policies, or practices.
WORLD SUPPLY PICTURE SPAIN TO IMPORT
MORE FARM PRODUCTS I'
WORLD COTTON CROP AT ALLTIME HIGH
FOREIGN AGRICULTURE Including
FOREIGN CROPS AND MARKETS
A WEEKLY MAGAZINE OF THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN AGRICULTURAL SERVICE
FOREIGN CROPS AND MARKETS
Symbolized on our cover is wheat, whose age-long story has had some interesting chapters in the 20'h century. The siory on the opposite page examines some trends that have helped to give today’s international
World Supply Situation
Spain To Import More Agricultural Products This Year
World Cotton Crop at Alltime
Japanese Team Sees U.S. Poultry Production and
Domestic Beef Supply
Big Gain in the
Good as Stocks Dwindle This Buying Season
Flaxseed and Linseed Oil Exports Under PIK Eased
12-15 World Crops and Markets
(Commodity index on page 16)
Freeman, Secretary of Agriculture
Dorothy H. Jacobson, Assistant Secretary for International Affairs
A. loanes. Administrator, Foreign Agricultural Service
Editor: Alice Fray Nelson
Associate Editors: Ruth A. Oviatt
0. Patterson, Janet
W. A. Minor, Chairman; Horace J. Davis, John Donald M. Rubel, Quentin M. West.
published as a public service, and
commercial and trade names
Kenneth W. Olson,
be reprinted freely.
the magazine does not imply approval or constitute endorsement by
the Department ot Agriculture or the Foreign Agricultural Service.
weekly by the Foreign Agricultural Service, United States Department of 20250. Use of funds for printing this publication has been approved by the Director of the Bureau of the Budget (December 22, 1962). Yearly subscription rate is $7.00, domestic, $9.25 foreign; single copies are 20 cents. Orders should be sent to the Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C. 20401 Foreign Agriculture
World Supply Situation
The 20th century has witnessed dramatic examples
importance of the role that wheat
plays in the world’s food supply.
has been U.S. wheat that has borne the major burden of
hunger following in the wake of two World Wars and the chronic hunger resulting from
relieving both the acute
trade have brought U.S.
the pressure of population on food production.
into center stage.
period also, the United States has carried a
large share of the responsibility for the orderly marketing
of the world's wheat supply, through the pricing, stocking,
and management of
own wheat abundance.
This central position of the United States on the world
Foreign Development and Trade Division,
and RICHARD J. CANNON Grain and Feed Division, FAS
wheat stage is the result of striking changes in the production and trade patterns of nearly all the world’s principal wheat-supplying regions. Wheat the most prominent grain
a worldwide basis, wheat
important single grain,
today the world’s most
terms of both production and
Out of average world grain production
years 1962-64, wheat accounted for over 30 percent, corn
for 25 percent,
WORLD WHEAT PRODUCTION -
rice for 20.
out of average world
grain trade in fiscal 1962-64, wheat provided 54 percent,
corn 23, and rice only
of wheat on a regional basis varies, of
course, according to
numbers and needs of
local diets, the
region’s suitability for growing the various grains.
example, wheat occupied only 33 percent of the 1965 grain acreage, and in India and Africa even
Oceania South America
Canada and Oceania
percentage was sub-
stantially higher. North America
In food aid, wheat has been the principal grain involved. For example, from the start of U.S. Public Law 480 programs through January I, 1965, foreign currency sales (Title I) involved 86 million metric tons of wheat and wheat flour for developing countries; all other grains accounted for only 1 1 million. And in 1964 alone, wheat and wheat flour accounted fOr more than 60 percent of the total value of U.S. aid to deveolping countries under Title I. Trends
by 140 percent, from 96 million tons a year in the early 1920’s to 230 million tons a year in 1960-64. The chart on this page shows the changing regional pattern of pro-
world wheat production
past 45 years have seen world wheat output increase
Asia, Europe, basis Western Europe
Especially noticeable are the steep increases for the
and North America, although on
doubling of the
Oceania and Africa
portion of the increase
on China and Manchuria for However, this does not account
to the unavailability of data 1920^
Does NOT INCLUDE CHINA AND MANCHURIA
the decade of the 1920’s.
*Mr. Schertz Division; he is
the FAS Grain and Feed chief of the International Monetary and
was formerly with
Trade Research Branch, FDT. March
— wheat production
for the entire change; China’s
in the early
— percent in the 1920’s and kept
1930’s averaged only approximately 24 million tons.
The USSR and
Within the latest of the 5-year periods beginning with 1920, wheat production in North America reached a peak: for 1962-64, it averaged 49 million tons, of which the
period between the wars.
United States accounted for 32 million and Canada for 17 Yet North America, which at the beginning of
even during the 1930’s.
Danube Basin ranked second as the century opened and first before World War II, but later found
their export share
reduced, beginning with the
however, have witnessed preeminence in the world
the United States regaining
45-year span had stood first among the world’s wheat producing regions, ranked fourth at the end of it; ahead were Europe (Western and Eastern), Asia, and the USSR. The United States was the largest single producer of wheat
wheat trade. During the late 1940’s, the supplies of North America particularly the United States played a vital part in postwar relief and recovery. In 1960-64 U.S. wheat accounted for over two-fifths of the world’s exports and Canada's for another fifth.
45 years ago;
trade in wheat has been equally
Between 1900 and 1964, total wheat trade increased from approximately 15 million tons a year to over 45 million. Still more dramatic were the shifts in importance among the exporting areas. By no means did the largest producers of wheat always rank first as exporters. In fact, the three areas that now produce most wheat Europe, Asia, and the USSR are all net wheat importers. dramatic.
world’s wheat trade at
enjoyed almost 40 percent of the the turn of the century, with about
6 million tons of exports.
share dropped sharply to 14
World War and plummeted
rose again in the 1920’s to
to 8 percent during the drought
years of the 1930’s.
in fifth place in the early
1900’s with 5 percent of the total, took
place with 35
WORLD EXPORTS OF WHEAT AND WHEAT FLOUR Period
Mil. metric tons
Mil. metric tons
Mil. metric tons
2.5 8.4 4.8 7.6 7.7 10.2
9.6 9.7 18.5
1899-1903 1909-13 1924-28 1934-38 1944-48 1954-58 1960-64
2.2 2.9 2.2
Mil. metric tons
Mil. metric tons
Mil. metric tons
Mil. metric tons
1899-1903 1909-13 1924-28 1934-38 1944-48 1954-58 1960-64 1
carrying out activities that importantly influence domestic
consumption, and prices of wheat.
of these countries, such activities have a significant influ-
ence on prices
in world markets. For example, Canada, Australia, and Argentina use WJieat Boards to control the quantities and prices of their wheat sold internationally. The European Economic Community has established a variable import levy system, which in effect
a variable import quota system associated with
variable export subsidies.
The United Kingdom employs
The United States too has a number of domestic wheat programs, including acreage controls and diversion, stocking, price supports, export payments, and import quotas. These programs have an important effect on the U.S. position in the world wheat economy and in turn on the position of many other countries. Thus, the United States is
carrying a disproportionate share of responsibility for this
terms of maintaining
stability of supplies, pro-
viding food aid, and stabilizing prices. sponsible U.S. conduct, activities in
world wheat market would have been subject to very
ent conditions of supply, trade, consumption, and price.
22.3 29.3 45.4
North America Latin America Western Europe Eastern Europe
influence on supply stability
In 1962-64, U.S.
wheat area averaged 46 million acres world wheat area. U.S. production
same years averaged 3 percent of the world total. But U.S. production would have been much larger if U.S. in the
farm resources had not been purposely diverted from wheat
diverted from crop production; of this total, 7.5 million
Mil. metric tons -H5.6
Mil. metric tons
Mil. metric tons 30.2
were under the wheat acreage diversion program. Reflecting the restraints on production, average U.S. wheat area in 1963-65 was 28 percent below the 66.9 million acres of
+ 2.1 +.6 1
these areas of the
Japan has a system of import fund allocations and “skimmings,” or variable import charges to “skim off” any price differences between the lower world price and the higher domestic price. Tariffs, skimmings, and quotas are used also by the developing discriminatory variable levy.
about 9 percent of
Year beginning July
wheat is not a purely comSmith “invisible hand” type. On the contrary, almost every country involved in this trade has governmental or quasi-governmental agencies market of the
Africa Asia Oceania
international market for
AVERAGE ANNUAL NET WORLD TRADE IN WHEAT
Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
The United States and the world wheat economy
the wheat trade has changed
The growth of world
—2.3 —9.2 —2.0 —1.1 —3.3
1965, about 56 million acres of U.S. cropland were
cent, Argentina's 23
Canada’s wheat area was up 10 perpercent, and Australia’s 64 percent.
Although the United States produces a comparatively has assumed a large it (Text continued on page 16)
small share of the world’s wheat,
WORLD'S MAJOR WHEAT PRODUCERS World total 240 million metric tons
SHARE OF WHEAT, 1962-64 -
(on 510 mil. ocres)
Regional Grain Production
PERCENT OF REGIONAL TOTAL
others 96 mil.
(on 216 mil. ocres)
West Asio Eastern
(on 12 mil. ocres)
(on 17 mil. acres)
Canada (on 28 mil. acres)
Western Hemisphere EEC
(on 26 mil. acres)
(on 46 mil. acres) 4c
(on 165 mil. acres)
PRINCIPAL GRAINSWorld Production and Trade, 1962-64 METRIC TONS
AMONG SOME TOP WHEAT EXPORTERS
USSR & Danube Basin
_L FOR SORGHUM, AUG.
1961 - 62.''63
^ 1962 - 63. ‘64
EXPORTS FROM DANUBE BASIN NEGLIGIBLE.
NET REGIONAL TRADE IN WHEAT B| Mil.
METRIC TONS. -
BIGGEST WHEAT EXPORTERS 1962-64 Averages*
u u Latin
25 Stocks July
Exports, inci. flour
^ ^ u
NOT INCLUDE CREDIT SALES.
'50- '55- ’do-
'50- '55- '60-
Spain To Import More Agricultural Products This Year JAMES LOPES
Foreign Regional Analysis Division
Spain needs to import large quantities of edible
Economic Research Service
Spain should be an attractive market for the sale of U.S.
Not only was
agricultural products in
output below normal
1965, but recently measures were
Eurthermore, Spain’s reserves
imports of agricultural
exchange and gold 1965
among consumers have about half of
olive oil production in the past 2 years
and the government’s and
the deficit between domestic production and
other than olive
consumption of such oils to vegetable oil consumption. Also, the
oilseeds or protein con-
centrates to meet the increasing animal feed requirements.
than adequate to sustain increasing agricultural imports.
poor crops, need
larger imports of feed grains, vegetable oils, protein con-
Expansion of the livestock
stepped-up imports of breeding
Imports of animal
tobacco, hides and skins, and vege-
seed oils during tons
as 200,000 metric tons of
compared with 57,000 metric
1965 to an estimated
of 324,000 metric
tons, total vegetable oil supplies will
10,000 metric tons and a doubling of olive
duction Market expanding
In spite of a carryover olive oil
short of the de^
become an important market
In recent years, Spain has
lieved to be close to
1964, and for
1965 are be-
more than double
major supplier of Spain’s 1964 its shipments to
States has been a
Eeed grains and soybean products are
expected for 1965.
Spain’s imports of U.S. feed grains
rose from 107,000 metric tons in I960 to 889,000 in 1964.
imports of U.S. soybeans climbed from an average of
16.000 metric tons
1963 to 56,321
purchases of soybean
the 1961-63 period.
tons in 1
continue to encourage the export of
lower priced vegetable
other than olive
uary 1965 also were suspended
Soybeans are expected
accounting for the
Soybean oil is market, and the
cheaper than for other vegetable
than twice the level of 1963 crushings. This year soybeans will
compared with 20,000- 50, 000 in 1965. Since few countries can compete effectively with the United States in the
Total feed grain imports by Spain
command some 200,000
tons of this enlarged capacity
Spain’s reduced cotton production for the past 2 years could mean substantially larger imports of cotton in 1966
for sorghums, as
Spain also offers an expanding market
own sorghum crop was
loan agreement of $35 million,
was slightly bales, 160,000
next 3 years, with
125,000 tons to be bought
also agreed to purchase
of about $18 million worth (321,000 metric tons) of feed grains from the United States
The market rise to
1965, estimated at 350,000
lower than the low
level of 1964.
as oilseeds, this
the use of irrigated
land from cotton growing to crops offering a
vegetables and sugarbeets, have
acreage and '
Spain’s cotton import requirements in 1966 bales, nearly
tor U.S. soybean products in Spain in 1966 $65 million, nearly double the 1964 value.
labor costs, dry weather, and shifts
Commercialization of Farm
Cotton outlook promising
September with the Spanish Cooperative for the Products (COES), calls for the purchase of 600,000 metric tons of feed grains over the signed
possible that Spain will be crushing
mainly U.S. soybeans
Spain has a large loan to finance imports of U.S. feed grains.
in 1966 are expected approach 2 million metric tons, about 10 percent more than imported in 1964. Of these imports, corn is estimated at over million metric tons, and barley at approximately
about 300,000 metric tons, or more
feed stocks combined with poor pasture conditions and the
crop of the previous year.
For livestock feed they have a
bulk of oilseed imports.
the domestic market.
Restrictions on the export of olive
offer the public
and further liberalized the
the import duties on
metric tons was about one-tenth below the relatively poor
Consequently, low carryover
high price supports on olive a
and the import of cheaper vegetable for domestic uses. The government is committed to
price per ton
estimated 85,000 metric tons of
needed for carryover stocks.
olive oil are also
competitive advantage over other oilseeds.
Good feed grain market Spain’s
consumption and export, estimated
Spain averaged $108 million a year, and a record level
6t)0,000 metric tons.
In the past
Spain has been a cash customer for U.S. cotton,
1964 and 25,000
Also, the expected shortage of certain staple lengths
drought affected the country’s
and seems to indicate a brighter future for U.S. cotton.
netric tons. 8
pulse production last year was
This could result in Spain’s increasing
Ibeans, for in
14,000 metric tons, or two-thirds of
1964 amounted to 700 metric tons,
half the total.
Prospects to be watched
Spain offers opportunities for other products that the
well able to supply,
and tobacco and
already the third largest European buyer of U.S.
bean imports. I
year are seed grain, grass, and vegetable. Spain’s
with sorghum and safflower seed
from the United States, particularly dry both 1963 and 1964 the United States shipped
seed production last
percent from that of 1964, with dry beans at the lowest
level in 5 years.
types of seed most likely to be imported by
seed grain imports
imports from the United States totaled
over 45,0Q0 metric tons, or more than two-thirds of
should aid imports this year; also, the decrease in
European suppliers should
next 2 years, as
Larger imports can be expected
benefit U.S. exporters.
Breeding cattle, seed
$1.8 million in 1964, and the market
U.S. exports of hides and skins to Spain i
The Spanish market
for breecjing cattle
$1.6 million a year to import breeding cattle. ede.
calls for the
Spain has also been a leading importer of U.S. cigarettes.
compared with $1.8 million in 1964. Also, raw tobacco imports from the United States amounted to $2.7 million in the same 6-month period. Imports of at
half of 1965
The U.S. share has been 1963 some $60,000 worth of breeding
cigarettes are expected to continue because of tourist de-
were shipped to Spain. Spain’s seed market also appears to be good, since
Spanish Tobacco Monopoly was considering a tender of
small, although in rto[
Imports of cigarettes
1965, with reportedly orders for
expected to grow.
been the chief source, shipping nearly 2,000 head of Hol-
tobacco, at the end of
1,500 metric tons of U.S.
lapanese Face Critical Shortage
prices, growing consumer demand for and a drastic drop in cattle numbers are combining to create headaches for Japan’s livestock industry and agricultural planners. Average quality beef is now wholesaling for around 65 cents per pound in Tokyo, and retail prices are around $1.25 per pound. Even at these
prices, supplies are
the Japanese hunger
and beef imports are growing.
beef, or Sendai beef, this
tractors to replace bovine draft
1960’s set a
was farm power.
Japanese people have been eating meat for over a 100 years, but until a
few years ago meat supplied a minor share
The number of draft and beef animals on farms is falling at a rapid rate. Meat dealers, unable to meet the demands of customers, have made strong com-
because of the shortage of beef.
Steady decrease of cattle numbers )lc
In 1956 the number of draft and beef animals on farms reached a peak of 2.7 million head. By early 1965, this
number had 1966,
million head, and as of early
was probably around
nothing to indicate a halt
caused by mechanization
factor that has prevented
more rapid depletion of
instead of a cycle in
Japan’s agricultural planners early in the
goal for 2.5 million head of beef animals on farms in 1971.
of their protein consumption. In recent years
animals, the traditional source of animals for beef production
and beef cattle. In 1956 cows and heifers on farms, but by 1965 this number had reached 1.3 million head. A large share of the bull offspring produced by Japan’s predominantly Holstein herds is fattened and in
there were 0.5 million head of dairy
of dairy cows on farms has climbed almost as
rapidly as the decline
$4.00 to $5.00 per pound, and even at these prices sup-
Tractors are the underlying cause of the problem.
the growing supply of dairy animals for slaughter.
plies are short.
depending on the area of production,
At the time the goal was announced, there were 2.3 million head of native draft and beef cattle, known locally as Wagyu. For several hundred years the sole purpose of
Japan has traditionally produced an expensive beef to meet a carriage-trade type demand for quality. Known
Domestic Beef Supply
meat has skyrocketed, and the average Japanese has the money to buy meat and other items which used to be luxuries. The average income for urban families in 1960 was about $115 per month and all food cost about $35. By 1965 this had grown to around $190 for income, and food costs were around $50 a month. In 1960, the average monthly family purchases of meat were only $2.45. By 1965, this had grown to almost $5.50. (Meat includes beef, pork, chicken, and processed meat products.) Annual beef consumption jumped from 2.5 pounds per person to almost 4 pounds during the 1960-65 period. There is little doubt that much more beef would have been consumed in 1965 if prices had not been so high. the Japanese appetite for
The Japanese Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry reannounced plans to spur beef production. Among the various devices to be employed are: The establishment cently
hand, pressure from consumers for more beef
and the only way more beef can be made immediately available
through larger imports.
Beef imports are controlled through a system of import
feeding at stabilized prices; loans to individual farmers to
few years, these allocations have, been mainly for processing beef, averaging around 5,000
purchase animals for fattening; and longer term loans to cooperative groups to purchase breeding stock.
cations totaled almost 10,000 metric tons, but this
100 head of cattle
These plans may have the effect of slightly slowing the downtrend in cattle numbers. However, they are unlikely to result in any major improvement in the growing beef problem. Japanese-type cattle are slow and inefficient as feed converters to fill the growing demand for beef. Some selection and breeding work has been done with notable achievements, but the basic beef-type animal
developed from Wagyu.
metric tons a year.
and the Livestock Development Corporation
use a share to improve the domestic livestock industry.
World Cotton Crop at Alltime High
-With Big Gain
million bales (480
than the record
set last year.
net), about 0.2 million higher
This crop was grown on an
more than remains the same as
area of 82.1 million acres, about a half million
The world average
— 305 pounds per
decline of 0.2
United States, the crop, only about
a semi-governmental organization set
short of last season’s 625,000
4 j !
Spain’s harvest is expected to total around 350,000 bales, only slightly below last season but well under the record of 517,000 bales produced in 1962-63.
Turkey’s cotton crop, is
Soviet crop larger in
the crop reportedly reached 8.7 million
estimated at 1.4 million bales,
with Syria’s, at 750,000 bales, is
placed at an alltime high of 625,000
an increase of almost one-fifth; and
Free World output was offset by gains
million from the record outturn of 1964-65,
the cotton crop
over 15 million bales,
was produced on a smaller acreage. The average yield estimated at 531 pounds per acre, an increase of 14 pounds over last year's record.
about the same as that of the previous
year, but Argentina’s
estimated at 575,000 bales,
In Greece, the crop, now estimated at 330,000 bales, is up 20,000 bales from a year ago but substantially below
percent smaller than
estimated at 22.7 million
Mediterranean Basin crops
the countries of the Free World, excluding the
United States, cotton output bales,
The Beef Wholesalers Assomoney to improve marketing
age and promote Japan’s livestock economy.
World cotton production
nese beef producers from imported beef so that they would expand operations, and some have responded. On the other
meat for direct distribution to consumers. Previously, imports were mostly brisket from Australia. In the most recent import allocation for 2,500 metric tons of beef, the government announced that about 10 cents per pound would be collected for promotion of the
better cuts of
elation will get a share of the
The Japanese Government has given protection
1965 allocation included
in recent years, the
domestic livestock industry.
Beef producers protected
about 40,000 head of native
In the last
harvested about 95,000 bales from 43,000 acres, had the highest national yield in the world. ^
an increase of 0.5 million from
record crop was harvested from an area no larger than in 1964-65, despite a shortage of irrigation water.
procurement price for cotton apparently caused farm workdo a more efficient harvesting job.
ton this season than larger; yields,
probably harvest slightly more cot-
believed to be
very likely be lower because
of less favorable growing conditions. Latin
African production mounting
to last year's outturn.
nearly 200. 000 bales below the 3.8 million harvested season.
below the Page 8
currently placed at
and represents the
This larger output
expanded acreage and higher yields. Although little information is available on the UAR’s crop, it will probably account for about one-half of total African output. In Sudan, the 1965-66 crop reportedly
excellent progress, and despite a small acreage
5 million bales.
0.5 million larger than last year
near as large as
estimated at 5.1 million bales.
time that production on the African Continent has
American countries El Salvador, Nicaragua, and Guatemala the rapid production rise of recent years was reversed. Only in Guatemala was the crop anywhere the Central
million bales of last year, while Peru's crop
The cotton crop in India is now estimated at down 0.6 million from last season and 1961-62
1.7 million last
largely because of shortage of moisture in
the Central Belt during the growing season. stan, this year's
1.9 million bales,
season and second only to the coun-
record of 1.94 million bales
1963-64. Foreign Agriculture
Japanese Team Sees U.S. Poultry Production and Processing Areas A
interested in importing
wound up an
and using U.S. poultry have
inspection tour of production, process-
and merchandising facilities in the United States. During their 2-week trip, the importers, processors,
wholesale and parts of
and restaurateurs from all own expense had an
traveling at their
opportunity to see the efficiency of U.S. poultry operations
and the wide variety of U.S. poultry products and types of packaging available to them.
The tour was organized by the Tokyo office of the InstiAmerican Poultry Industries, which administers the
Top, U.S. Undersecretary of Agriculture John A. Schnittker
greets Japanese poultry team; above
for the U.S. poultry industry’s International Trade Development Board. Accompanying the group were an official from the Japanese Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, two members of lAPFs Tokyo staff, and a mem-
ber of the U.S. Agricultural Attache’s
the Japanese trade and
Jiro Higurashi, industry official
Administrator, with Hiroyoshi Kikuzaki and
team leaders, and Setsuo Kosaka,
of Japan's Ministry of Agriculture
from Japan also traveled with the team. Highlight of the trip was lAPI’s annual Fact Finding Conference in Kansas City, Mo., attended hy representa-
Sandwich Project Sells U.S. Wheat
press, a journalist
tives of all
phases of U.S. poultry processing, as well as by
During the 3-day conference, all types of equipment from firms servicing the poultry industry were exhibited. The group toured two major poultry producing and processing areas Modesto, Calif., and Atlanta, Ga. In Chicago, the itinerary included supermarkets and restaurants, to see how poultry reaches the ultimate consumer, and conferences with officials at lAPl’s main office. USDA officials and Congressional leaders met with the team in Washington. D.C. S.
exporters of poultry products.
Some members U.S.
largest export in
and poultry products March
1961, U.S. 10.6
in 1964 and another 6 percent, to .2 million, last Despite a growing domestic poultry industry, imports
are expected to continue large as
to larger bread sales for participat-
up the image of U.S. wheat
Japanese baking industry.
joint venture of
the Japan Baking
featured seminars, lectures, demonstrations, and samplings at
31 in Osaka,
among retailers and the press, and informed consumers of the nutrition and convenience offered. As a result, what started as a -day program at the U.S. Trade Center in Tokyo back in 1964 and was expanded to a 6-month pilot project in three cities may be extended veloped an interest
than 250.000 pounds
an effective means of increasing bread consumption, de-
exports of frozen poultry to Japan rose to
one of the U.S. poultry industry's
gram has contributed
Japan show the pro-
pilot project for in
A booklet of 30 sandwich recipes and newspaper advertising were also used in the campaign. The project has convinced hakers that sandwiches are
of the team were also interested
Recent evaluations of a American-style sandwiches
consumption of poultry
food industries such as producers of spreads, sandwich fillings,
dairy products, and coffee.
U.S. Cotton’s 1966-67 Prospects in Europe
consumer goods. Denmark is one of its two spinning mills
because of an acute labor shortage;
Good as Stocks Dwindle This Buying Season marketing
Glenn Tussey reports here on his recent on-the-spot market analysis of 10
over half the 1963-64 level of 1,568,-
and the U.S. market share
was exceedfrom 50 percent of the 25 percent. In West Ger-
In France, the decline
and Sweden, also troubled by labor shortages and high wages, expects to lose four of its eight mills by 1970. West Germany, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and Austria have maintained cotton textile produc-
major cotton-importing nations in West Germany, Western Europe: France, and the United Kingdom
tion at about average levels, but here
(second, third, and fourth biggest im-
biggest of the cotton markets
the U.S. share
20 percent from 25, while
The one notable exception is Norway, where business was found to be Orders are holding up, demand
exports of cotton to that country were
48 percent. In Belgium, U.S. trade was off 55 percent.
pervading the West European cotton
U.S. markets held up fairly well in
market, while painful to U.S. cotton
Sweden and Norway, both countries
augurs well for purchases
buying over 80 percent U.S. cotton. The low-quality cotton used predomi-
labor shortage, though mills are hav-
Finland, and Austria.
once the new U.S. cotton legislation goes into effect in the 1966-67 season.
With European buyers
sitting tight to
gage the law’s impact on U.S. prices
and those of have dropped
to the point
next season in most countries visited.
was available from the
usage of raw cotto'n in Europe
have been the inroads of manmade fibers and the high production costs, developing countries, for
in relation to
cotton yarns and gray goods.
U.S. price flexibility
Most sources lation
and enhance the U.S.
Also providing opti-
of Europe. for
provide more U.S. cotton
revamped market development program for cotton in Western Europe that is getting more support from the European cotton industry. Working for U.S. cotton too is the availability of
poration credit toward
nations visited, rates are running well
extend favorable credit
of U.S. cotton.
uncommon, importers can cotton at about 5
of cotton to the
at least partially relieved in
near future and U.S. cotton’s position
continues to extend
move out of cotton spinmore sophisticated and more
with individual firms in
turn has meant
increased European imports of cotton
and the basic constructions of
cotton cloth and corresponding reductions in takings of
of our European raw cotton markets
was about the same
dampened by textile
as for 1964,
textile crisis of
In Belgium, cotton textiles
summer mainly because
of heavy competition from imported
and lack of consumer
cotton as a result of the cool, wet last
Other countries experiencing difficulties
Denmark, and Sweden. trouble
spinning industries possess-
obtaining cooperation of
from the good
image imparted by cooperating firms while
have become fused with
CCI’s goal of expanding cotton
1965 have been compared
by some to the
cases, taking the
ing a variety of fiber loyalties.
severe drop in textile production
has occurred in France
of campaigns carried on with
Textile production falters
from These are supple-
cutters to retailers. or, in
highly capitalized operations of design
ern Europe this season.
Spurred by the general feeling that slowness
exotic growths, declines appear immi-
nent for U.S. cotton exports to West-
Market development strengthened
The new format now revised to permit more flexibility calls for pro-
reoriented program for cotton market
areas in their recruitment programs.
European spinning industries to compete in the textile market with low-wage exporters of cotton goods,
buying only for their needs and mainly from
Export-Import Bank loan.
had no great
as yet has
increased costs have reduced the ability
interest rates considerably
are working over two shifts.
Big contributors to the mill
good, though prices have
priced Russian textiles as well as from
This program extent in
nations visited except Fin-
land and dominates CCI’s market de-
France, the United Kingdom, Sweden,
Norway, and Denmark. It centers around use of the cotton emblem to denote
and performance. Cornerstone of the program is promotion of men’s leisure wear, rainwear. perior
Throngs at U.S. exhibit
President and Mrs. Luebke
Record Crowds Visit “Sunland USA” at International Green Week Continuous Hawaiian and Dixieland entertainment, thatched
Some booths exhausted
President and Mrs. Heinrich Luebke,
anticipated for the 8-day event.
Green Week. Virtually none of the fair's 476,000 visitors 15.000 more than last year missed the U.S. Marshall House
West Germany, where there are 80 firms using the emblem, the
1966 campaign with
tied in with
mainly through posters and publications.
analyze the results of this
market research techniques similar to those used under the Netherlands' pilot with one
measure attitudes of 2,000 homemakers toward promotional efforts. In France, industry cooperators participating in the
1966 advertising camthree
household uses, manufacturers of canvas awnings, and about nine manufacof clothing.
will participate in
parallel actions con-
and there will be two 2-week campaigns by retailers. furnishings, home In Sweden, women’s summer and leisure wear, casual cottons, and rainwear are get-
ting the lion’s share of attention, with
number In Denmark and Norway,
1966 industry partners from these two countries and Sweden are expected to participate in the rainwear project of
on promotion through institutional groups are Belgium, Austria, the Netherlands, and heavily
are at an in-between stage and those in
the latter entirely with institutional
Now in its second year, the pilot project undertaken in the Netherlands by CCI and the Dutch Cotton Institute continues to show impressive results: A research team hired to analyze the
promoting the use of
beforehand and followup market
search plus intensive use of advertising,
Berlin's three largest dailies fea-
Mayor Willy Brandt
cutting the ribbon at "Sunland."
Flaxseed and Linseed
Exports Under PIK Eased The Commodity Credit Corporation export sales program for flaxseed ano linseed oils has been revised to permit greater flexibility for exporters.
similar promotions elsewhere.
export sales be registered
CCC. Under will
flaxseed and linseed oil at export pay-
tured photos of
office in Oslo.
broadened to include more
firms and a stronger budget.
heavy, especially on opening day
of participating firms.
also did capacity business.
Offering traditional American main-
kiki" restaurant served
land and Hawaiian dishes, the “Wai-
Agriculture, Feb. 28,
importers of U.S. foods reported sales
peanut butter, and canned
climbed 300-400 percent higher than
and kitchen demonstrations atrecord crowds to "Sunland USA," American food exhibit at West
announced weekly by CCC. program will
In other respects, the
to the differ-
ence between domestic and world market prices, with consideration given to
marketing cost factors will be made transferable payment-in-kind cerin
which are redeemable in CCC commodities offered for export sale. Since April 15, 1965, about 5 million bushels of flaxseed and 64 million tificates
pounds of linseed
have been con-
tracted for export. Page 11
A N D
Record Year for Japanese Soybean Imports
Japan’s imports of soybeans reached a record high in 1965, while imports of soybean cake and meal rose sharply from those of a year earlier. In contrast, imports of safflowerseed declined sharply.
Imports of soybeans,
million metric tons
were 15 percent above those of 1964. While imports from the United States, at a record 1.5 million tons (53.8 mil. bu.), rose 11 percent or 142,000 tons, the relatively small tonnage from other countries, largely Mainbu.
a value standpoint, soybeans
for the third suc-
from the United States, exceeding both cotton and wheat. of soybean imports from the United States was a record $179 million compared with the previous record in 1964 of $154 million. Some of the larger volume of soybean imports tends to be offset by the changing price-supply situation between soybeans and safflowerseed, which have been used interchangeably in Japan for crushing purposes. Imports of safflowerseed, virtually all from the United States, declined to 113,440 tons from the 1964 imports of
U.S. Trade in Oils and Oilseeds Hits U.S.
exports of oilseeds, largely
somewhat over 1964
substantially smaller than they
Exports of soybeans were more than IVi times the averExports of
peanuts, although relatively small, gained sharply in 1965 to
more than double
previous year’s tonnage.
increase reflected larger availabilities
to the continu-
1,000 metric tons
1,000 metric tons
Soybean cake and meal: Total
Customs Bureau, Ministry of Finance.
AND OIL-BEARING MATERIALS 1965
tons 1,963 2,011
33,539 3,128 42,564 198,570 48,197 14,575 29,437
age annual exports during the 1955-59 period.
SOYBEAN MEAL IMPORTS
JAPAN’S SOYBEAN, SAFFLOWERSEED,
the 5-year period
1965, the U.S. shipping strike
attempt to stabilize prices.
Imports of oil-bearing
in U.S. output.
highs in 1965 because of strong foreign
caused a shortage of soybean meal because U.S. beans for crushing were in short supply. As meal prices rose, the
Soybean cake and meal imports, also virtually all from almost 3V2 times the United States, rose to 46,320 tons
the 1964 tonnage and second only to the 56,355 tons im-
land China, rose 34 percent or 98,000 tons. cessive year
E T S
Palm Palm kernel Coconut Castor
25.856 94,329 50,545 13,319 23,839
0 2,242 22,716 3,278 41,549 201,199 64,738 11,634 38,553
—2 + + 34 1
ing uptrend in yields.
the tapping of
Increased exports also resulted from
new markets. Safflowerseed
were not separately classified prior to 1965, are estimated to have declined by about one-fifth that year compared with
overall outlook for continued expansion of oilseed is
oils also declined.
exports in 1965 were
Imports of vegetable and marine general
heavier imports of castor, coconut, and sperm
645,887 340,082 40.664 958 9,552 75,735
307,466 12,745 565
Cottonseed Peanut Linseed Fish
4,663 4,379 40,343 63,908 2,684
608,316 282,369 30,685 2,062 20,868 51,904 358
Cottonseed Peanuts, shelled"
sharply above those in the 2 previous years yet markedly below those of the 1950’s.
329,101 6,809 20,350
+ 12 +3 + 33
from the United States in 1965 declined somewhat from the large volume of 1964. The decline was accounted for largely by reduced movements of cottonseed and soybean oils. The relatively small exports of fish and Exports of
those of 1964, in reflection of reduced availabilities.
11,660 15,988 “32,604
8,674 40,751 “241.996
1,000 hii. 86.437 7,299
1.000 hn. 209,507 6,947
5,306 84.823 (')
185,402 1,000 hit. 227,660 3,925
—6 —17 —25
+ 115 + 118 —31 —24
"Includes exports of edible grade peanuts. ’Preliminary. “Largely safflowerseed. 'Quantity figure not reported by the bu.=60 lb. Census. “Not separately classified. “Estimated. I
partly offset by reduced imports of olive
1965 U.S. Tallow and Grease Exports Down
FEO Fishmeal Production and Exports Decline Production and exports of fishmeal by the
counrties of the Fishmeal Exporters Organization
1965 declined by 8 and
member (FEO) from
produced and exported in 1964. countries account for over 90 percent of the world's exports of fishmeal. Exports from Peru, the leading producer, declined, as did those from Chile. Dethe quantities
however, were partly
U.S. exports of inedible tallow and greases totaled 2.1 billion
1965, valued at $191 million.
of 7 percent
the value of exports.
EXPORTS OF INEDIBLE TALLOW AND GREASES"
Continent and country
from Norway and Iceland. The overall decline was reflected in reduced movements to the United States and the
European Economic Community. Prospects for exports this year indicate a further decline
22,246 30,974 4,626
1,023 19,792 16,329
7,829 10,059 20,094 4,468 24,577
Angola Chile Iceland
Norway Peru South Africa Total
short tons 65.8 159.3 140.8
short tons 36.2 102.3 105.9 133.3 1,235.5 221.8
tons 34.7 119.3 96.7 145.7 1,277.8 262.3
Colombia Ecuador Peru Venezuela Other Total
80.3 78.2 68.0
short tons "33.2 70.1 145.0
Gazette on February
9, the fish catch in the current fishing
1965, and will close on June 30, of the 1966-67 season,
began on October
60 (immature as
42,454 86,332 269,575 227,664
21,653 14,885 86,490 179,750 237,225
35,202 29,007 104,795 180,117 263,041
12,325 33,177 70,668 115,286 206,812
6,375 1,728 1,822 24,797 14,273 17,165 42,925
8,795 2,594 4,078 108,434
57,326 63,247 121,967 12,989 24,365
6,989 112 4,431 91,811 45,811 81,824 94,964 34,901 26,728
15,468 117,304 29,231 22,092
South Africa, Rep. of Other
23,499 42 13,724 258,807 18,589 8,410 14,846 9,114 7,848
43,770 357,965 30,481 58,285 21,952 46,742 13,352
31,019 456,393 42,993 60,630 19,882 64,716 8,250
38,645 90,993 27,969 465,303 34,158 34,083 13,898 14,192 9,305
million tons a season.
1,879,027 2,408,102 2,123,614
Includes inedible tallow animal greases and oleic acid or red oil and stearic acid.
Japan Korea, Rep. of
exports last year totaled 1,260,000 tons against 1,416,500 1
amounted to about 98,900 tons against 123,800 tons in the comparable month of the previous year. Calendar year tons in
Total Peruvian fishmeal produc-
expected to be about
reported that on
estimated at 2.06 million tons, from which 388,989 tons of is
30,738 29,133 53,089 30,035 3,866
catch in the September-December period was
19,775 24,167 23,080 13,327 2,049
5,176 103 21,703 20,761 30,200 15,446 631
says the production limit has been reached
fishmeal were produced.
and apparently considers overfishing an important factor.
open next October
industry and the government are seriously
not yet been determined.
season will be limited to 7.0 million metric tons of anchoveta.
Poland Yugoslavia Other
2,726 124,011 37,395 22,409 77,283 24,946 19,923
Spain Switzerland United Kingdom
to a decree published in the
Peru Imposes Fishing Limitations According
1,525 19,575 11,191 8,888
short tons 60.0 160.9 138.9 201.5 1,572.3
short tons 33.1 95.7 109.2 114.7 1,278.3
Peru South Africa
1,000 short tons 35.9
FISHMEAL EXPORTS BY FEO COUNTRIES 1962
South America: Argentina
Fishmeal Exporters Organization, Paris France.
3,443 7,856 34,830 9,237
short tons 49.1 77.6 190.7 340.7
FISHMEAL PRODUCTION BY FEO COUNTRIES
pounds North America; Canada.
from Peru. Total exports could also diminish.
The volume However,
the price rise during the year resulted in an overall gain
by heavier movements
of exports was 12 percent below the 1964 total.
Includes shipments to Oceania.
Foreign Agricultural Service. U.S. Department of Commerce.
Compiled from reports of the
large part of the drop in exports
the drop in shipments of inedible greases,
Grease exports in 1965 fell to just over 100 million pounds, whereas they were 275 million pounds in 1964. The major buyers (Peru, the all took considerably less than Netherlands, and Japan Peru halved its purchases; Japan cut its buying in 1964. products of pork production.
share of that market dropped from 89 percent in 1964
With lard output in the United States forecast to continue below normal at least until fall, exports; in 1966 will probably remain at a relatively low level. Ir' addition, total Western European output will probably
level off or contract
during the year, resulting
world lard trade.
by 20 percent, while the Netherlands took only 8 percent
of the quantity taken in 1964. in 1965 were down about 5 pounds against 1,995 million pounds in 1964). Part of the drop in tallow exports was the result of reduced shipments under Food for Peace Program. The large Title I program exports to India partially offset the drop in P.L. 480 shipments to the UAR, Pakistan, Korea, Turkey, and Taiwan. Exports to the USSR were the heaviest since 1961, while those to the EEC were well below average. Japan again increased its buying of U.S. tallow and continued to
Inedible tallow exports
be the largest buyer.
French Butter Exports Decline France’s butter exports in the
Exports of lard from the United States totaled 251 mil-
pounds in 1965, down 63 percent from the unusually large (682 million lb.) exports of 1964. Only 203 million pounds were shipped to the U.K. market, a small part of the 550 million pounds shipped in the previous year. There are no other major lard markets, but lion
even most small markets took significantly
same period of
months of 1965
the preceding year.
markets except the
to all of the principal
United Kingdom and Switzerland.
The United Kingdom
took 21 million pounds (compared with 19 million a year ago),
and Switzerland, 2 million pounds
Trade with West Germany was down to 13 million pounds from 15 million, and that with Italy to 9 million pounds from 13 million. Sales to Algeria declined 5 million,
56 million pounds
pounds U.S. Lard Exports
to 3 million.
Considerably smaller shipments were
Morocco, Tunisia, Senegal, and Malagasy.
During January-November 1965, France’s imports ofl 38 million pounds were more than five times those of a year earlier. The United States shipped almost 25 million pounds. West Germany 9 million, the Nether-' lands and Argentina most of the remainder. butter
Ecuador Produces Record Pyrethrum Crop
during 1965. U.S. production dropped and prices were higher in 1965
because of the reduced hog slaughter. Concurrently, European production rose to cyclical peaks and most countries had export surpluses. Italy exported more than 20 million pounds to the United Kingdom, whereas it had exported
Belgium, long a minor ex-
porting country, shipped in excess of 100 million pounds
U.K. market during the year, probably from imported raw materials obtained elsewhere in Europe.
Ecuador's pyrethrum production during
1964 harvest and four times as great as the 1961 crop.
The acreage under pyrethrum rapidly in recent years, rising
EXPORTS OF LARD, INCLUDING RENDERED PORK FAT
from 3,700 acres
14,500 acres by 1965.
Exports of pyrethrum extract and flowers also reached record levels during foreign exchange. the
the record level of 2,003 metric tons, up 180 tons over the
1965, earning nearly
States buys nearly
while Argentina and Japan
largest recipients of the flower shipments.
pounds pounds pounds pounds pounds 216 350 436 550 203
Canada Mexico Haiti
Panama Japan Bolivia Brazil
Yugoslavia Czechoslovakia Chile China, Taiwan
Cuba Other countries
— — 1
15 7 7 18
2 16 19
'Less than 500,000 pounds.
Because of higher lard prices and the ease with which substitute fats and oils replace lard in the manufacture of
and margarine, the U.K. lard market conMoreover, the U.S.
tracted by nearly one-fourth in 1965.
1965 totaled 503.2
million pounds, up 4 percent over the 1964 crop, and ex-
ceeding the record 1963 outturn by 18.6 million pounds. |
market during 1965, accounting for 41 percent of the U. S. tea imports of 130.3 million pounds valued at States
— — — —
Ceylon’s Tea Crop Breaks Record
Antigua Sugar Production at Low Level Production of sugar level of
about 16,000 short tons.
only about half
of the production reached during the middle 1950's. of rainfall
the primary reason given for the decline.
declare that with
drought conditions have prevailed since 1958. It
moisture, sugar production could return to
work has already commenced under
which now requires 45-50,000 short
Colonial Development and Welfare aid from the United
tons of raw nuts annually,
dams for the collection of surface water is already underway using these funds. An expenditure of $5.5 million (BWI), or US$3.25
13,000 tons in the southern region instead of the normal
Kingdom; construction of
a series of
has been proposed in the country-wide develop-
1966-70; however, this has not yet been
Antigua has an assured sugar market
44-46,000. Shelters indicate that they might go as far as Tanzania
raw nuts if they are unable to get sufficient supplies from the northern region of Mozambique. The shortage
along with strong Indian
raw nut prices
faced with a crop of only
levels for the local shelling
Kenya's Tea Crop
Tea production in Kenya Africa’s largest tea producer during 1965 amounted to 43.7 million pounds, down slightly from the record 1964 outturn of 44.6 million be-
Ontario Concludes Flue-cured Auctions Auctiop
Ontario, Canada, amounted to 129.9 million
cause of lack of sufficient rainfall.
an average price of 65.6 Canadian cents per
However, both Uganda and Tanzania were less affected by the drought, and were able to maintain increases during 1965. Uganda and Tanzania produced 18.5 million and
pounds, respectively, against crops of
pounds during 1964.
million and 10.6 million
that date, slightly over 83 percent of the
crop had been sold. harvest
the earlier forecast
The current estimate of the 1965 compared with of 162.8 million. If the volume of 155.9 million pounds,
daily sales continues, the marketing of the 1965 crop will
very likely be completed during the week ending
Netherlands Expands Use of Hop Extract
weight of raw hops
the brewing process, but be-
cause of a higher efficiency in extraction and utilization of essential components,
takes only 2.5 to 5 pounds of
hops to make a pound of the extract.
week ended February
Sales for the 12th
The amount used
11 totaled 11.6
million pounds, at an average price of 68.1 Canadian cents
This average price compares with 68.0 cents
week, 72.2 for the 10th week, and 72.4 for the 9th week. During the 9th week, a new daily high average for the
January 24, 1966.
depends on the strength of extract desired and the resin content of the hops used.
While imports of raw hops have increased 48 percent the past 10 years, extract imports have climbed from 317,000 pounds
marketing season. These extracts $2.00 per pound
usually valued at $1.50-
imported mostly from West Ger-
many. However, over 70 percent of the hops used to make from the United States.
the extract are imported
extracts in other areas
likely to hasten
Mexico To Subsidize Cotton Producers Cotton growers
1.58 cents per
pound of cotton exported. In 1966-67, the
export tax will remain in force; however, producers will
be subsidized to the extent of 97.7 percent of the tax.
The Mexican Government has concurrently announced
the establishment of a national union of cotton producers.
and increase the demand for U.S.
membership in the union and only those producers who become members will be
All producers will be eligible for
nues from cotton exports.
Hurricane damage to Mozambique’s southern region has
1966 cashew crop to an estimated nuts.
According tion of feed
ments totaled 137,000 tons with India taking 134,500.
Exports of cashew kernels were not up as pected totaled
During January-August 1965 kernel
2,700 tons compared with 2,300 tons during the
Expectations for 1966 kernel sales
are clouded by the uncertainty of the
raw nut supply.
The hurricane damage to the crop has caused the newly mechanized and expanded shelling industry serious conMarch
likely that these develop-
flexibility in its
Peru's Feed Production Forecast Higher
months of 1965, Mozambique exported only 74,500 tons, of which 65,800 went to India. During the entire year 1964, shipDuring the
Partly as the result of the smaller crop, 1965 exports of off sharply.
net effect of the
sharply from the
1965 crop, now estimated at 132,000 tons. An alltime world record crop of 165,000 tons was harvested in 1964.
raw nuts were
subsidy payment will be a reduction
Mozambique Has Short Cashew Crop
Exporters pay a duty of
tax currently in effect on cotton.
eligible for subsidy
short tons of
hops, which are superior for extracting purposes.
Mexico, effective with the
crop, will receive a government subsidy to offset the export
processor forecasts, Peru’s
concentrates and is
reach 490,000 metric tons (330,000 of
160,000 of nonconcentrated feed).
a 22-percent increase over the 1965 estimate of
1964 estimate of
350,000. Increases in
1965 and again
the opening of a
the poultry industry.
of concentrated poultry industry.
1966 are attributed to
feed mill and the rapidly growing
the total production
about 70 percent is used by the Most of the balance goes to dairy cattle.
Processors have shown interest
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
POSTAGE AND FEES PAID DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
your address or stop mailing, sheet and send to Foreign Agricultural Service, U.S. Dept, of Agriculture, Rm. 5918, Washington, D.C. 20250. off
Canada’s 55 percent. To the EEC market went 18 percent commercial U.S. wheat exports, for a quarter-share
the World Picture
(Continued from page 4) role
These stocks have made a suband prices
stantial contribution to the stability of supplies in
the only other country that
has consistently carried a sizable
States, although the front-ranking exporter
of wheat in the world, generally ranks second and some-
times even third in the magnitude of
In 1964-65, even France equaled the U.S.
of 4.4 million metric tons.
the United burden of supplying wheat to developing countries on a noncommercial basis. In fiscal 1962-64, for example, our noncommercial excontrast
case in point.
India with over 30 million tons of wheat and wheat flour
government program basis from the start of P.L. 480 in 1954 to July I, 1965. Though India was a part of the British Empire in the past and is still a member of the Commonwealth, wheat contributions by Canada, Australia, and the United Kingdom have been minor in comparison with that of the United States and with India’s overwhelma
quarters after the defeat of the U.S. wheat referendum in
1963 confirms the nearly universal realization that a free wheat market in the United States would have serious implications for all participants in the international wheat market.
WORLD CROPS AND MARKETS INDEX Cotton 15
Mexico To Subsidize Cotton Producers
12 13 13 13
In 1962-64, Japan
markets varies by 1
U.S. wheat mar-
took more than a fourth of the U.S. wheat exported commercially, and relied on the United States for about ket
program encompassing acreage and production restraints, stocking, sales under government programs, and price supports. All these have an important beneficial influence on stabilizing prices and supplies in
Record Year for Japanese Soybean Imports U.S. Trade in Oils and Oilseeds Hits New High in 1965 FEO Fishmeal Production and Exports Decline
Peru Imposes Fishing Limitations 1965 U.S. Tallow and Grease Exports
Dairy and Poultry
overlooked the fact that subsidies and quotas are
integral parts of the larger
compared with Canada's one-third. The United States has often been criticized by other countries for using export subsidies and import quotas in carrying out its wheat program. Such criticisms have gen-
its wheat purchases. The United Kingdom took only 4 percent of the commercial U.S. exports; the U.S. share of that market was only 6 percent compared with
French Butter Exports Decline
Netherlands Expands Use of Hop Extract Mozambique Has Short Cashew Crop j
Grain and Feed Division 15
Peru’s Feed Production Forecast Higher
Livestock and 14
U.S. Lard Exports
Canada. Most of Canada’s and Australia’s to Mainland China. Page 16
Ontario Concludes Flue-cured Auctions
Sugar and Tropical Products 14 14 14 15
Tobacco 1 International Wheat Commission. Review of World Wheat Situation, 1963/64 and 1964/65. Quantities shown do not include sales for credit, amounting to 700,000 tons for the United States, 1.7 million for Australia, and 2.5 million for
Ecuador Produces Record Pyrethrum Crop Ceylon’s Tea Crop Breaks Record
Antigua Sugar Production at Low Level Kenya’s Tea Crop Down Slightly