Guidebook : the United States Department of Agriculture

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Historic, archived

Do

not

scientific

assume content knowledge,

document reflects current

policies, or practices.

GUIDEBOOK THE UNITED STATES

DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

March, 1937

.

.

ORGANIZATION Thi United States Departisent of Agriculture

Secretary of Agriculture Under Secretary Assistant Secretary Dir.

Henr.. .M.

L.

...

Vallace,

Wilson.

Harry L. BrcA-n. W. Warburton.

of Extension Work

,C.

Director of Finance A. Jump. of Director Information M. S. Eisenhcv/er W. W. Stockberger. Director of Personnel.. Director of ResearchJames T. Jardine. Mastin G. White. Solicitc: Agr. Adjust. Admin. H. R. To 1 ley. Admin. Bur. of Agr: Economics A. G. Black/ Chief. S. H. McCrory, Chief. Bur- cf Agr. Engineering Bureau of Animal Industry ,J. R. Mohler, Chief. Bur. of Biological Survey. .1. N. Gabrielson, Chief. Bur. of Chemistry & Soils. .H. G. Knight, Chief. Commcdity Exchange Adrain. J. W. T. Duvel, Chief. Bureau of Dairy Industry. 0. E. Reed, Chief. Bur. of En torn. & Pl.Quar.. .L. A. Strong, Chief. Office of Experiment Sta,. J. T. Jardine, Chief. .W. G. Campbell, Chief. Food and Drug Admin. Forest Service F. A. SilcGx, Chief. Louise Stanley, Chief. Bur of Home Economics C. R. Barnett, Librarian Library. Bureau oi Piaa^ Industry... F. D. Richey^ Chief. T. H. MacDonald, Chief. Bureau of Public Roads W. Alexander, Admin. Resettlement Admin. Soil Conservation Service. H. K. Bennett, Chief. W. R. Gregg, Chief. Weather Bureau .

.

.

...

.

.

..

.

,

INFORMATION DESKS: Front Lobby, Administration Phone 523 Building Fourteenth Street Entrance, ,4700 South Building

I

.

I

GUIDEBOOK

March, 1937

The United States Department of Agriculture

(a)

CONTENTS 1.

MISCELLANEOUS FACTS FOR VISITORS Page

General Information

Information about Office LocaBureau Activities, Employment in Department, Department Employees, Obtaining Department Pubtions,

lications, and Library

1

W hat to See

Administration Building South Building Greenbelt (Planned Suburban Town) Greenhouses Weather Bureau

4

7

24,50 9

11

Misc e llaneo us Facts About B uild ings

Administration and South Buildings

12

Arlingto n Experime nt Farm Projects Under Way Directions to Reach Map Showing Directions to Reach

14 17

23,24

N ational Ag ric ultural Research Center

Projects under Way Directions to Reach Map Showing Directions to Reach

23,24

High Lights of D epartm ent History

27

(c)

18

25

(Contents) 2.

Page

BUREAUS AND OFFICES:

ORGANIZATION AND ACTIVITIES

Department Functions Office of Secretary Budget and Finance (Office of) Experiment Stations (Office of) Extension Service Information (Office of) Personnel (Office of) Solicitor (Office of) Library Operations (Division of)

31

Agricultural Adjustment Administration Agricultural Economics (Bureau of) Agricultural Engineering (Bureau of) Animal Industry (Bure,au of) Biological Survey (Bureau of) Chemistry and Soils (Bureau of) Commodity Exchange Administration Dairy Industry (Bureau of) Entomology and Plant Quarantine (Bur. of).. Food and Drug Administration Forest Service Home Economics (Bureau of) Plant Industry (Bureau of) Public Roads (Bureau of) Resettlement Administration Soil Conservation Service Weather Bureau

36

32 33 33

34 34 35

35

35 35

37

38 39 40 41

42

43

44 45 46

47 48 49 50 51

52

MAPS 1.

2.

Administration and South Buildings and Greenhouses

2

Department Buildings in Washington and Directions to National Research Center and Arlington Experiment Farm 23,24

id)

DEPARTMENT'S FUNCTION THE ORGANIC ACT,

creating the

Department, directs the Department to "acquire and to diffuse.

.

.

.useful information

on subjects connected with

agriculture, in the most general and most comprehensive sense of that word."

::

PART

1.

:

MISCELLANEOUS

:

FACTS

FOR

VISITORS

GENERAL INFORMATION* How to Find Offices See map and directory, pages 2 and 3. Consult Information Desks.* See map, pages 23, and 24 for location of bureaus and divisions outside of Administration and of greenhouses and and South Buildings experimental farms.

How to See, and Get Particular Bureau

I nformatio n

About,

Work

part 2 of contents for page number bureau in which you are interested.

See

in

for

How to Get Department P ublications You can get Farmers' Bulletins, Leaflets, and other Department publications at ROOM 514, ADMINISTRATION BUILDING. :

How to Get I nformatio n Abo ut Department Employ ment and About De partment Employees For information about employment, go to ROOM 328 ADMINISTRATION BUILDING, or call BRANCH 325. To

locate Department employees, see List of Technical Workers and Department Telephone or go to ROOM 324, ADMINISTRATION Directory BUILDING, or call BRANCH 325.

For Library I nf o rmatio n Go to ROOM 1052 SOUTH BUILDING,

or call BRANCH

626. *

Information Desks: Front Lobby, Administration Building.. Fourteenth Street Entrance, South Building

Phone 523

4700 1.

U.S.

DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ADMINISTRATION AND SOUTH BUILDING

CONST.TUTIOIIi

AVENUE

BUREAU AND OFFICE LOCATIONS

3

Bureaus With Administrative Offices in

ADMINISTRATION BUILDINGSecretary's Office Under Secretary's Office Asst. Secretary's Office Office of Information Office of Solicitor Office of Personnel Office of Budget and Finance.. EAST WING* Animal Industry (Bureau

of)....

WEST WINGPlant Industry (Bureau of) SOUTH BUILDING* Agr. Adjustment Adm. Agr. Economics (Bur. of).. Agr. Engineering (Bur.) Biological Survey (Bur.) Chemistry and Soils (Bur.) Commodity Exchange Adm Dairy Industry (Bur, of) Entomology and Plant Quar. Experiment Stations (Off. of) Extension Service Forest Service Home Economics (Bur. of) Library

Map* SymRoom Bldg. bol

204 202 202 302 412 212 112

Adm.

(A)

Adm.

(B)

Adm.

(C)

Adm.

(D)

Adm.

(E)

Adm.

(F)

Adm.

(G)

225 East W. (H)

206 West

3095 3057 2241 4901 4103 1931

2953 5865 5057 5901 4803 3002 6052 1409

South South South South South South South South South South South South South South

W. (I)

(W) (M)

(P)

(S) (K) (U) (V) (R) (N) (T) (Q) (J) (L)

(0)

Bureaus With Administrative Offices Elsewhere:** Public Roads (Bureau of) 515-14th St., N.W. Resettlement Admin 910-17th St., N.W. Soil Conservation Service. .261 Const. Ave. 24th & M Sts.,N.W. Weather Bureau * See map on adjoining page. ** See map on pages 23 and 24

4

WHAT TO SEE

ADMINISTRATION AND SOUTH BUILDINGS'f^ following is suggested short tour of some casual visitor in with facts Administration and South Buildings The

of main points of interest to

of interest:

This tour begins at front entrance: 1-

materia l Central unit of Administration building (faced with white Georgia marble) completed in 1930. Wings (faced with Vermont marble) completed in 1906.

2.

Series of detached columns at front are of Corinthian order; two sides and rear have pilasters recalling columns. Above

Bu ilding

Col umns

.

.

columns are quotations Washington, and Lincoln. 3.

Saint

from

Paul,

Main entrance lobby faced with yellow Kasota marble, with base and floor borders of dark cedar. Floor is alternate squares Lobby

.

of pink Tennessee and travertine.

'^If

see

interested in any particular line of work list and locations of bureaus on pages

2 and 3.

See part 2 of this booklet work and organization.

Consult Information Desks, min.

Bldg.

Entrance,

(Phone:

South

Br.

Bldg.

for

Department

front lobby. Ad-

523);

or

(Phone:

14th Br

St.

4700).

— WHAT TO SEE (Admin, and South Bldgs.) 4.

5

Elevator lobby and walls Elevator lobby of circular stairway are of yellow Kasota Treads and risers of stairway are marble. .

of travertine.

5.

Elevator doors of first Elevator doors. second floors are of bronze, set in marble panels; panels on first floor are of red Levanto, and on second floor, St. and

Genevieve golden veined. 6.

or patio Light court, Patio exhibits. glass-covered (usually pronounced pah-tyo) court with fountain -has archways and niches in01 yellow Kasota marble, and circular marble. Jaune Benton of arches sets between



You will see in patio

erected by Department employees to Department people killed in World War. Memorial designed and executed by John Flan-

-— Menioiial. nigan,

sculptor of New York City.

Exhibits (occasionally). Take elevator (in front over stalls. At left as you lobby) to second floor. step from elevator are offices of Secretary of Agriculture, Under-Secretary, and Assist-

Mur_al

ant Secretary.

Over grand staircase opposite elevator classic style) painted by (of mural is It bears Latin inscription Gilbert White. which means, "Happy would be the men in the fields if they knew their good fortune."

)

WHAT TO SEE (Admin, and South Bldgs.)

Archwayg or bridges Take elevator to thir d floor. Turn left and go through double doors into EAST WING. (See map, page 2. .

each side of corridor (East Wing) large glass cases containing exhibits of various diseases of livestock. On

are

Continue through corridor to corner— turn Ahead you will see one of twc singlearch bridges of steel frame, faced with Bedford limestone, connecting third floors of East and West Wings v/ith South Building. right.

The 73d designated

Congress,

by joint resolution, Bridge as Knapp Memorial West Bridge as Wilson Memo-

Eas t

Archway—'-and rial Archway.

Knapp Memorial Archway

.

East Bridge (at 12th Street, toward Capitol) dedicated to Dr. Seaman A. Knapp, father of Agricultural Extension Work. In 1903, when cotton boll weevil became a national problem. Dr. Knapp, of Bureau of Plant Industry, was a leading spirit in the

movement to protect cotton farming through He encouraged farmers crop diversification. to demonstrate ta their neighbors improvements possible through better practices. Through his efforts. Congress appropriated

WHAT TO SEE (Admin, and South Bldgs.)

7

funds to develop further demonstration plan; from this beginning, national movement of

practical education for rural people gradually took form. This resulted in the SmithLever Act of 1914 and subsequent legislation, creating a national extension service based on Federal and State cooperation, with agents in most agricultural counties to help rural people apply scientific facts to meet problems in farming and homemaking.

South Bui Iding 9.

of horrors C hambe r As you leave East Bridge you enter third floor of South Building. Go through e ith er first or second wing to rear of building. .

Go down one flight to second floor.

2816 South Building (2nd floor, you will find exhibit of common food and drug products such as you buy every day. Exhibit reveals fraudulent and misleading practices in labeling and packaging In

Room

rear),

of various products, certain cosmetic products that are dangerous to health, and so on.

Wilson Memorial Archway West Bridge (at 14th Street), next to Bureau and Printing) is dedicated to James 7/ilson, Secretary of Agriculture from 1897 to 1913. of Engraving

.

WHAT TO SEE (Admin, and South Bldgs.) Former Secretary Wilson's 16-year administration was notable for reorganization and consolidation of related fields of work and inauguration of new programs. For example, divisions dealing with plants were combined to form Bureau of Plant Industry. Farm-management work was organized and special studies of marketing problems were .Agricultural explorations were inaugurated. begun to find improved varieties of plants for direct use and for crop breeding.... Division of Biological Survey was made Bureau of Biological Survey. .. .Division of Soils was expanded into Bureau .... Work of Division of Forestry was enlarged and comprehensive program of conservation was developed ....Division of Chemistry became Bureau of Chemistry that laid groundwork for pure food (These are only a few of more importl^v/. rnt developments in this period.) .

.

.

.

.

.

.

9

WHAT TO SEE

EXPERIMENTAL GREENHOUSES'-?^ (Bureau of Plant Industry) J. W. Byrnes Branch 2488

In Charge:

Phone:

Main greenhouses

(of

special

interest

to

gen-

eral visitors) are located at Constitution Avenue (Annual sprin g am ary llis and 14th Streets, N.W.

and

fall

chry santhemum

greenhouses

.

shows

are

held

in

these

*)

Blueberries Greenhouse no. 1 used for studies of blueberries and other acid-soil plants. .

Greenhouse no. 6 contains Tropica l plants collection of brilliant tropical foliage plants. Also, pelican flower (of tropical origin) which usually blooms in March or April. Sometimes Holy Ghost flower can be seen in bloom. .

Greenhouse no. 7 contains Department collection of several hundred species that has formed basis of many studies of this family. Cacti.

cactus

Chrysanthemums and amaryllises Greenhouse no. 9 is used for annual chrysanthemum and amaryllis .

shows.

Eoses.

Greenhouse

no.

10

contains

collection

of standard and seedling hybrid tea roses.

Carnation s Greenhouses nos. 13 and 14 contain standard and seedling carnations. .

*

See

map,

page

2,

(lov/er

right

hand

corner).

10.

y/HAT TO

Citrus

trees.

SEE (Greenhoiises)

Greenhouse no.

18 contains

small

"grove" of Gommercial varieties of various kinds of citrus fruits. This collection includes the famous Washington Navel 'Orange tree, one of two oldest knoT/n survivors of trees budded directly from Department importations from Bahia, Brazil,

From that importation have descended all trees of this variety nov/ growing

1870.

in

nearly crop of which in Cilifornia in this country, alone is worth about 30 million dollars a year. Greenhouse no. 21 contains a Graces. tion of many varieties of table grapes.

collec-

DIRECTIONS TO GREENHOUSES Greenhouses are tration Building

located in front of Adminisabout two blocks from Building

at 14th Street and Constitution Avenue.

Go to entrance of greenhouses at corner of 14th

and

Constitution

Avenue.

See

map

on

page

(right hand corner, bottom of page).

Ask at office inside entrance for guide.-

2

WHAT TO SEE

11

WEATHER BUREAU*

Weathor Bureau is located at 24th & M Sts.NW. where weather forecasts are Forecast room, and observatory, which contains instruments for recording direction and velocity of wind, air pressure, rainfall, and sunshine, and made,

so on,

are open to visitors—— e x c e e i Saturdays, Sundays, and holidays.

1:30 to 3 p.m.

Groups

wishing

to

see

Weather

Bureau

should

advance arrangements by calling Weather {Cannot handle Bureau (Potomac 4300— Branch 39). make

more than 20 visitors at a time.) Ili^izi^,li§;l

visitors

(or

small

parties)

should

ask at entrance to main building (Weather Bureau) for guide.

DIRECTIONS TO WEATHER BUREAU*

MiMi car: Take any car going from Department toward town—transfer at 14th and Pennsyl-. vania to any r?treet oar going west (av,^ay from Capitol) marked: EosslYH?

or

Potomac

Heights,

or

Cabin

John,

or Friendship Heights. Go north on 14th Street to ^1 automobile: Constitution Avenue ^-turn left on Constitution Avenue to Virginia Avenue turn right on Virginia Avenue to 24th Street turn right on 24th to M Street.



* See m.ap,

pages 23 and 24.

)

)

MISCELLANEOUS FACTS ABOUT BUILDINGS Office

Administration

S2ace.

and South Buildings,

(including wings)

contain more office space than any public building in the world, and rank second to Empire State Building among combined,

Approximate figures are:

all buildj.ngs.

Department of Agriculture; 1,438,627 sq.it. Empire State: 2,158,000 sq ft .{ rentable .

Area covered: Administration (and South Buildings cover 11.68 acres.

wings)

and

Administ ration Building (central unit) contains units of Office of Secretary. East Wing contains offices and laboratories of Bureau of Animal Industry, and West Wing, offices and laboratories of Bureau of Plant Industry.

South Building is about 944 feet long and 457 feet Has seven wings and six courts. wide. Designed for about 4,500 offices (allowing one door to an office

— -although

or aiore doors

.

many of the offices include two

)

Auditorium is On first floor (front) between fifth and sixth wings. Seats about 550 persons. ^I§ilihcus e s

.

Large

greenhouse,

for

carrying

experiments that are readily accessible to offices and laboratories, is located on top of sixth wing. Similar greenhouse is planned for (Greenhouses open to top of part of third wing.

on

visitors located at 14th St. See ppge 9 .

and Const.

Avenue:

(Miscellaneous Facts About Buildings)

13

Motion Picture Laboratory. Division of Motion Pictures of Extension Service has new motion picture laboratory on first floor of sixth wing, and between fifth and sixth wings. Considered finest educational motion picture laboratory in world.

Scient ific laboratories South Building alone (Department also has extensive laboratories elsewhere) said to house largest number of scientific workers, and largest amount of scientific equipent, of any building in v^orld. .

Cafeterias Cafeterias and lunchrooms for Department employees and Department visitors located on sixth floor of South Building at rear end of both fourth and sixth wings. (They are operated by Department Welfare Association.) .

14

ARLINGTON EXPERIMENT FARM* {Operated by Bureau of Plant Industry) Superintendent: E. Branch 8521 Phone:

Arlington

C.

Experinaent

Butterf ield*=^

Farm

(about

400

lies just across Potomac from Washington-

acres)

— between

Washington Airport and Arlington Cemetery. Provides greenhouse and field facilities for research close to scientific laboratories in Washington. The following outlines some of more projects underway at Arlington Farm:

important

P lant Industry

This Bureau's vrork includes: Cereal Crops and Diseases Includes general agronomic and disease investigations on wheat, rye, barley, oats, rice, and sorghums. .

Includes experimental Drug and Related Crops. culture of plants yielding drugs, insecticides, essential oils, vegetable oils, and related prodto determine possibility of producing them ucts commercially in this country. Forage Crops and Diseases Includes introducbreeding, selection, testnev/ varieties -and disease control v/ork on soybeans, cloing vers, lespedeza, vetch, crotolaria, alfalfa, fineturf grasses, and so on. .

tion of

Growing Asiatic chestnuts Eoi®st Patholog;y and determining susceptibility to disease. *

See map, pages 23 and 24. Senior horticulturist. Bureau Plant Industry.

.

(Arlington Experiment Farm)

15

InVegetable Crops and Diseases. cold-storage laboratory to study fruit .Studies and vegetable storage and transportation. of storage and market diseases of fruits, vegetables, and flower bulbs and effect of storage temperatures and humidity. and

Fr uit

cludes

.

Myco logy

and

Disease

Survey.

.

Includes

studies

of mushroom culture and diseases.

Soil Fertility.

Includes laboratory and green-

house studies on soil fertility, including studies of soil and plant-nutrient solutions, soil-acidity problems, and changes that plant-food materials

undergo

in

soil .... Evaluation

of nev/

fertilizer

materials. Soil

Microbiology.

and

Includes

other soil organisms, legume bacteria.

studies

including

of

legume

commercial

Sugar Plants. Includes studies of diseases of sugarcane and sugar beets— -and testing introduced varieties under quarantine. Tobacco and Plant Nutrition. Includes breeding, variety tests, and disease control of tobacco... Studies of tobaccos with high nicotine content for insecticidal purposes .... Effect of light and length of day on growth and reproduction of plants

Entomology and Plant Quarantine Includes

studies of plant-disease transmisdiseaselike injury from cereal and forage crop insects, and of v/heat joint worm. (Cooperation, Bureau of Plant Industry.)

sion

and

16

(Arlington Experiment Farm)

Chemistry and Soils

Work of Bureau of Chemistry and Soils at Arlington includes;

Chemical engineer ing Investigations with aid experimental explosions in laboratory, of causes, prevention, and control of explosions of dusts of agricultural products in elevators, mills, on farms, etc. .

of

Fertilizer research. Investigations to increase plant-food content of fertilizers, improve efficiency, and cut down inert filler....

Study of phosphate rocks and development of improved ways to use, especially low-grade mato cut cost. terials Investigations of Industrial farm products. new and improved ways to make synthetic products from oil and wax-b_earing plants and seeds and broaden market for these products and promote crop diversification .... Studies of use of microorganisms to use farm products and byproducts .

produce (by fermentation) unusual chemical compounds .... Studies to standardize dyes for bioogical research in agriculture and public health. to

Plastics Investigations of plastics and resins from agricultural raw materials, to broaden market .

for farm products.

Investigations of Chemical weed eradication. economics and methods of manufacturing present and new weed-killing chemicals .... Studying sodium chlorate, most satisfactory material now used.

)

.

(Arlington Experiment Farm)

17

Agricultural Engineering Bureau of Agricultural Engineering investigating mechanical placement of fertilizer. Equipment to harvest flov/ers of pyrethrum, used in making nonpoisonous insecticides .... Singlerov7 Bureaus soybean harvester. (Cooperation, of Plant Industry and Chemistry and Soils.) .

.

.

.

.

P ublic R oad s

Bureau

Public

of

Roads

has

outdoor

labora-

tory at Arlington Farm to develop safer and

economical road designs, use of road materials.

and

more

.'nore

economical

Important current investigations include: Wheelaction on brick, concrete, and bituminous pavements .... Bituminous mixtures for secondary roads .... Soils and soil mixtures I'cr lovz-cost secondary roads. load

DIRECTIONS TO REACH ARLINGTON FARM 1.

Cross Memorial Bridge behind Lincoln Memorial, and continue straight ahead for one-quarter mile beyond tall columns or pillars at west end of main bridge.

2.

Turn

left

building and

east

River)

23 and 24 3.

Ask

at

dirt

on of

(toward f lag

and

road

pole

go

second

to

Washington iMonument See map pages .

(

.

.

Farm

Office

of interest to you.

for

directions

to

work

-

NATIONAL AC-R L Director:

18

RESEARCH CENTER*

'

Phone:

.

H,

A.

Nelson.

Greenv/ood 1410.

National AgriGultural Research Center, (formerly called Beltsville) is located at Beltsville, Md. about 14 siies from downtown Washington.*--"

This Research Center—comprising about 14,000 acres devoted to farms, experimental plots, and research laboratories-~-is' part of Department of Agriculture. Bureaus conduct research coordinated with research at other Department stations and State agricultural experiment stations- to provide aid to farmers and farm homeffiakers, agricultural industries, and consumers.





Eight Department bureaus conduct or contemplate investigations at Re>search Center.

Animal Industr:^ Bureau of Animal tions on:

Industry

conducts

investiga-

Includes studies basic Diseases and parasites prevention and control of such diseases as infectious abortion of cattle (Bang's disease); infectious abortion of sv/ine; tuberculosis of cattle, swine, and poultry; diseases that may be mistaken and anthrax, for dreaded foot-and-mouth diseaseand vahemorrhagic septicemia, anaplasmosis rious ether poultry and livestock diseases. .Also, studies of such animal parasites as stomach v.'orms of sheep, liver flukes of sheep and cattle, kidney^ lung, and stomach worms of swine, blood worms of •

to

,

.

*

^'J^

Map of Research Center and booklet on projects available at Director's Office (.See page 26). See map, pages 23 and 24, and directions,

pages 25 and 26.

.

(Nat'l. Research Center)

19

blood parasites of cattle, tapeworms and roundworms of poultry, heart worms of dogs, and roundworms and tapeworms of dogs and cats. horses,

Animal husAnimal nutrit ion and genetics bandry investigations include fundamental research in animal genetics and animal nutrition and practical breeding and feeding experiments with beef and dual-purpose cattle, sheep, and milk goats, horses, and poultry; swine, .

related studies of their products such as meat, goats' milk, eggs, and poultry flesh,

wool,

Genetics and breeding program includes recordof-performance studies for efficiency of feed utilization, earliness of maturity, and quality of meat or other products these studies mainly to fix superior types of animals.



Feed ing and nutrition program is to determine nutritive requirements of animals, effect of feeding and of development on quality of animal products, and best use of feeds in animal pro-

duction

.

Breeds studied are:

Beef cattle: Shorthorn. Dual-purpose cattle: Milking Shorthorn. Swine: Chester White, Duroc-Jersey Poland China, Danish Landrace, Danish Yorkshire, and Large Black. Sheep: Southdown, Shropshire, Hampshire, and Corriedale Fur sheep: Karakul (to study possibilities of producing high-quality lambskins for fur trade by selective breeding for most desirable types of Karakul lambskin fur. ,

20

(Nat'l. Research Center)

Milk goats:

Saauen and Toggenburg. Thoroughbred, and Belgian. Poultry: Mainly Rhode Island Red, White Leghorn, White Wyandotte, Light Sussex, and cross-breeds. (Includes breeding to develop high-laying strains ... Studies of inheritance of important characteristics, and effects of inbreeding and outbreeding. .Nutrition, especially protein, mineral, and vitamin and energy requirements of growing chicks and laying hens .... Effect of feeds on eggs and meat .... Factors affecting hatchability and related problems ... Also developing strains of early-maturing, good-fleshing turkey for Horses:

Morgan,

.

.

.

Thanksgiving and Christmas markets.

Research Refuge, Bureau of Biological Survey is beginning wildlife investigations, especially to determine and demonstrate methods of making waste land pay by producing .Studying quail, important game and fur animals. game bird in East .... Restoring ruffed grouse, wild turkeys, and white-tailed deer .... Establishing stocks of raccoons, opossums, foxes, skunks, muskrats, minks, and beavers to study fur-animal management .... Propagating upland game birds.... Studying ecological conditions required for wildlife and for plants, especially marsh and aquatic ....Investigating wildlife diseases. On

Patuxent

.

.

.

(Nat'l. Research Center)

21

Dai r^r Industry

Bureau of Dairy Industry maintains herds of registered Holstein-Friesian and Jersey cattle for experimental work.

Investigations include comparisons of effectiveness outbreeding, of line breeding, and inbreeding —and other breeding and management and pasture investigations .... and nustudies



trition requirements for high milk production for reproduction. .Methods and equipment sanitary milk production on practical farms,... Manufacture of dairy products and byproducts, including American and Swiss cheese, casein^^ milk sugar, powdered milk, condensed whole milk, and

.

.

skim milk, and whey. EnlP-il^oiosZ

and Plant Quarantine.

Bureau of Entomology and Plant conducting investigations on:

Quarantine

is

Includes genetic and breeding work to superior strains of bees .... Studies of develop infectious disease, especially of American and European foulbrood. Bees.

Insecticides Includes research on chemistry toxicity of materials to find and develop new insecticides .... To extend and improve application of insecticides, and study effect on insects. Special emphasis on insecticides not injurious to man and animals. Includes studies on methods and materials to control insects affecting (1) fabrics (2) greenhouse and ornamental plants, and (3) mushrooms. Also studies of ney/ insecticides and use of bands and other cultural methods, control to codling moth. .

and

,

.

.

(Nat'l.

22

Research Center;

Food and Drug Adai

Food and Drug Administration naintains insecticide testing laboratory to study insecticides to deterjiine whether labels give truthful information about material --and to determine whether insect-



icides contain materials harmful to plants on which used.

Pl^ni Indus t ry Bureau of Plant Industry conducts invesxigations on:

Fas tu r 8 s

Cooperates -.vith and Dairy Industry

Industry ment studies.

Bureaus of Animal in pasture manage-

InvesFru its, vegetables^ nuts^ ornamentals. production, breeding, physiology, growth, tigates and utilization and disease control of horticultural crops, including fruits, vegetables, nuts, and ornamentals .... Special einphasis on diseaseresistant horticultural crops .... Studying disease control and propagation of apples, poaches, pears, chrysanthemums, grapes, potatoes, sweetpotatces and other plants .... Studies varieties of fruits and vegetables best suited to canning preserving, juice inaking, drying, and other methods of pre,

serving. Has S large greenhouses, about 25 well-equipped laboratories, and some 500 acres in field tests.

Forest Service

Forest Service plans outdoor laboratory to study silvics and silviculture, especially fundamental problems .... In time, will include ecological and physiological problems in tree genetics, forest soils, etc.... When program is under way it will serve as demonstration unit.

:

(Nat'l.

Research Center)

25

Soil Conservation Service Soil Conserva1937), planning a station to investi;^;a te root such problems as proper terrace design habits of plants as they affect, and are affected by, erosion- cropping systems as related to run-off- -rebuilding of eroded soils ---percolation and infiltration. At

present

(February,

tion Service

Ie;





DIRECTIONS TO RESEARCH CENTER1.

To get to ?iatignal Research Center* (from Administration Building of Department of Agriculture)

a.

b.

north (toward town), on 14th Streets, for two Constitution Avenue.

Go

either

or

blocks— to

12th

east

(tov/ard Capitol) on ConstituAvenue to intersection of Constitution Avenue and Maryland Avenue at 2nd Street, Northeast. (Intersection

Go

tion

d i s tanc e b9

sh0 rt

c.

Turn low

ond

Capitol.

)

into Maryland Avenue and folWashington-Baltimore Boulevard at 15th & H Sts., NE.

left to

(Route

1)

Boulevard toward Baltimore distance of about 13 miles-

d.

Follovv

e.

Turn ri^ht at railroad National Research Center-

station and

go

for

into

about

mile to Adininist ration Building uair^ Unit at right side of road.

one

*

See map, pages 23 and 24.

cf

(Nat'l. Research Center)

Directions a.

and

Guides

at

Research

Center:

General visitors can get ma^ of Center and information about work from DirecAdministration torls Office in Dairx Bu i 1 d ing line

b.

c.

Persons interested in particular at Direcof investigation can arrange BuildAdministration (Dairy tor's Office project. ing) to visit service Groups of visitors who want guide advance. should make arrangements in Call GREENWOOD 1410.

HIGH LIGHTS OF DEPARTMENT HISTORY resolutions

introduced

ADAMS

JOHN

Continental

Congress

encourage

to

27

(1776)

in

agriculture.

in first annual message to GEORGE WASHI NGTON Congress proposed Government aid to agriculture, commerce, and manufacture .... In last annual message (17S6), he went much further and said: "As ,

,

nations of

the

in population the cultivation becomes more and more an object of

advance soil

public patronage

(20 years passed.)

BERKSHIRE

IMASS^l ASSOCIATION FOR PROMOTI ON OF AGRICULTURE AND MANUFACTURING petitioned for national board to help agriculture and manufacturing.

(No action.)

AGRICULTURAL

COMMITTEE

appointed

House

in

in

1820 and in Senate in 1825.

PATENT CO MMISSIONER ELLS7/0RTH (State Departdistributed plant and seed specimens sent here by consuls and other foreign representatives abroad. Upon his recommendation. Congress; in 1839, appropriated f 1,000 to collect and disment)

tribute tions,

in

seeds,

conduct

agricultural

investiga-

and collect agricultural statistics.

PATENT OFFICE merged with Interior Department 1849. Continued agricultural work to 1862.

AGRICULTURAL in movement

to

SOCIETIES played important part establish Department of Agricul-

ture.

signed

ACT C REA TING DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE by President Abraham Lincoln May 15, 1862.

LAND-G RAN T COLLEGES provided for in signed by President Lincoln July

Act,

(Lands granted for their endowment.)

Morrill 2,

1862.

(Highlights of Department History)

28

fATENT OFFICE turned its agricultural v/ork over to newly created Department of Agriculture. Issac Newton first Commissioner of Agriculture (1862-67).

AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS provided for by Hatch Act (1887) and by supplementary Adams, Purnell, and Bankhead-Jones Acts. STATE

DEPARTMENT WAS MADE AN EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT by act signed by President Cleveland on FebruAct provided for Secretary of ary 9, 1889. Agriculture to be appointed by President with Commissioner advice and consent of Senate. Colman was appointed as first Secretary.

EXTENSION WORK, carried on by land-grant colleges in cooperation with Federal Department of Agriculture, provided for by Smith-Lever Act In connection with this work, agriculof 1914. tural and home demonstration agents stationed in most of agricultural counties of the United States.

AGRICULTURAL ADJUSTMENT ACT signed by President Soil Conservation and Domestic May 12, 1933. Allotment Act signed April 27, 1935, and amendUnder these ments to it on February 29, 1936. acts Department administers programs for orderly marketing, removal of price-depressing surpluses, and conservation and improvement of soil productivity.

— PART

2:

BUREAUS AND OFFICES: AND ACTIVITIES.

-

ORGANIZATION

DEPARTMENT FUNCTIONS

Department's

ordinary

activities

fall

roughly

into seven general classes: 1.

Research on agricultural production, marketing, and utilization and forestry, wildlife, soil conservation, etc.

^.

Extension and information activities.

3.

Eradic ation or control diseases and pests.

^-

Service activities such as weather and crop reporting.

5.

Market ing and regulatory law administration.

6.

Action programs such as parts of program of Soil Conservation Service, Agricultural Adjustment Administration, and Resettlement Administration.

'7'-

of plant

and animal

Road construction. E6°teia;irState Cooperation

Much of foregoing Department work is carried on in close cooperation with—

State agricultural colleges (including experiment stations and extension services) through Department's Office of Experiment Stations and the Extension Service;



Departments of State governments, including agriculture, conservation, highway, etc. 31.

32.

SECRETARY'S OFFICE

Secretary H. A. Wallace, Under Sec. M. L. Wilson, Asst. Sec. Harry L. Brown, Asst.

to Sec.

P.

H.

204 Admin. 202 Admin.

202 Admin.

Appleby, 204 Admin.

Secretarxls Activities. The Secretary is charged with promoting agriculture in the broadest sense.

He has general supervision and control over affairs of Department (including Agricultural Adjustment Administration) and formulates and establishes its general policies.

coordinates activities of this Department those of all other regular and emergency agencies of Federal Government, State and Territorial agricultural experiment stations, and extension services, and is member of planning

He with

groups named by the President.

.

.

(Secretary's Office)

33

Coord inatin g Officers Dir. Finance

112 Admin

W. A. Jump,

Dir. Research and)

Chief, Off. Sta.

of

)

J.T.Jardine,

5057 South

Expt.

Dir. Extension

C

Information Dir. Personnel Solicitor Librarian

M. S Eisenhov/er,

Dir.

WoilS of

.

W.Warburton, .

5901 South 302 Admin

W.W.Stockberger, 212 Admin 412 Admin M.G.White, Claribel Barnett,1409 South

Coordinating Offices

Exercises generOffice of Budget and F inan ce direction and supervision of budget, fiscal, purchasing, accounting, and related work of De~ .

al

artment Office of Experiment Stations. Administers Federal funds provided by Hatch, Adams, Purnell, Bankhead-Jones and other acts for research in agriculture and home economics by experiment stations in States and in Alaska, Hawaii, and

Puerto Rico..,. Has general direction of v/ork of agricultural experiment stations in Hawaii and Puerto Rico.

\

I

:

|

{

|

i

1

Gives advice, assistance, and information to promote efficiency of State and territorial experiment stations and effective coordination of work of Department with that of stations; reports annually on work and expenditures of experiment stations as required by law, and issues Experiment Station Record, reviewing progress and results of scientific research on agriculture and rural life.



^

i

i

!

I

i

34

(Coordinating Offices)

Cooperates with State agriExtensi on Service cultural colleges in agricultural and home economics extension work under Smith-Lever, Capper Bankhead-Jones and other acts which Ketcham, .

provide for teaching better practices to farmers, farm women, and rural boys and girls .... Coordinates extension activities of Department bureaus with similar activities of State colleges.... Prepares and distributes motion pictures, exhibits,

and other educational materials.

Each of 48 States, and Territories of Hawaii, has State director and Puerto Rico, Alaska, of extension who represents jointly the DepartEach ment and the State agricultural college. State also has State staff usually located at agricultural college, and also county agricultural, home demonstration, and 4-H club agents.

Cooperates with Federal Office of Information. and State agricultural extension services to make available to farmers and general public regulatory conservation, results of research, printing Supervises work service and work, issues and Department, of program and publishing results on publications technical and popular of Department investigations .... Cooperates with press and radio to disseminate to farmers and others results of Department work to help farmers cut production costs, adjust production to demand, and improve products and widen markets.

Department publications are 514 Administration Building.

available

at

Room

(Coordinating Offices)

35

Has general direction of Person ne l personnel, salary classifisupervision of and cation, organization, and related operations of

Office

.

Department. Office

of

Supervises

Solicitor.

and

directs

legal work of Department.

Department Library, with branch libraries in various bureaus, contains approximately 275,000 volumes on agriculture and related sciences, technology, and economics. .Receives 4,500 current periodicals. Lib rary

.

.

.

Has most extensive bibliography in United States on agriculture and related sciences.

Information and catalog. Room 1052 South Building

Division of Operation Manages local Department buildings and real estate, and service units -and internal operations of Secretary's office. .

.

36

AGRICULTURAL ADJUSTMENT ADMINISTRATION Administrator: Information:

H.R.Tolley, 3095 South Bld{ Room 3718 South Bldg.

DIVISIONS Consumers' Counsel Finance

Information Marketing P rogram Planning

Regional Divisions: East Central Northeast North Central Southern Western

Wo rk of Administration

Under

Conservation and Domesilc Alloidevelops and administers programs to farmers to plant crops and institute that prevent erosion and restore soil Programs include payments to proenable them to adopt and practice soilmeasures.

Soil

Sent Act, encourage practices fertility. ducers to conserving

Under Agricultural Adjustment Act, administers programs to stabilize and improve economic conditions in financing and marketing, increase returns to producers, and eliminate unfair practices Marketthat interfere with interstate commerce. ing agreements between Secretary of Agriculture and processors, handlers or producers, supported by licenses and orders under specified conditions, are mechanisms used in these programs. Remove price-depressing surplus of farm products from normal market channels, and assist and encourage development of domestic and export

markets

.

AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS (Bureau of)

37

Albert G. Black, 3057 South Bldg. 3931 South Bldg. Information:

Chief:

DIVISIONS Foreign Agricultural Agricultural Finance Service Cold Storage Section Fruits & Vegetables Cotton Marketing Crop and Livestock Esti- Grains mates Hay, Feed, and Seed Dairy and Poultry ProdLand Economics Livestock, Meats, and ucts Marketing Research Wool Economic Information Statistical and HisEconomic Library Farm Management and torical Research Costs Tobacco Section Transportation Section Farm Population and Warehousing Rural Life Work of Bureau Studies economics of production and marketing, farm organization, farm financial relations, farm labor, land economics, and problems of rural life ...Collects, interprets, and issues data on production of farm crops and livestock ... Issues daily reports on marketing and distribution of farm products and annual outlook reports. Investigates marketing conditions and methods and standardization, transportation, financing, handling, utilization, and storage of farm products Has inspection service on important farm products at many shipping points and central markets. Prepares official standards on farm products and conducts grading service on certain products. Collects and distributes facts on supply and demand for foreign farm products. Enforces regulatory acts e.g.. Cotton Standards, Cotton Futures, Grain Standards, Standard Container, Standard Hamper, Produce Agency, Perishable Agricultural Commodities, Tobacco, and Warehouse .

:

AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING (Bureau of)

38

Chief:

S.

H.

Information:

McCrory, 2241 South Bldg. 0833 South Bldg.

DIVISIONS Cotton Ginning

Information Irrigation Mechanical Equipment Structures Plans and Service

Drainage Extension Activities Farm Operating Efficiency

Work of Bureau

Investigates problems in engineering phases agriculture, with special emphasis on problems of family-size farm. Aim is to reduce cost of production, improve quality of products, and raise farm living standards. of

Conducts

research

and

disseminates

informa-

tion on problems of land improvement, including land clearing, irrigation, and drainage .... Inves-

tigates organization, administration, and operation of community drainage and irrigation enterprises— and water requirements for irrigation.



Experiments to improve mechanical equipment producing crops, processing farm products, and controlling insects .... Studies problems of farm power and machinery, rural electrification, and transportation and storing of farm products. ....Studies rearrangement of field boundaries to facilitate use of machinery, and selection of machinery for size and type of farm. for

Investigates design and construction of farmhouses and other farm buildings and prepares plans for distribution through State extension services to farmers and others.

.

ANIMAL INDUSTRY (Bureau of) Chief:

J.

R.

Information:

39

Mohler, 225 E. Admin. Bldg. 132 E. Admin. Bldg.

DIVISIONS Animal Disease Station Animal Husbandry Animal Nutrition Bicchemic Field Inspection Information Meat Inspection

Packers and Stockyards Pathological Tick Eradication and Special Diseases Tuberculosis Erad. Virus-Serum Control Zoological

Wo rk of Bureau

Concerned mainly with protection and development of livestock and meat industries of United States Conducts scientific investigations and experiments on breeding and feeding of farm animals and causes, prevention, and treatment of diseases of domestic animals; investigates communicable diseases and aids in control or eradication.

Administers Meat Inspection Act, Animal Quarantine Acts, 28-Hour law. Diseased Animal Transportation Acts, Virus-Serum-Toxin Act, and Act regulating business in interstate commerce of

designated

stockyard markets, traders, and other agencies operating at such markets.

packers,

and commission men,

public

BIOLOGICAL SURVEY (Bureau of)

40 Chief:

Ira N. Gabrielson, 4901 South Bldg.

Information:

4534 South Bldg.

DIVISIONS

Administration Game Management Land Acquisition

Migratory Waterfowl Public Relations Wildlife Research Work of Bureau

This Bureau (wildlife service of Federal Government) conducts research on habits, economic status,

and diseases of birds and other wildlife including studies of propagation of fur and game species ... .Acquires and maintains refuges for migratory birds and other wildlife .... Conducts work in game management, including control of injurious species .... Develops methods for producing game on farms, especially on waste land, thus giving farmers extra income.

Cooperates with State and other organizations develop methods to control stock-killing wild animals, destructive rodents, and injurious birds. to

Administers Migratory Bird Treaty Act, Migratory Bird Conservation Act, Migratory Bird Hunting Stamp Act, and, through Alaska Game Commission, Also administers laws to proAlaska Game Law. tect animals and property on wildlife reservations, and to prevent illegal interstate shipments and importations from abroad of wild animals and birds.

CHEMISTRY AND SOILS (Bureau of)

41

Chief: Henry G. Knight, 4103 South Bldg. Information: 4123 South Bldg.

DIVISIONS Carbohydrate Research Chemical Engineering Research Fertilizer Research Food Research Industrial Farm Products Research

Information Naval Stores Research

Protein and Nutrition Research Soil Chemistry and Physics Research Soil Survey

Wo rk of Bu reau

Investigates utility of primary and secondary and v/ays to prevent their deterioration and loss, and to expand their food and nonfood purposes .... Conducts use for basic research on nature of enzyme action, on microbiology of agricultural products, on pharmacology of insecticides that may contaminate foodstuffs, and on chemistry of plant pigments, proteins, lignin, turpentines, resins, and cuticle waxes of f ruits .... Studies causes and prevention of farm fires and dust explosions.

.agricultural products

Classifies and maps soils, studies a riculvalue of soils, their characteristics in relation to productiveness, their origin and development, and chemical and mechanical composition tural

.

Studies fertilizer resources of country and methods of manufacturing fertilizer materials,

including nitrogen and its fixation, phosphates, concentrated- fertilizers, organic waste products, and miscellaneous soil amendments.

pptash,

.

COMMODITY EXCHANGE ADMINISTRATION

42

Chief:

J.

W.

Information:

T.

Duvel,

1931 South Bldg.

1929 South Bldg.

DIVISIONS Analytical Survey Business Administration General Administration Information and Statistics

Legal Record Examination Registration Violations and Com-

plaints Woik of Administration

Commodity Exchange Administration (supplanted Grain Futures Administration on July 1, 1936) supervises all future trading in grains, cotton, mill feed, butter, eggs, potatoes and rice on commodity exchanges designated by the Secretary of Agriculture as contract markets, with a vieiv to preventing manipulations and harmful market practices

Releases daily reports concerning volume of trading and amount of open futures contracts, checks dissemination of false and misleading information affecting prices, examines books and records to. prevent and detect unlawful trade practices and to protect customers' funds, and registers futures commission merchants and floor brokers handling orders for others. Prepares for Congress and public, reports investigations of future trading operations.

of

Cooperates v/ith other Government agencies in obtaining factual data and in providing information of interest and value in connection with supply and demand factors affecting prices.

DAIRY INDUSTRY (Bureau of) Chief:

0.

E.

Information:

43

Reed, 2953 South Bldg.

2963 South Bldg.

DIVISIONS Dairy Cattle Breeding, Feeding, and Management Dairy Herd Improvement Dairy Research Laboratories

Extension Information Market Milk Investigations Nutrition and Physiology

Work of B ureau Conducts research in genetics, and in breeding, and management of dairy cattle to pro-

feeding,

efficiency in production of milk and improve its nutritive and sanitary quality.

mote

to

Records identity and individual performanceall cows and herd sires enrolled in herdimprovement associations to help dairymen find "superior germ plasm" for breeding better producing herds. of

Develops

sanitary

methods

to

handle

milk

on

the farm, in transit, and in dairy plants; studies

efficiency of dairy-plant equipment, arrangement, and operation, and other factors affecting commercial value of milk. Investigates bacteriology and chemistry of milk and its products, and problems in manufacture of dairy products and by-products; assists in estab-

lishing new products and methods in dairy plants; inspects renovated-butter factories and dairy products for export.

44

ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE (Bureau of) Chief:

Lee A. Strong, 5865 South Bldg.

Information:

6838 South Bldg.

DIVISIONS Insecticide InvesBee Culture tigations Business Administration Cereal and Forage Insects Insect Identification Control Investigations Cotton Insects Date Scale

Insect Pest Survey and Information Insects Affecting Man

Domestic Plant Quarantine Editorial Foreign Parasite Introduction Foreign Plant Quarantine Forest Insects Fruitfly Fruit Insects

and Animals Japanese Beetle Library Mexican Fruitfly Pink Bollworm and Thurberia Weevil Plant Disease Control Truck Crops and Garden Insects

Work of Bureau

Studies insects to develop ways to destroy insects harmful to agriculture and increase and spread useful insects life history and control of insects affecting man and animals bee culture and beekeeping. Investigates and develops improved methods to manufacture insecticides and fungicides. Cooperates with States to eradicate and control plant diseases and insects. Enforces following acts: Plant Quarantine Act of 1912 (as amended); Insect Pest Act of 1905; Act of 1922 on importing adult honeybees; Terminal Inspection Act of 1915 (cooperation with Post Office Dept.) and acts to provide Mexican border inspection and control service, and export certification to meet sanitary requirements of foreign governments for plants and plant products.

FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION* Chief:

W.

G.

Information:

Campbell, 4803 South Bldg. 4803 South Bldg.

Color Certification

Drugs Foods Imports Information Insecticides

45

DIVISIONS Interstate Microanalytical Naval Stores Pharmacology State Cooperation Vitamins

W ork of Administratio n Enforces Food and Drugs Act, Tea Act, Naval Stores Act, Insecticide Act, Import Milk Act, Caustic Poison Act, and Filled Milk Act. Inspects and analyzes samples of products covered in lav/s to detect and direct appropriate action against adulterated or misbranded articles .... Maintains supervisory sea-food inspection service (at present limited to concerns packing canned shrimps) to insure packing of legal product. Canned shrimp passing such inspection must be labeled, "Production Supervised by United States Food & Drug Administration, "....On request, samples and examines consignments of rosin and turpentine and supplies certificates of grade or analysis at cost of party requesting service. Seizes adulterated or misbranded foods, drugs, insecticides, and fungicides, and prosecutes responsible shipper. Prevents importation of products in violation of statutes. Disseminates information to help manufacturers keep products in compliance with law. *

See "Chamber South Bldg.

of Horrors"

exhibit.

Room 2816,

FOREST SERVICE

46 Chief:

F.

A.

Information:

Silcox, 3002 South Bldg

4007 South Bldg,

Camp Program (ECW) Coordinating (EC7/)

Engineering Enrollee Training Fire Control Fiscal Control Forest Economics Forest Influences Forest Products

Information and Education Land Planning Land Purchase

(

DIVISIONS Operatic n Personnel Management Private Timberland Cooperation ECW) Range Management Range Research Recreation and Lands Silvics State Cooperation State Forest Purchase and Regulation

Timber Management Wildlife Management Wo rk of Service

Administers national forests (some 160 million to sustain timber production, protect watersheds, regulate stream flow, regulate livestock grazing, protect wildlife, provide popular outdoor recreation, and stablize economic conditions in national-forest communities. Investigates forestry and range management. Disseminates forest-conservation information. Cooperates with States and private forest landowners on organized forest-fire protection, susreforestation tained-yield, timber management, and farm forestry. Supervises forestry work of Civilian Conservation Corps. Aids States to acquire forest land to stimulate development, proper administration, acres)

and management of State forests.

47

HOME ECONOMICS (Bureau of) Louise Stanley, 6052 South Bldg. Information: 6056 South Bldg.

Chief:

DIVISIONS

Household Equipment Information Foods and Nutrition Textiles and Clothing

Econciiiics

Work of Bureau From

consumer standpoint,

studies

food

habits

typical groups .... Develops plans for balanced diets at different cost levels. of

well-

vitamin assays of food material, often conjunction with other bureaus studying production phases .... Compiles figures on chemical composition of food, materials basic to accurate dietary calculations .... Tests cooking qualities of foods and develops scientific methods to prepare food to conserve nutritive value. iv'akes

in

Tests

wearing qualities of fabrics made of known grade .... Prepares buying guides to aid consumers judge quality of goods on market. fibers

of

Maintains laboratories to test and other household equipment.

refrigerators

Compiles,

interprets, and disseminates this into homemakers, extension workers, and others through press, radio, publications, film strips, and other forms of illustrative material. fo niiation

Cooperates with State extension services maintains no field agents of its own.

but

PLANT INDUSTRY (Bureau of)

48 Chief:

F.

D.

Information:

Richey, 205 W. Admin. 215 W. Admin.

DIVISIONS Cereal Crops and Diseases Plant Exploration and Introduction Cotton and Other Fiber Crops and Diseases Seed Investigations Drug and Related Plants Soil Fertility Dry Land Agriculture Investigations Experimental Greenhouses Soil Microbiology

Forage Crops and Diseases Sugar Plant Forest Pathology Investigations Fruit and Vegetable Tobacco and Plant Crops and Diseases Nutrition Information Western Irrigation Agriculture Mycology and Disease

Survey W ork of Bureau

Conducts experiments to develop crops vrith higher yields, better quality, and greater resistance to diseases and insects .... Investigates proper fertilization practices, crop rotations, and cultural methods .... Studies destructive plant diseases and develops methods to eradicate and control ... .Makes annual plant-disease survey as basis for control work. Investigates methods to handle, transport, and store perishable plant products to insure maximum final quality and minimum loss and expense. Sends explorers abroad for seeds and plants that may be valuable in this country. Has field stations and laboratories in most major cropping areas of United States. Enforces Federal Seed Act.

.

PUBLIC ROADS (Bureau of)

49

Chief: T.H. McDonald, 507, 515-14th St.NW. Information: 506, 515--14th St. NW.

DIVISIONS District No. 10* Construction Control Design Highway Laws and Contracts

Highway Transport Information Management National Parks (East and South)* Tests

Work of Bureau

Administers regular Federal-aid funds, emerappropriations for road construction, and forest-road funds.... Large part of this v/ork done in cooperation with States; contact with States maintained through regional office at San Francisco, 12 district offices, and State gency

representatives Conducts research in highway design, constructransportation, and economics as aid to proper administration of Federal road funds. tion,

Supervises construction of national park roads for National Park Service.

*

Branches Washington.

of

field

organization

located

in

.

RESETTLEMENT ADMINISTRATION^*^

50

W.W.Alexander, 910-17th St N W (Room 101) 910-17th St.,N.W

Admin.:

,

.

.

Information:

DIVISIONS O perating;

'

Land Utilization Rural Rehabilitation Rural Resettlement

Suburban Resettlement Servic e Business Management

(Service)

Inspection Investigation Labor Relations

Construction

Legal Management Personnel Procedure

Finance & Control Information

Special Plans Special Skills

Work of Administration to destitute and low-income farm families unable to get credit elsev/here and aids Makes grants them in farm and home management. to farm families for emergency subsistence needs. Makes

loans

Makes loans to cooperative associations and individuals to participate in cooperative activities when these improve living standard of families aided by Resettlement Administration. •

Supervises program to adjust farm debts. Buys land unfit for crop farming and develops it for some more valuable use.... Helps farmers from and other farmers on unsuitable farm such land land relocate on good farm land, in better homes.

Develops

planned

rural-industrial

communities

for low-income workers and farmers.

^Greenbelt, planned suburban town, located near Washington-Baltimore Boulevard, about mile beyond See map, page Guides available. College Park. 24 for directions.

SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE Chief:

H.H.

Information:

Bennett,

539,

261 Const.

51

Ave.

539, 261 Const. Ave.

DIVISIONS Business Management Conservation Operations Cooperative Relations and Planning

Personnel and Training

Research

Work of Servic e Furthers adoption of soil-conserving practices (1) demonstration of practical and effective measures of soil conservation, (2) actual work on land in cooperation with landowners, (3) research and investigation to develop improved soil-conserving measures. through

Conducts

series

of

watershed

demonstrations

on erosion control in various sections of country.

Farmers in demonstration areas invited to coIndividual landowners may apply operate in plan. to make lands available for demonstration purposes; landowner signs a cooperative contract.

erosion-control experiment stations maintains series regions of nurseries to produce erosion-control plants.

Maintains

in major agricultural

Surveys

extent

and

on reservoir silting,

nature

of

erosion,

and similar problems.

effect

52

^

WEATHER BUREAU Chief:

W.

R.

Information:

.

Gregg, Room 12," 24th & M Sts.NW

Room C0,^4th & M Sts. NW

DIVISIONS

Aerological Business Administration Climate and Crop Weather

Instrument Library Marine

Meteorological Research River and Flood Solar Radiation

Forecasting Information

Work of Bureau Has charge of weather forecasting, including issuance and display of weather forecasts, and storm, cold-wave, frost, forest-fire, and flood warnings.

Measures

and

reports

river

stages,

and

fore-

casts stages and floods for general benefit, ospecially for agriculture, navigation, and engineering.

Collects and transmits marine intelligence for commerce and navigation. Also determines climatreports ic conditions over oceans from weather from ships.

Compiles and furnishes meteorological data and including upper-air observations, for aid of aviation. forecasts,

Records and reports rainfall and temperature, primarily for agricultural interests. Takes meteorological observations needed to determine and record climatic conditions of United States.