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FEBRUARY IO, I893,]
one to ten times as great. Many of them have a diameter of less than one fifty-thousandth of an inch and it is probable that there are multitudes of them so small that the highest powers of the microscope do not render them visible. Two thousand of them could swim side by side through the eye of a needle and one could hpl,d in his single hand fifty millions of millions of them. Of the smaller ones it would take 15,625,000,000,000 to fill one cubic inch. Now compare these with our mammoth Sequoias. The trunk of one of these trees, to say nothing about its roots and branches, contains at least 200,000,000 cubic inches. It is, therefore, times as large as a single bac3,12.5,000,000.000,000,000,000 terium. This number is, of course, inconceivable. It may be read 3 125 millions of millions of millions. The proportion is about the same as that of an ordinary football to the earth itself. Again, the duration of the life of many of the bacteria is only an hour. There are 8.760 hours in a year, and in 3.000 years there are 26.280,000 hours. Thus the tree has lived on while more than twenty-six millions of generations of its invisible kindred may have lived and died in the stream at its base. From the bacterium to the sequoia, what a span ! Yet the rolling globe on which they live is but a speck in the universe, its diameter too small to be used as a measuring unit for interstellar As many bacteria could be laid side by side on a linear spaces. inch as earths upon the diameter of its orbit around the sun. Compared with the tree. the bacterium is almost infinitessimal; by the side of the earth, the tree is insignificant; in the solar system, the earth is but a small factor; and if the solar system were annihilated, it would be millions of years before its loss would be felt on distant stars. Magnitudes are. therefore, relative, and things are great or small according to the standpoint from which we view them. Cumberland
OF CROWS DURING SPELL.
THE RECENT COLD
BY DR. ROBERT RIDGWAY, SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, WASHINGTON,
WHETHERit be the result of disease or exposure, the suffering inflicted on the crows in the vicinity of Washington during the recent severe weather is of great extent, and of such a character as to excite the sympathy of any one familiar with the facts. On the 20th of January my son went rabbit hunting, and on his return told me he had found many dead crows in the pine woods, and others that were totally blind. The following day I accompanied him to the place where he had found them, and was really astonished at the sight presented. Very few crows were seen flying about, but upon entering the thick woods of scrub-pines, which was evidently the roosting-place of large numbers of these birds, they were met with on every hand. Some were lying on the snow, dead and frozen stiff; many more were perched in the trees, at various heights, in all stages of helplessness. The majority of them could fly, and on our near approach would do so; but in a moment it became apparent that they could not see, for the first thing in their line of flight, as, for example, a branch, would stop them, when they would either flutter to the ground or, changing their course, would continue their flight, to be again checked by a branch, or if they happened to miss any obstruction until clear of the woods (which rarely occurred) they continued, slowly feeling their way, over the open fields, often dropping to the snow-covered ground after flying a few hundred yards. Those which did not fly at our approach were too much weakened from starvation to do so. They were easily caught, and in every instance were found to be absolutely blind, except one individual, which had one eye but little affected. In many the eyes were closed and much swollen; in some one or both eyes had burst and frozen, this having possibly been caused by violent contact with the sharp ends of broken twigs. In all cases in which the eyes were not closed or inflamed the pupil was milky white and the iris bluish. Inability to find food on account of their blindness was evidently the immediate cause of starvation; for it was found * that the dead birds were, as a rule, very much emaciated, while many of the living ones, particularly those which were most
active, and consequently difficult to capture, were in fairly good condition. It was pitiful to behold their suffering, both from the pangs of hunger as well as from the pain of their wounded eyes. Sometimes the snow beneath the trees was nearly covered by pine needles and small twigs which they had plucked off and tried to eat (they were seen doing this), while several of those which had fallen to the ground were eating snow. The extent to which this epidemic, or whatever it may be, has affected the crow population of this locality is not easy to estimate. My first impression was that the species was nearly exterminated there, since certainly 95 out of every 100 crows seen during the day were perfectly " stone-blind," and 10 per cent of them dead. That this impression was incorrect was, however, proven by the next day's observation, the locality being visited much later in the day, when large numbers were seen coming in from the surrounding country to roost, -all these "able-bodied crows having been abroad after food at the time of our previous visit. There seemed to be about as many of these as there were of the disabled ones, so the reduction in their numbers will probably not exceed one-half, and may not be so great. A third visit, several days later, showed no increase among the afflicted birds. There were, however, as might have been expected, a much larger number of dead ones, while those still living were found more scattered, being encountered nearly everywhere in the open fields, where they had fallen, exhausted, during their flight from the woods. So far as I was able to discover, after very careful examination of all specimens within reach, during both visits, only the common species, Corvus americanus, was affected by the malady. At any rate, neither my companions nor myself could discover a single fish crow (C. ossifragus), though the latter was well represented among those which were flying about. I am at a loss to account for this scourge Several causes have been suggested, the most plausible of which, it seems to me, is that in returning to their roosting-place one excessively cold evening they were compelled to face a freezing wind, perhaps bearing minute ice-particles, which actually froze their eyes. It, may be, however. that a better explanation can be given. REMARKS ON AMERICAN LICHENOLOGY. BY W. W. CALKINS.
THE explorers for lichens in a locality so favorable as Florida will not fail to notice the abundance of brilliantly colored fungi, and. if interested, will be tempted to collect them. On some of these will perhaps occur parasitic lichens of rarity, as ColnoBut beneath a bed of Agaraci, on the gonium and Opegrapha. sandy soil of an old plantation, a close search will show another Its charinteresting lichen, known as Heppia despreauxii Tuck. acter was long disputed, owing to a close resemblance to an allied The small cup shaped apothecia, genus of lichens, Solorina. growing single or in clusters, immersed in a green thallus, have We owe to Dr. Tuckerman the elucideceived good lichenists. dation of this elegent species. Only two were described by him~ in the "Synopsis." Last winter I had the good fortune to find anotner in the mountains of Tennessee. which, having been sent in vain around our own country, a puzzle to all, was promptly determined by Dr. Nylander of Paris to be the Heppia vireseens, Ach. variety rugosa Nyl. I may remark that it is astonishing how soon afterwards we all saw the point. In the old field as well, with a mixed second growth of Pinus taeda, Ilex opaca, Ilex Cassine, Myrica cerifera, Olea americana, etc., will be found on their foliage numerous small fungi, such as Sphaeria and Cercospora, many of which have been illustrated by Professor Ellis in his " Exsiccati" from my collections of fungi. In close contact, lichens and fresh-water algae and Hepatiece also hold equal sway. But, towering over all, the stately Magnolia and the Gordonia (red or bull bay), with their glossy evergreen foliage, afford us the tropical lichen, Strigula complanata Fee., and, rarer still, Heterothecium augustini Tuck., though, indeed, the Sabal serrulata, common everywhere, abounds in elegant specimens in
There are also on this prostrate palm most resome localities. markable fungi, for which see Ellis. By the slow-running stream occur Biatora hynophila, on mossy substrates. Many terricoline I have often lichens of rarity will reward a patient collector. visited one locality, leaving it at last in the belief that nothing more could be found. However, still unsatisfied and impelled by something, I would return and find new prizes, as I soon learned I mention this to show that no researches in from my teachers. I also offer it as an the field of nature can be wholly completed. incentive to thorough work. Whilst lichens thrive almost every where in Florida, sometimes in very novel situations, the vicinity of the ocean is prolific of them. Even an old Ostrea shell has its peculiar Verrucaria; on old timber, Xylographa; while just inland. among dense thickets of Ilex cassine, revel Arthonias and Here also the beautiful rosettes of the Cladonia Graphis. rangiferina L., variety alpestris L. (which is F. minor of Michaux), cover the earth and are known to the uninitiated as mosses,price to the winter tourist who searches for nature's gems in hotels twenty-five cents. In open places the eye will often rest upon a carpet of the crimson-fruited Cladonia leporina Fr. and C. pulchella Schw. There are also other species of this genus, but less conspicuous on account of having brown fruit. On shrubs near the sea occur in abundance very fine specimens of Ramalina rigida, variety montagnaei Tuck. But we tire of conspicuous forms at last, and seeking the most difficult and least known, find them in Arthonia The following species are sufficient to show what and Graphis. may be expected in a field where investigations have been mnerely begun. Arthonia albovirescens Nyl. A new species on Ilex cassine at Fort George, and on shrubs in tropical Florida. A good species (Nyl. Lich. N. G ) (Bot. Bull., 1889). (Syn. Arthonia Willey.) Abundant. A new species collected by me at Arthonia floridana Willey. Jacksonville on Ilex (Syn. Arthonia Willey). Rare. Arthonia ochrospila Nyl. On Myrica cerifera, at Jacksonville. Also Cuba. Rare. On Myrica sparingly at JacksonArthonia gregarina Willey. ville and south. (Syn. Arth.) Arthonia taedescens Nyl. A very fine and rare species on Ilex cassine, at Jacksonville and south. (Syn. Arth.) A new species, Ilicicola. Fort Arthonia ochrodiscodes Nyl. Described by Nylander in "Lichenes George and southward. Abundant. Japoniae," page 107. Quite distinct. Arthonia platygraphidea Nyl. An elegant species I collected from Fort George south. Also Mexico. Graphis adscribens Nyl (Lich. N. Caled.). Found by me on Gordonia and other trees, Jacksonville to tropical latitudes. Also in Mexico. Very fine. Very minute, white, and hard to Graphis nitidescens Nyl. find. I have had several so named, all differing from the true one identified for me by Nylander. On Liriodendron. at Jacksonville and southward to Cape Sable (Tuckerman, Syn. Pt. II., page 123). Among the new Graphis of Florida described by Nylander. I will only mention now Gr. abaphoides, Gr. subparilis, Gr. subvirginalis, Gr. turbulenta, all tropical or sub-tropical. A new species, Supercorticem, Platygrapha subattingens Nyl. Described Liriodendri, at Jacksonville; southwards to Cuba. by Nylander in "Lichens N. G.," page 51. A very fine lichen (Bot. Bull., 1889). OSTEOLOGICAL NOTES. BY DANIEL
MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE
THE order of the Ungulata may at the present time be divided into the Ungulata vera, including therein the two sub-orders, Perissodactyla and Artiodactyla, and the Ungulata polydactyla, or Subungulata of Cope, which also comprises two sub-orders, Hyracoidea and Proboscidea. In its morphology, the jugal arch of the Ungulata presents various modifications. With few exceptions, two bones only
enter into its composition, the squamosal and jugal, which are connected by a suture, the general direction of which is horizontal. Both the horizontal and vertical curvatures of the arch present considerable variations, as does also its relation to the neighboring parts. In the group Perissodactyla, the family Equidre exhibits an arch, which, although relatively slender, is quite exceptional in its arrangement. The large and lengthened process of the squamosal not only joins the greatly developed post-orbital process of the frontal, but, passing beyond, forms a portion of the inferior and postei ior boundary of the orbit. The malar, spreading largely upon the cheek. sends back a nearly horizontal process to join the under surface of the squamosal process above described, thus completing tbe arch, while the orbit is entirely surrounded by a conspicuous ring of bone, thereby clearly determining the bounds between it and the temporal fossa, which last is remarkably small. Moulded into this fossa, which is bounded above and posteriorly by more or less well-developed crests or ridges, is the temporal muscle. The pterygoids are slender and delicate, without the presence of any fossa. The glenoid surface is much extended transversely, concave from side to side, an,d bounded posteriorly by a prominent post-glenoid process. The angle of The condyle is much elevated above the jaw is much expanded. the molar series, while the coronoid process is long, narrow, and slightly recurved. In the Rhinoceridoe and Tapiridee the arch is strongly developed, and composed of the squamosal and jugal processes, which are joined at about its centre by an oblique suture from above There is a small postdownwards, backwvards. and upwards. orbital process, largest in the tapir, but the orbital and temporal The surface for the temporal muscle is fossee are continuous. The glenoid fossa presents a transverse. convex surextensive. face to articulate with the corresponding one of the mandible, which is not much elevated above the dental series. The coronoid process is slender and recurved, while the angle is broad, compressed, somewhat rounded, and incurved. In the Artiodactyla, the arch is slender, and is composed of the process from the jugal, which passes backwards beneath the corresponding forward projecting process of the squamosal, the juncture being by a suture nearly horizontal in direction, and longest in the Cervidae. The jugal also sends up a postorbital process to meet the corresponding descending one of the frontal, the suture Thus the bony orbit is which unites them, being about midway. The temporal complete, while the jugal is forked posteriorly. The horizontal curvature of the arch region is relatively small. The glenoid fossa is extensive and slightly convex, is very slight. with a well-developed post-glenoid process. The pterygoids present a large surface and are situated nearer the middle line than The condyle is broad and flat, is the case in the Perissodactyla. and the coronoid process is long, compressed, and slightly reThe angle is rounded and much expanded. curved. The Tylopoda alone among the Ruminantia have large surfaces and accompanying crests and ridges for the increased developThe horizontal curvature of the ment of the temporal muscles. arch is greater than in the true Ruminants, consequently the temin correlation with the powporal fossa is wider and deeper -all erful canine teeth. The forked articulation between the molar and the squamosal is also more strongly marked. Among the non-Ruminantia, the family Suidee, or true pigs, exhibit an arch in which the process of the jugal underlying the two bones squamosal extends back to the glenoid fossa -the being connected by a suture, which is vertical anteriorly for the The post-orbital ,lepth of half the bone, and then horizontal. process does not meet the frontal; in fact, all traces of this are lost in Sus serofa. In the Peccary and Barbaroussa it is quite The arch is short, and the vertical as well as horiprominent. The narrow, transverse, conzontal curvatures are considerable. dylar surface of the mandible, and the small coronoid process. with its rounded superior surface, are but slightly raised above the level of the alveolar surface. The pterygoid surface is extensive and the fossa deep. In the Hippopotamidme, the arch is broad and strong. Its superior border presents a marked sigmoid curvature, and the con-