Remarks on Mr. Lyman's Paper

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Frazer]

216

[May 18,

Remarks on Mr. Lyman's Paper. By Dr. Persifor F3razer. The paper of Mr. Lyman is astonishingfin the fact that it does not mention the seven years' work by the Second GeologicalSurvey of Pennsylvania on the New Red in York, Adams, Cumberland and Lancaster counties; althouglh the method he advocates was the very method there adopted, viz., the careful topographical and geographical plotting of the region and the accurate locationi of every dip. There is neither justice nor expediency in ignoring years of work by a colleague, especially when one occupies a quasi directorshipof the Survey under whose auspices the work was done. From the section across the counties of York and Adams, from the town of York to Dillsburg, made in 1875, careful descriptions of the successive beds were made, as well as notes of their dip, and from these data a column was constructed for correlationwith the columns of the Permian, Triassic and Jurassic in England and in Germany. In a paper contributed to Vol. v, Trans. American Institute of Mining Engineers, founded on the work done in 1874 in Southeast Pennsylvania, it was suggested that the basal conglomerate of the New Red might find its analogruein the magnesian limestone of England and the Zeclistein of Germany, both of which represent the top of the Permian in the respective countries. The thickness of the strata calculated by H. D. Rogers fiom the Yardleyville-New Hope-Attleboro' section, and confirmed by the writer, was 51,500 feet, or 15.75 kilometers, but neither Prof. Rogers nor the speaker believed that this represented the actual state of the case. It was stated that the New Red seemed to extend from some point in the Permian, at least, to the base of the Lias, including all the rocks attributed to the Trias and the beds below it, except the lower Rothliegendes of the German scale. It is added, in the same paper, as a matter of frequent remark that all the beds of the "New Red " are not red. On the contrary, perhaps onehalf of the whole series presents to the eye a lead-gray and drab color. It was suggested as possible that the black calcareous slates of Phoenixville might represent a lower horizon than the coal-bearing belt (near Ewingsville?) referred to in the catalogue of specimens of Report C, of York county, for 1874. With referenceto the subordinateposition which paleontological should bear to stratigraphical evidence, the case would seem to be not quite fairly stated. If there were everywhere a complete column of strata of which the mutual relations were unmistakable, then paleontological evidence would be fbrced to conform itself to the column as best it might. But the case is like that of the relation between the astronomical transit and the compass, or the level and the barometer-the latter is invaluable

217

1894.]

[Cope.

where the former cannot be employed. For coordinationof series in two distant places between which there is no stratigraphical connection, paleontological evidence is the only evidence available.

On the Lungs of the Ophidia. By Prof. E. D. Cope. (Read before the American Philosophical Society, May iS, 1894.)

The condition of knowledge as to the elharactersof the lungs of snakes was stated by Stannius, in 1836,* as follows:

"Thle detailed accounts

as to the single or double character of the lungs leave much to be desired. Among OphidiaAngiostomata tllere possess a single sack, Rhinophis and all Typlilopidee which have been examlined; as to the Tortricidae[Ilysiidle], there are apparentlyspecies with two lungs (T xenopelti8) [= Xenopeltis uzicolorl, and others with a single lung (T. 8Cytale) [- Ily8ia 8Cytale]. Among Eurystomata, all the Peropoda (Boa, Python, Eryx) possess apparently two lungs. The Calamarina that have been investigated have one lung. Among Colubrina and Glypliodonta, there are great variations.

All the Coronellke of Sellegel

possess, according

to

Schlegel, a single lung. I find the lung single in Rhachiodon scaber [Da8ypeltis]. T'ropidonotus natrix [Natrix vulgari8] has a very small rudiment of a second lung. Coluber [Spilotes] variabiU8 possesses,

according to Schlegel, the rudiment of a second lung. According to the statement of Meekel, this rudiment is common in Coluber. The Xenodons have, according to Schlegel, a single lung (X. severu8and X. rhabdocephalus). In Heterodon I find a rudimental second lung. The Lycodons, according to Schlegel, possess a single lung; as also do Psamrmophis and Homalopsis. In DendropH8colubrinaSchlegel found the rudiment of the seconid lung. In Dipsas, according to Sehlegel, there are variations; but he states that D. multimaculata,

D. lavi8 and D. annunlata

[Sibon annulatum], have but one lung. The Achroehordina have but I found in three species of Hydrophis the one lung. Among HIydrophidae lung-sack simlple. Meckel states that Platurus has a very small rudiment of a second lung. Among the remaining poisonous snakes there is an insignificant rudiment of the second lung in the Elapina and Crotalina; while the Viperina possess an entirely simple lung." The absence of tangible external clharacterswhicll furnish inldications of affinity in the Opllidiais well known. The important characters to be found in the skeleton were mostly pointed out by Muller, and Dumeril and Bibron examined and utilized the characters of the dentition. The * Zootomiedei Amnphiibien, p. 108.