,

it

phenomena

are such,

doubt in our minds, that

we

have

other arguments in support of these views, which, to some,

may

heat was the agent employed.

But,

in addition to these,

appear of a more positive character than those already adduced. It is

well known that iron

is

deposited from an aqueous solution only

in the state of the peroxide,

and that

its

ores, in such cases, are

never of a great specific gravity, and always void of magnetism.

Now

the aqueous origin of the ore in question,

presence of marine exuviae ces,

even where the

fossil

in

every part of

it

;

is

evinced by the

yet, in

some

remains are the most numerous,

ore has acquired the character of the magnetic oxide, and

longer a peroxide.

How

that the ore

assumes such

parts of the

same bed ?

ide, as

it

was

then

is this

to

be explained?

ceive

this is

how

no

is it

totally different characters in different

that of Pictou

originally deposited from

being in the state of peroxan aqueous solution, and

that of Clement's in the state of the magnetic or protoxide. it

pla-

undeniable, that this great change

is

to

We con-

be ascribed

heat attending the production of the trap rocks of the

to the

North moun-

Mineralogy and Geology of JVova Scotia. tains,

rendering the ore

strongly magnetic

influence, but retains

lively light,

ry

we

and

is

off a portion of its

was not

situated, its full

to

oxygen

while that

;

sensibly affected

quantity of oxygen,

without magnetism.

are enabled

810

Clement's, in their immediate vicinity,

by driving

more remotely

at Pictou, its

at

Besides, by

by

compara-

is

this

theo-

account for the existence of so large a

quantity of carbonate of lime in the latter ore, the heat not having sufficient to drive off the carbonic acid from the

been

fossil shells

contained

in

it.

The

superior compactness of the former,

its

great-

er specific gravity, and

from which,

slate,

in

more intimate union with the adjoining many places, it is difficult to discover any

line of separation, are in confirmation of the

venture to

offer, thus

theory which

we

supported, to the consideration of our read-

ers ; assured as we are, that should any of them be induced to pass over the same ground, and examine for themselves the evidences on which it is founded, they would not be disposed to differ

much

from

indeed they were not

us, if

views.

It affords

rocks on which

it

amalgamating the

new

fully

brought over to the same

proof of the igneous origin of the trap

wholly depends

;

rival theories of

and

it

Werner

thus,

is

anjl

we

think,

by

Hutton, that just

conclusions can be formed, of the geological nature of this counand the relation which the rocks of aqueous deposition bear to those of igneous origin. try,

The clay-slate forming the banks of Bear river, near its mouth, contains beds of iron pyrites, of a compact, amorphous character, well suited for the manufacture of copperas.

where

this

mineral

is

freely

exposed

to air

and moisture,

phate of iron forms spontaneously, and covers efflorescent it,

incrustation.

The

this

In fact, the sul-

rock with an

hepatic variety also occurs with

and, extending through the rock to

some

distance from the

m

Mesitrs. Jacknon

316

%

river,

exhales

in

sultry weather, an

apprize the inhabitants of

W

its

"The

as

Jllgcr on the

odor, vhici, cannot

fail

to

existence.

About four miles from Bear

known

and

place

a river, in the vicinity of

the South mounta.ns Joggins," the clay-slate of which .s here preanother dyke of porphyry,

intersected by valley, but a lew of a deep recess or sented, forming the sides nearly at It enters the strata Digby. yards from the main road to

is

the tain

It

mentioned, on N.ctau mounsame angle with the dyke, before connexion with the neighbounng •

and, like that,

its

actual

were unable to hidden from observation, we slate' being entirely to that more approximate relations determine its extent, or its ot a a greyish-black trap, The base of this porphyry is rock congranular imbedded compact. The tine-grained texture, and numerous. pure white color, are very a of cetions of felspar, m discern.ble is most part, no regularity of form

Though,

for the

them, sometimes observed. ritic

The

of white felspar distinct parallelograms

rock

is

thus rendered more

distinctly

may be porphy-

than that of Nictau.

We

shall

origin of the dykes which not attempt to discuss the applied to all of clay-slate ; for the theory

thus intersect the strata

applicable to these. character, is equally other dykes of similar clay-slate, and now the to posterior They are doubtless of an origin or sohd.hcaleft by the contraction occupy the immense fissures the great ore-bed ; transition rock, including tion of the adjoining rocks o the or are coeval with, the trap and have proceeded from, Should the dyke at this p ace neighbouring North mountains.

extend

for

into the high land, any considerable distance

.t

will

be

which, from intersect the great ore-bed, found most probably to nearly Bear river, must take place direction of the latter near the

two miles south of the

valley.

Whether

the intersection does

Mincrahgij and Geology

o/Moa

Scolia.

3,7

very „p„fe ,,,„,„^,,^_^ ,^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ _^^_^^ ^^^^^ nver, ,he ore has „„. yet been observed i„ place b„, fr„„ n.a8ne„c needle bein, alTeced in .hi, .,„aj ;

a.,

'-een

Clen,enf.,

and Nicau.

e».re„ely probable, ery

„,a.«es of

2-01. na. on

,|,i,

if,

indeed,

„,e

.hi,

i. i,

,.,pp„.i,i„„

pan, of the

l.i.h

„f ,„e

day „f

sla.e

and .he

composing

e were ,„do„b., no. having been able .ovisi. iUa *.s reason, i, was left uneoiored on .he mat

e

dilv-

land, .ha.

,e™l

in.er,.ra.i(ied q„ar.z

,he na.ure of .he rock

,,,,

l^^^^l^

.0"ard, lake S.. Ma,,,, „,,,h f„™, ,He wes.ern

(See .he map).

marks

,-,

„„. e„„„,.med by ,he

i„ diiTerent

t

sensibly

rock.

,hi,

iW

cape

To

accompanvin. ourro-

,n

Professor

.Silli„,an.,

Mmerican Joornauf

Scie"

e ough we were correc.ly informed of the extent of the slate as f„ was e., med by .he coloring on .ha. map. From a view given

01.

.n

,os Ilarres'

••

A.lan.ie

Nep.nne," .0 which we have already

referred .he reatlcr for several ,ke.ehe, of .he scenery of Novl Sco„a „e were led .0 expec. .he occnrrenee of columnar trap upon 1.; and .he opportunity which it might thu, afford us of w,.nessmg .he ac.ual juxtaposition of this rock with ,he transition sla.e, a phenomenon for which we had hi.herto looked in v,i„ was one which we could no. well pass over unimproved. But' on approadnng the cape, which is fronted by a cli.r of only abou. e.gh.y lee., we soon found ourselves deceived by De, ' Barrcs' ske.ch, wh,ch, indeed, bore ,0 rude a resemblance .0 the acto.l appearance of this spot, that we were led to believe it had been

m

ended

...tnde

.0

represent some other of far greater height and ma..

For .nstead of the oblique and

alone have given

roraposmg the

irregular lines, .hat wourd the dip or inclined s.ra.ification of the .late

clilf,

we have

vertical

and horizon.al

lines, .hat

in



m If

m

trutli, is

JJlger on the

represent nothing but a vast facade of columnar trap.

possible that the cape, at ihe time this sketch of

was much higher 1^1

and

Messi's. Jackson

318

than

is

it

present

at

;

It

was taken,

it

a change, which,

we

if

consider the lapse of sixty years, and take into account also the destructive action of the sea, which in other places effects changes

one twentieth part of that time, cannot certainly be

as great in

thought very remarkable. '1

the exact features of the spot

iJut

must then have been strangely overlooked by the

had correctly copied them, error of supposing

the

its

his

artist

for

;

he

if

picture could have never led

composition

to

to

be of trap instead of

slate.

No trap Mary's Hay

rock, in any form, occurs on the southern shore of St. ;

even the dykes

that occasionally penetrate the slate

of the South mountains, and the drifted masses strewed over their surface, are here entirely

indications of fines of the

of

it

occur

in

wanting; and,

if

we except

these, no

any part of Nova Scotia beyond the con-

North mountain range.

Its

occurrence on the Island

Cape Breton has been barely mentioned by Messrs. Smith

and Brown

;

and we regret that these gentlemen have not been some details respecting it. It may indeed be

able to give us

looked for wherever the sandstone prevails, as these two rocks are

commonly

The

associated.

coast, of

which we are now speaking, consists of

occasionally presenting,

among

sections of quartz rock and

its

water-worn

cliffs,

slate,

interesting

beds of transition limestone.

But

the quartz rock of this place has not the usual compact, homoge-

neous character of that (soon

where

more in

it

appears

in

to

be mentioned) around Halifax,

more powerful

strata,

and, from

effectually resisting the elements, stands

prominent ridges, suggesting

to the

its

power

up above the

of

slate

observer the appearance of

9

Mincralogii and Geology of basaltic walls.

It

jYom

Scotia.

31

seems here more properly a

fine Iragtnentary rock, consisting of granular quartz and lelspar, united with grains of serpentine of a dirty ' irreen coior, color ana nn
It is

traversed by narrow seams of fibrous asbestus, u min-

eral hitherto ur.ol.scrved in this Province.

coming other

finer grained

localities.

and compact,

Although,

in

it

JJut in a

few places, be-

passes into the slate as at

containing the serpentine,

it

dillbrs

from the ,,uartz rock near Halifax (the ertect of certain local

and accidental causes), it possesses, in common with this, the general structure and composition of the quartz rock of Scotland, so ably illustrated by Dr. A[cCulloch, according to whom it'

is

sometimes met with

mentary form similar

the Highlands of Scotland in

in

to this.

It is

not however,

in this

a frag-

countrj,

geologically associated with those rocks of the primary series, with

which, according to that writer,

Scotland

but, as

it

traverses different parts

of

mmcraloiricaW, the same rock as the Scottish aggregate, it is obvious that the same title should be applied to it, although, contrary to the systems, it |may place this rock among the formations of a later epoch, to which, in fact, ;

it is

the re-

cent discoveries of distinguished geologists have shown it to belong; as, according to M. De la Beche, it occurs with argillaceous slate, containing fossils, in France; and it is even" described, bv

Peru, where

Humboldt, as a it

limestone with

is

secondary rock in the Andes of extensively interposed in a formation of alpine

fossil shells.*

Its

occurrence, in

Nova

intimate

connexion with

trilobite,

a crustaceous insect, hitherto found only in

transition rocks, proves

• Baron Humboldt's Essay p.

296.

it

slate,

a

containing the

Scotia, in

remains the

of the oldest

more recent formation, but allows us

on the Superposition of Rocks in both Hemispheres

;

VJ

Messrs, Jackson and Jlger on the

320 to class

it

ately raposes, but with slate

which

it is

most of the coast from thence towards er,

unable to speak positively on

ed our examinations so received,

we

far

immedi-

The

to

Cape

;

St.

they probably form

Sable.

We are, howev-

this point, from not having extend-

but,

;

in fact

extend round Cape

towards Yarmouth

for several miles

it

never known to alternate.

and quartz rock were observed

Mary's

which

posterior only to the granite, on

from the information we have

are led to believe that

it

forms the whole wx tern

granite, which coast of the Province, interrupted only by the white banks, The interior. the occasionally rises through it in

!

the quartz rock alluded to in Des Barres' work, are doubtkss

and the white sand, ife

also

its disintegrated debris,

we

choose

map

cal

spoken of

of

in

un-jolored, in the

this

same work,

probably

is

But

to leave, for the present, this part of the geologi-

hope of seeing

servations of otheri, or our own,

ed

in the

formed and thrown up by the sea.*

it

filled

up by the ob-

which may hereafter be renew-

region and extended perhaps to

some remoter parts

it.

With the exception of the limestone referred

veins of

to,

of quartz sometimes crystallized, and occasional disseminations

• Sable Island, which has proved so often a scene of shipwreck and desolation to m;riners, is said to

to be carried about

tempest. it

The

be formed wholly of this

and

island

is

drifted into

very low

;

new

It is

" those who have not personally witnessed the its

horrors.

strikes this attenuated line of sand,

22(5.

little

more than a mile wide,

effect of a

storm upon this place, can

Tlie rev^'berated thunder of the sea,

its

thirty

miles,

is

mighty pressure, seems

separate and be borne away into the ocean."

page

so light as

is

wind and sea of almcit every

remarked by Mr. Hiilliburton, that

on a front of

and the vibrution of the island under will

material, which

and, although but a

is said to extend thirty miles in length.

form no adequate idea of

frail

shoals by the

History of

tru

.

when

to indicate that

Nova

it

appalling;

Scotia, Vol.

it

ii.

;

Mineralogy and Geology ofJVova Scotia. iron pyrites, this coast, so far as

ing of mineralogical interest

;

we have

traced

it,

321 presents noth-

yet the lover of the picturesque will

ce delighted with

its scenery, which, although wanting, it is true, the majestic outhne of the opposite coast, is more agreeably di-

versilledby the alternations of different rocks, the variable manner in

which the

that have

Of one

strata of slate are

seen to run, and the deep glens

been formed by the sea between

of these spots,

we

find a

view

their protruding edges.

in the

"Atuntic Neptune," showing the limestone caverned out by the sea.

The

(juartz rock before alluded

Scotia, of

characters. clay-slate,

It is

it

the only rock in

map

as alternating with the

strata of great dimensions. it

alternates so

impossible to give an exacf view of

but the proportion of this rock io the slate

by thus collecting the numerous narrow few large It is

divisions.

composed,

quartz, which

is

as

It its

Nova

mention the mineralof^ical

lo

represented on the

and constituting

not strictly true to nature, for

render

to, is

which we have omitted

is

This

freijuently,

is

as to

arrangement

its

correctly shown,

beds

of

it

into

a

occupies but a small part of the country.

name

fine granular,

indicates, of siliceous

matter, or

but more frequently compact, and

breaks, not unusually, with a conchoidal fracture.

times white, and

its

greyish or bluish

tint, arising,

contiguous

slate,

with which

passes into

tlinty or siliceous slate,

grains are transparent

;

but

it

It

is

some-

generally has a

apparently, from admixture with the it is

doubdess coeval. and

is

It

frequently

sometimes so intimate-

ly blended with the argillite into which it passes, that the eye cannot distinguish where the one begins or the other terminates.

The

layers of siliceous slate are often separated by

thin folia of

argillaceous slate, while the true quartz rock possesses fied

appearance, and never separates into layers

76

no

strati-

like the

slate.

m

m n

Mger

Messrs. Jackson and

322

But, in a few instances,

it

loses entirely

its

on the

compact and homoge-

neous appearance, and becomes a fragmentary compound similar exceptto that already mentioned on the shore of St. Mary's Bay, ing that place.

One

of Halifax

;

of the beds of quartz rock runs fifteen miles north

two cross Bedford Basin

;

and the fourth forms a part

v..

Bay and Hahfax

of the Peninsula included between Margaret's

harbour, where

presents

it

far

the ocean, and opposes an

itself to

unyielding barrier against

how

that

wants the greenish serpentine observed only at

it

its

mighty waves.

these beds extend into the

interior

;

that they are continuous with the strata of slate,

It

is

but

known

not

probable

it is

and are connected

with the quartz rock on the shore of St. Mary's Bay.

appear evident

It will

composition, which alone acter, that this

we is

think,

to

into the

determine

for,

;

transition clay-slate,

by

it is

tainly the

we have in

is

to, is

whether

proved

to

be con-

never known

it is

Cer-

ordinarily the case with trap rocks.

term primitive, which

alluded

mineral

true char-

stratification with

its

temporaneous with that rock, the strata of which to cross in dykes, as

its

its

to the title of trap,

rock can have no claims

considered as secondary or primitive

and passage

even setting aside

sufficient

we

find applied to

peculiarly unfortunate.

the present instance,

in

order

to

set forth

it

We

in

the

work

mention

more

plainly

this,

our

reasons for having applied the term quartz rock to the aggregate in question, its

and,

if

true character.

possible, to avoid the charge of having mistaken

These reasons, we

trust, will

cuse us, in the minds of the genUemen

marks, from any wish of

the subject is our only aim, even fallacy of

our

sufficient to ex-

who drew up

those re-

calling in question, unnecessarily, the

accuracy of their observations, as

expose the

be

own

if it

we

assure

come

views.

them

that truth

on

from a source that should

The quartz

rock, as

we

Mineralogy and Geology ofJVova Scotia. have

occupies but a small part of the country, being met with

said,

principally in the township of Halifax,

dreary and barren

hills

been considered

falsely

From

323

where

which surround that fair

specimens of the

constitutes the

it

city,

and which have of

soil

Nova

the nature of this rock, that part of the country, in

predominates, must for ages remain

sterile

;

as this

Scotia.

which

it

aggre-

flinty

gate obdurately resists the action of the elements, and will require a long period for a decomposition of sufficient soil to re-

ward the

labors of the agriculturist

valley of Annapolis,

and

this soil,

from

its

nature,

or the garden of Acadia, Cornwallis,

more favored by nature

are

;

never advantageously compare with the rich loam of the

will

ly, is

in this

not dependent upon her

situated at the

soil

respect.

Halifax,

to " yield

head of one of the most

which

fortunate-

her bread "

;

but,

beautiful harbours in the

world, with the romantic Bedford Basin in the rear, she possesses

commercial advantages,

to

which those of no other place

country can be compared, and fection

of her

soil,

The is

traveller

fully

compensated

which, collected

produce the garden vegetables

who

is

in the

in the

for the imper-

valleys,

suflices

to

for the city.

proceeding from the United States

to

Halifax,

desirous of studying the principal rock formations de-

scribed in this paper, can easily arrange his route so as to examine the structure of the country.

If he goes by the way of St. Johns, (N. B.) and takes the steam-boat to Annapolis, he may

examine

to

advantage the trap rocks of the North mountains, and

the clay-slate of the valley of the

two ranges

South mountains,

Annapohs

to

Windsor

river, in ;

which he

in his

journey along the

will travel

between these

and then cross the South mountains, the

border of the sandstone and the quartz rock formation,

From

Halifax, he

may shape

his

to Halifax.

course eastwardly to Pictou, and

324

Messrs. Jackson and Alger on the

comprise

the coal, iron, and copper mines,

in his observations

Returning

with the other interesting locahties of that district.*

may then

through Windsor, he 5*'

which statedly ply between

take passage in one of the packets

that place

pass beneath the lofty portals of

will

and

St.

Johns, in which he

Cape Blomidon and Cape

D'Or,and within near view of the high and picturesque Island uated off that

The

coast.

of these packets, to

readiness evinced

aid the objects of

sit-

by the masters will

travellers,

enable

thm, on suitable occasions, to pass a short time in gathering up

some

of the

many

rare

tered along this coast. tion

which

and

efllcient,

it

and

beautiful productions that are

But

deserves, no

order to bestow upon

in

method

will

the tour, and

large

enough

be found so convenient

admit of storing away the ex-

to

tensive collections of objects that

may be

obtained.

was pursued by ourselves with great advantage sion to the Peninsula,

recommend

likely to

scat-

the atten-

as that of chartering a vessel properly furnished for

iii

us to

it

and

is

to others

be successful.

A

in

This method

our last excur-

one which our experience enables

as

decidedly the easiest and most

small boat, without sails, will also be

found a useful auxiliary, by which access

may be had

to

many

places along the coast, where the water would be too shallow to allow

* cally

At

a larger craft to ride in safety, or where such a vessel

the Provincial

tion, a very fine

in

Academy of Pictou,

there has been collected, and scientifi-

arranged under the direction of Dr. McCulloch, the principal of the

museum

which department

this

country appears quite similar to the United States,

except, perhaps, the greater

number of aquatic

shown us by Dr. McKinlay, one of the

and a clergyman of the

institu-

of natural history, particularly of native birds and insects,

place, to

trustees

whom,

would here express our obligations.

birds.

for this

and

The

collection

was

if

we

politely

lecturers of the institution,

and other acts of kindness, we

Mm

Mineralogy and Geology of

Scotia.

325

would be in the greatest danger of being driven upon the shore by the sudden and violent gales that spring up in this region, or of being hurled

among

the broken ledges by the

and cur-

tides

rents that rush impetuously along the coast, and leave only

here

and there a spot of real security, sheltered by some bold projecting ridge of rock. In treating of the

exceeded the

confined ourselves. as they

Geology of

limits within

exist in

But

which,

this it

province

may be

as our object has

we have perhaps we should have

said,

been

to

nature, and also to point out, in

the rationale of the

describe facts

some

instances,

more remarkable phenomena observed,

it

was

found impossible to shorten the paper materially, without omitting parts which either had a necessary connexion with the whole, or which, in themselves, seemed too important not to have some

Our

brief consideration.

object, too, has

been

describe the

to

structure and productions of the country in such a

would be most it;

and

doing

in

same substance, variety,

greater

this,

we

as

presented

it

have often cited several

though

it

mineral

the

Among

whole.

since they were examined by us, while

be

found

to

have acquired

changes they may have suffered stances which these changes

• It mineral

minuteness of

much

many

of

much new

in the

mean

in

paper,

this

of their interest

them

will

interest

time, and

may have brought

numerous

the

doubt-

by

the

by the sub-

to light.*

may be

well to state as a curious fact in this place, that

known

as pre'.mite have appeared in our examinations of

77

localities of the

into a

substances particularized

probably few will be found to have lost

less

as

has lengthened out our remarks, has given

completeness to of

manner

us in exploring

under some new form or

itself

and have thus been led occasionally

detail which,

localities

who may succeed

useful to those

no traces of the i.,.

'up rocks of

;

326

Messrs. Jackson

a7i(l

known and adopted, we have

Theories which are generally

when appearances

merely alluded to en passant; but

we have advanced

opinions,

Alger on the

some of which

are

justified

it,

perhaps novel,

although they are the legitimate inferences from the facts discov-

ered

our investigations, which were carefully made, and the

in

Some

recorded on the spot where they were observed.

results

probably be found in our statements, such as must

errors will

unavoidably occur

in

an account of the geology of an unexplored

country, where there are but few of those conveniences, which

abound

our own, to

in.

In the

structure.

correct, although

facilitate

some omissions

boundaries of the rock

the

researches

main, however, we

may

not always have

formations

was

consequence

a necessary

exists in the interior, and which, although

in

it

soil

which

enriches the country

an agricultural point of view, greatly embarrasses researches

into

1p

be found

be discovered, and

of the obscurity occasioned by the uniform covering of

in

physical

its

will doubtless

This

been exactly portrayed.

into

trust that they will

its

The

geology.

sea-coast,

waves, exhibits the

most

and when defeated

in

in the interior,

we

denuded by the

satisfactory views of

ed

in

scarcely ever failed in obtaining a view of them

and remarkable regularity

Nova

action of the

rock formations

our search for the outcroppings of strata

somewhere along the extensive coast of plicity

its

Scotia, cannot

to excite

fail

the Province.

The sim-

in geological structure exhibit-

the admiration of every

l< Nova

Scotia

;

although this mineral, accompanied by nearly the same substances

that have been described in this paper, regions, to

and

is

never,

we

is

any considerable extent.

And we

search of

it,

in the trap rocks

are far from believing that

met with when the rocks of Nova Scotia in

abundant

believe, wholly absent from any of them,

and add another species

this country has already afforded.

shall

it

of most other

when they occur will not

yet be

have been more minutely explored

to the interesting suite of substances

which

Mineralogy and Geology ofJ^ova geologist,

may

who may examine

that region,

Scotia.

887

how much

so ever he

disagree with us in our theoretical deductions.

We

have

purposely omitted, as being entirely foreign to the object of this paper, any references to the history and geography of the country, excepting in a few cases, where they could hardly

be avoided

in

designating particular localities, and in assisting

the traveller in finding such as tion.

were the objects of our examinaFor much valuable information in relation to these sub-

jects, as well as to the general statistics

country,

and topography of the

we

take great pleasure in referring our readers to Mr. Halliburton's « History of Nova Scotia," published at Halifax in 1829.

List of theMmerah of Nova Scotia, comprinng such as are described in the preceding Paper, principally arranged, as to Species, Subspecies, and Varieties, according to the •' Tabular View" in the System of Mimralosu j bV by rrofessor Cleaveland. <>

Species. Sulphate of Barytes.

SUBSPECIES.

VARIETIEII. lamellar and granular,

compact and

Carbo ate of Lime.

crystallized.

Calcareous Spar crystallized

Dog-tooth

and lamellar.

spar.

Stalactite,

heini tropic.

granular

magnesian crystallized.

Brown

Rhomb-spar.

Spar,

bituminous Calcareous Sinter,

Arragonite.

crystallized.

Phosphate of Lime.

Asparagus stone.

Sulphate of Lime. Selenite.

massive, lamellar.

Gypsum. fibrous, granular,

compact, snowy, and stellated.

328

Messrs. Jackson and Alger on the

Species. Quartz.

TAKIEYIES.

SUBSPECIES.

common

crystallized limpid, cmoliy (Cairngorm)yellow, iriseil, radiated.

Amethyst. red and purple

ferruginous fetid

Chalcedony. brown and

|;reen.

Cacliolont;.

Caimdian, Onyx. Ai;al(.',

— ribbon, hrocciatcd,

fortification,

and moss.

Siliceous Sinter. amethystine, and snow white.

Heliotrope.

Opal. Semi-opal.

Hornstone. Jasper.

common

striped

Agate-jasper. Ruin-jasper.

Siliceous Slate. Basanite.

Mica. laminated.

m;^

Schorl.

common

black prismatic

acicular, in quartz.

Felspar.

Garnet.

manganesian Stilbite.

yellow and white.

Laumonite Analcime common, and

red, or

Sarcolite.

cupreous green, a new variety.

Chabasie. wine yellow, colorless.

Apophyllite. green and white. Albin.

Heulandite. red and white.

Thomsonite Mcsotype. Mesolite or Needlestone. Skolezite.

plumous and lilamentoiu.

Asbestus. 6brous.

Horoblende.

jnimralogy and Geolog of Tf Species.

J\i

ova Scotia.

SUBSPECIES.

VARIETIES.

Hornblende.

common mauWe,

Diallage. metalloidal

Serpentine. comtnan.

Chlorite.

Green Earth.

common,

crystallized.

Argillaceous Slate. Argillite.

Roof

Graphite.

Slato.

granular.

Coal.

common

Lignite.

Jet.

Bituminous wood. Brown, cartliy, and

Copper.

Suli)lniret

bituminous.

Pitcliy lignite. brittle

native metallic, arborescent.

of Copper,

or Vitreous Cojiper. } Pyritous Copper.

compact massive.

Red Oxide

common

of Copper.

yellow.

crystallized.

Carbonate of Copper. blue

fibrous.

green tibrous, (Malachite.)

Sulphuret of Iron.

common amorphous. hepatic. cubic.

arsenical

Magnetic Oxide of Iron compact, granular, and crystallized. earthy.

Specular Oxide of Iron.

crystallized.

Red Oxide

micaceous. of Iron compact.

Brown Oxide of

)seu
Iron.

(Hydrous oxide.) fascicular, in quartz crystals.

and

amethyst

Brown Hematite, botryoidal and staalctitic.

78

m 1}

1

330

Mineralogy and Geology ofJ^ova Scotia.

Species. Argillaceus

subspecies.

Oxide of

VARIETIES.

Iron. rcxlnou!! granular.

Shot oro.

Dog

ore.

Carbonate of Iron. massivo and crystallized.

Phosphate of Iron.

m

bottyoldal and crystallized,

earthy and pulverulent.

Sulphate of Iron. efllorescent.

Suiphurct of Lead. argentiferous

Arsenidte of Lead. crystaMizcd,

Oxide of Manfianpse, (Pyrolusite of lluidinger)

grey radiated, compact, and acicular.

Chlorophfeite.'

*

This rare mid curious mincrnl

been supjiosod by

i

ii

Into

Sideroolfpto of Suussuru

;

is

not yet estabiislicd as a distinct spocica.

distinj,'tiishcd

raincraiojjist,

W.

I'hUlips, to

lie

but neither of UiCbO luiucruls has beua analyzed.

Jt lins

allifd to the

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h'

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1831
Mineralogy, Geology, Minéralogie, Géologie
English