Foreign agriculture :weekly magazine of the United States Department of Agriculture, Foreign Agricultural Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture

Historic, Do not Archive Document assume content scientific knowledge, reflects current policies, or practices. ^_.^^^BRUARY 22, 1965 PRE...

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Historic,

Do

not

Archive Document

assume content

scientific

knowledge,

reflects current

policies, or practices.

^_.^^^BRUARY

22,

1965

PRESIDENT JOHNSON'S

AGRICULTURAL MESSAGE

FOREIGN MARKET FOR FRUIT

EEC

NOW APPLYING

NEW DAIRY POLICY

FOREIGN AGRICULTURE Including

FOREIGN CROPS

AND MARKETS

A WEEKLY MAGAZINE OF THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN AGRICULTURAL SERVICE

FOREKN AGRICULTURE Including

FEBRUARY 22. 1965

FOREIGN CROPS AND MARKETS

VOL

NUMBER



ill

8

Contents President Johnson on

3

Agricultural Trade and Food as a

Indian

workmen passing rock up

scaffolding at construction of

Durgapur Barrage, in country’s Damodar Valley. Photo was supplied by the World Bank. Others showing how the face of India is changing appear on page 9.

Now

Common

Weapon

4

EEC

6

Brazil’s

7

The Foreign Market for U.S. Fresh and Processed Fruits

9

The Face of India After 15 Years as

10-11

Applying

Dairy Regulations

Wheat Imports Mount But Prices Climb Too

a Republic

Market Development Philippine Importers Decide on American

Brahman

For Cattle Program, Reports U.S. Marketing

Chilean

Team

Inspects Herefords

Cattle to Italy

U.S.

12

Still

Duty-Free

Cheese Exhibited

in

World Crops and Markets Grains, Feeds, Pulses, and Seeds

Ecuador To Have Dairy Training Center

12

Venezuela Reduces Import Duties on Beans, Peas Japan May Purchase Rice From Communist China Brazil Expects Record 1965 Bean Har-

12

vest Switzerland’s Rice

12 12

Oilseeds, and Oils

Fats,

Shipments From Buenos Aires

13

Tung

14

Spain Suspends Import Duties on Soy-

Oil

beans 14

Japan’s

Imports of Chinese

Soybeans

12

and

Peanut

13 13 13

Canned don

15

Italy’s Fig

Fruit

and Juice Prices

in

Lon-

of

Meat Products Down

Argentine Beef Exports Decline U.K. Lard Imports Climb Australian

Meat Shipments

to the U.S.

Flue-cured Exports by Rhodesia, bia,

15

Production

Imports

1964

Tobacco

and Nuts

15 15

U.S. in

Argentine Sunflowerseed Area Increases

Fruits, Vegetables,

L.

Imports Decline

Livestock and Meat Products

To Increase 14

Japan

Major Japanese Cities

in

Dairy and Poultry Products

16

Team

Canada

in

Promotion for California Dates Stresses Baking Uses

First

Orville

Peace

for

Down

Zam-

Malawi

India’s

Flue-cured

Exports

Hit

New

High

Freeman, Secretary of Agriculture

Dorothy H. Jacobson, Assistant Secretary for International Affairs

Raymond

A.

loanes. Administrator, Foreign Agricultural Service

Editor: Alice Fray Nelson

Associate Editors: Ruth A. Oviatt

Kay

0. Patterson,

Janet

F.

Beal

Advisory Board: A. Minor, Chairman; Wilhelm Anderson, Horace J. Davis, John H. Dean, Robert 0. Link, Kenneth W. Olson, Donald M. Rubel.

W.

This magazine

is

published as a public service, and

its

F.

Leslie Erhardt, David L.

Hume,

content may be reprinted freely.

Foreign Agriculture is published weekly by the Foreign Agricultural Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 20250. Use of funds for printing this publication has been approved by the Director of the Bureau of the Budget (December 22, 1962). Yearly subscription rate is $7.00, domestic, $9.25 foreign; single copies are 20 cents. Orders should be sent to the Superintendent of Documents, Govern-

ment

Printing Office, Washington, D. C.

20401.

President Johnson on

Agricultural Trade

and Food as a

Weapon

for

Peace

The following remarks on our foreign agricultural trade and the Food for Peace Program were part of Johnsons Agricultural Message to Congress on February 4.

President

The welfare

of

American

product exports was reached

agriculture in 1964.

Our 1968

closely linked to foreign trade.

is

American farmers

goal of $6 billion farm

year accounted for one-fourth of U.S. mer-

last

chandise exports.

These exports have strengthened farm

prices,

brought additional business income, reduced our surAbroad, they have

pluses and storage costs, and have helped our international balance-of-payments.

contributed to political stability and economic progress.

We are not content with the gains we have made in world markets. We expect to make additional gains by improving the means by which we can be competitive in price, in quality, in service to our customers. We will merchandise our products actively, but with full regard to rules of commercial conduct between friendly nations.

In the trade negotiations under

way

Geneva, we

in

shall

make every

effort to achieve liberalization in

agricultural as well as industrial products.

The Food

for Peace

Program

is

powerful weapon for peace. People

good international policy and it is sound economic policy. Food is a who are hungry are weak allies of freedom. Men with empty stomachs

do not reason together.

We

broadened the Food for Peace Program last year and are continuing to study ways to broaden it Food shipments under this program help to expand it by building food habits which increase the demand for United States products. As the economies of recipient countries are strengthened through American aid, we are able to shift from outright grants of food to concessional sales for foreign currencies and later to sales for dollars. further.

Foreign currencies accruing from the sales of commodities under the Food for Peace Program have also provided funds for a worldwide market development program, which has played a significant role in bringing about the dramatic increases in commercial farm exports. This same program has also strengthened growing economies, contributed to rising standards of living, promoted international stability, and literally saved lives in many less developed countries. Our agricultural resources are thus making a significant contribution to the prospects for peace in the world.

These contributions must continue. They will be increasingly directed toward assisting agricultural development in less developed, densely populated countries, thus fostering overall economic growth, higher living standards, and better nutrition. The disturbing downward trends in food output per person in both Asia and Latin America in recent years must be reversed. And these trends can be arrested and reversed only by a massive mobilization of resources in both the food-deficit countries and the advanced countries of the industrial West.

As

I

pointed out in

my

message on Foreign Aid,

we must

use both our agricultural abundance and our

own feet. Under our Department of Agriculthe support and cooperation of

technical skills in agriculture to assist the developing nations to stand assistance

ture

and

programs we

will

make

in the land-grant colleges

full

and State

private agencies and enterprises of

To make

this

food aid most

use of the agricultural

all

effective,

universities.

We

know-how will enlist

on

their

in the

kinds.

we plan

the needs of recipient countries and their

to gear our Food for Peace programs more specifically economic development programs. We may need more flexiblity

to to

assure proper nutritional balance in these programs, particularly as they relate to child feeding. I

am

asking the Secretary of Agriculture and others concerned to study and

agricultural policy that

February 22, 1965

may

recommend changes

in

be needed to accomplish these goals. Page 3

Now

EEC By

ROLLAND

Common

Applying

Dairy Regulations

ANDERSON

E.

ing tabulation, together with preliminary figures on each

Dairy and Poultry Division Foreign Agricultural Service

country’s milk production in

Community’s

The European Economic Community’s Common Agri(CAP) for dairy products, which came into force last November 1, will enter its first complete milk marketing year this coming April 1. The new policy has

income through higher prices, stabilizing producer prices, and establishing free trade in dairy products within the Community. In principle, the policy has a fairly simple framework. Target producer prices are set for milk by each Member State, and variable import levies and export subsidies are

Country

Luxembourg Germany, West Belgium

_

Quantity

Percent of total

Mil. lb. 20,245

Percent

Dol. per 100 lb. 4.54 4.49 4.27 4.19 3.88 3.62

Italy

_

Netherlands France

share of the

its

1964 milk production’'

National target prices for milk

cultural Policy

three primary objectives: Raising farmer

1964 and

output:

total

Total

13.9

405

.3

45,900 8,540 14,865 55,735

31.5 5.9 10.2 38.2

145,690

100.0

Preliminary.



used to protect these domestic prices against competition

from outside the Community. Setting up the new market organization has been an extremely complicated matter, however, and its operation is likely to be complicated also, if only from the fact that

many

so

different products are involved.

To be governed

by the dairy regulations are milk and cream



fresh, pre-

served, concentrated, or sweetened; butter; cheese lactose;

and dairy products used

in

and curd;

Next step

system was the fixing of refer-

Community

prevailed in the tered

into

force.

other elements in

appeared

before the Dairy

The

1

group for whey powder, 2 for milk powder,

basic

EEC

group consists of a

regulation providing for the dairy mar-

by the Common Market countries nearly a year ago, on February 28, 1964; the system of levies, prices, and interventions that make the regulation operative took another 8 months to frame; and separate trading regulations on fresh milk and cream still are to be drawn up before July 1 this year. ket

organization was adopted

December

After a transition period ending there will be no direct internal

Two

prices.

remain.

which

One will

sources of is

support for

subsidies on exports to

allow

dairy

the internal market.

surpluses

The other

is

to

1969,

EEC

dairy

will,

however,

non-EEC

countries,

support

indirect

31,

be removed

from

the variable import levy

system, which will constitute an effective barrier to im-

from nonmember countries. These two instruments will combine to limit the supply of dairy products available for marketing within the Community and thereby act as an ports

indirect price support

program.

pilot product,

number of assimiNot inbutter, Cheddar cheese,

of the other products in the group, and a

cluded

and

with comparable characteristics.

products

lated

any of the 13 groups are

in

Tilsit cheese.

For each of the 13 dar cheese, and ucts



Tilsit

a reference

the

reflecting

pilot

products and for butter, Ched-

—but

price

not for the assimilated prod-

was

average price,

in

set

Member

each

factory,

f.o.b.

Foundation for the Dairy CAP’S price structure is the During the transition period, each Member country will fix its own target price which is the price it will attempt to pay its producers as a whole during the milk marketing year for total sales of fresh target price for milk.



milk containing 3.7 percent butterfat. Before the end of

Member States will move their target prices the common target price (still to be an-

nounced). This price entire

Community; and

will

State,

paid by the

wholesale trade to processors during 1963. This price was adjusted by a factory

per

to

pound

sum

for

Belgium, Luxembourg,

lands and 0.45 cent for the other

The

from

representing transportation costs

wholesale stage and amounting to 0.23 cent

and the Nether-

Member

States.

prices thus arrived at gave a fair reflection of

the various price support measures applied in each

how

Mem-

ber State in 1963 affected the dairy products concerned.

made

In addition, however, allowance was

for any changes

amounts

Because of the economic union between Belgium and Luxembourg to create a single market for all dairy products except butter and condensed milk, reference prices in Luxembourg were adjusted to of any dairy subsidies.

Target and reference prices

into line with

Each

for lactose.

1

considered representative

since 1963 in the national target prices and in the

the transition.

en-

them for the many individual dairy

in establishing

2 for condensed milk, 7 for cheese, and

Timetable of the new CAP

CAP

These prices depend on a number of the system, and a number of problems

products. For this reason, milk products were divided into 13 groups:

animal feeds.

in the pricing

ence prices, representing the internal market prices that

be the market price for the

the level at which

determine the effect that the Dairy

CAP

is

placed will

will

have upon

it

international trade in dairy products.

For the 1964-65 milk marketing year, the upper and lower limits of the national target prices were set by the EEC Council of Ministers at $4.76 and $3.61 per 100 pounds. The national target prices themselves, as fixed by the countries within these limits, are

shown

in the follow-

the Belgian level.

Minimum import

On

prices

the basis of these reference prices, each of the

munity’s

Member

Com-

States proceeded to establish threshold

prices for the same products. They do so again before March 15 in each year of the transition period. For the current dairy marketing year (which ends Mar. 31), the threshold prices are identical

(minimum import)

will

with the reference prices, except for certain changes to be explained. First, to create a

price levies

is

to

Community

increased by

preference, the threshold

a standard

countries outside of

in computing and reduced by the

amount

EEC

Foreign Agriculture

same amount in computing intra-Community levies. This amount, uniform for all Member States, is determined account

taking

annually,

within the

Community.

dairy-product

of

availabilities

intended to be large enough

It is

and orderly development towards a unimarket among the Member States during the transibut not so large as to provoke a sudden and tion period considerable diversion of trade currents. If intra-Community trade during the marketing year does not develop in the way envisaged, the standard amounts will be re-

GATT

in

in

conjunction with a

to insure gradual

ucts, therefore, the threshold price

fied

the



minimum

ple 48.9 cents

The

common

eventually

a

This price

will

commodities.

much

raised, to as

ing

Member

this

standard amount

may

be

as 3.4 cents, provided that the import-

country

port prices at a level

intervening on its markets to supmore than 2.27 cents below the ref-

is

erence price. Thus, the difference between the threshold price

and the intervention price could amount

to 6.8 cents

per pound, namely 3.4 cents on each side of the reference price.

This possible difference will be gradually reduced

during the transition period.

EEC THRESHOLD PRICES,' MARKETING YEAR Germany

Product

No.

PILOT PRODUCTS 1.

2,3.

Whey powder Milk powder: Whole Skimmed

4,5.

6-12.

.

.

_

_

_

Condensed milk: Without sugar With sugar Condensed milk:

1964-65

Luxem-

State

sell

In the

1.

pound

pound

pound

pound

2.

8.05

9.87

7.40

8.04

3.

34.93 13.95

39.87 19.54

27.88 15.06

30.81 16.52

Gorgonzola (Blue Mold) 48.31 Parmigiano Reggiano 66.91

54.25 67.39 50.25 49.07 49.54 52.22 66.56 20.46

55.32 67.29 48.89 34.40 41.21 51.79 64.64

48.41 66.87 49.89 44.04 46.95 47.10 64.47 15.58

15.31

for a

number of other Community

their products.

week of December

21, 1964, for example, free-

nonmember

countries were as follows:

Whey powder Condensed milk without sugar Condensed milk with sugar Gorgonzola Parmigiano Reggiano

5.

6.

Emmenthal Gouda

8.

9.

Paulin

11.

Camemhert

12.

Cottage (curd) Milk sugar (lactose) Butter, sour cream Butter, sweet cream Cheddar cheese

13.

6.80 24.38 13.61 13.78 15.66 43.18 46.72 37.42 24.04 31.05 36.29 47.85 12.53 44.50 43.75 23.04 28.12

Whole milk powder Skimmed milk powder

10. St.

40.82 48.20 77.11 16.67

Community

dairy product can enter the

Cents per pound

Cents per

-=36.17

No

at-border prices for

Cents per

21.01 35.83

— Camembert (Herve) — Cottage (curd) _ _— Milk sugar (lactose) _ -

variable import levy for dairy products works like

below the threshold price; all lower prices are by means of the levy. The levy for each product is based on the difference between the importing Member State’s threshold price and the price free-atborder. Free-at-border prices for imports from nonmember countries are determined every week on the basis of the most favorable purchase possibilities in international trade. For imports from Member States, the free-at-border prices are determined every 2 weeks, on the basis of the wholesale prices at which producers in the exporting Member

Cents per

20.34 24.35

(butter)

protect

bourg

24.37 31.82

Paulin

be achieved.

a price

at

Cents per

48.88

will

amount to Community.

raised to this level

Belgium-

16.90 .. 35.49

St.

The

7.

_

price

Import levies, export subsidies

4.

-

Emmenthal Gouda

13.

Netherlands

France

threshold

include an additional

butter, 2.27; cheese, 1.13.



not be higher than

by the duty, for exam-

and 34.6 cents per pound respectively.

that in effect in the

for butter only

offer price of

threshold prices are to be gradually alined so that

For 1964-65, the standard amounts are as follows, in Whey powder, 0.34; skim milk powder, 0.57; condensed milk without sugar, 0.68; with sugar, 0.91; whole milk powder, 0.91; milk sugar (lactose), 0.57; cents per pound:



may

offer price increased

the dairy processing industry in the

vised and the threshold prices revised accordingly.

Second

minimum

Cheddar cheese, the duty has been bound at 23 percent ad valorem based on a minimum offer price of 28.1 cents per pound. For these prodcents per pound; for

43.1

Tilsit

These prices were applicable

OTHER

in all

Member

(44.09) (38.33) (24.95) (31.96) (37.19) (48.76) (45.41)

(29.03)

States, ex-

cept for those in brackets, which were applicable in Italy.

cream Cheddar cheese Butter, sour Tilsit

-=81.99

=83.37

=59.75

36.86

34.84 49.07

30.88 34.40

_

cheese

_

—37.31

94.26 34.58 43.11

In calculating the levies, the same product-group sys-

Skimmed milk powder (for

animal feeding)

tem

is

levy

is

' Italy’s threshold prices not yet available. ^ Price increased by additional 2 percent. “ Price increased by additional 2.27 cents per pound.

For other products having a threshold

may

also

price.

Member

request authority to raise the standard

amount, but by no more than 2 percent of its reference It is under this provision that West Germany has been authorized to increase the threshold price for Gouda

price.

cheese by 2 percent. Also, Belgium and

Luxembourg have threshold price of some

been authorized to increase the dairy products and thus meet the

difficulties arising

Belgium’s pre-CAP policy of seasonal

from

differentiation

in

the prices of these items.

As regards cheeses of

the

Emmenthal, Gruyere, and

Sbrinz types, a duty of 6.8 cents per pound has been bound February 22, 1965

determined only for the

pilot

product of each group;

14.26

levies

States

used as in fixing reference and threshold prices. The for the

assimilated

products are equal to this or

from it. Separate levies are determined for the nongroup products, butter, Cheddar cheese and Tilsit cheese. On imports from third countries of Emmenthal, Gruyere, Sbrinz, Schabzieger, and Cheddar cheese, the levy is to be equal to an amount that would result from the application of ad valorem charges consolidated within the framework of the General Agreement on Tariffs and derived three

Trade. In determining the levy, account is taken of the incidence of domestic import taxes (including turnover tax)

and of a standard or lump sum designed

Member

to afford certain

intra-Community trade the levies will gradually be reduced in line with the approximation of the threshold prices and will disappear by the end of the transitional period. preference to other

States. In

Page 5

In addition to

during the

countries

and,

Member

States.

transitional

from

period,

all

appeared likely to threaten

imports

If

Community,

price levels within the

certificates

would not

be issued. prices

The

the Dairy and income

CAP

operative by protecting domes-

goals, export subsidies will be used.

entire levy previously collected

countries

may

be used by a

on imports from

Member

third

State to subsidize

its

exports of the same products outside the Community.

Member

In intra-Community trade, a

State that

is

titled to apply a levy on imports of another Member State may, when exporting to that Member State, grant a refund (subsidy). Such a refund or subsidy corresponds to the difference between the free-at-border price of the exporting Member State and the threshold price of the importing

Member

State.

Implications inside EEC

The

most

in

EEC

member face

is

will largely

dairy

husbandry,

especially

in

France.

common



is

all

target price

—probably

near the upper limit

due to be set by the

probability stimulate production

France, the biggest producer. At present, France and

in

the

account

Netherlands, with the lowest target prices,

for nearly half the

EEC

milk output.

Wheat purchases by CACEX, the Foreign Trade Department of the Bank of Brazil, during the second half of 1964 amounted

to

over

1.5 million

metric tons compared

with 921,000 tons imported during the same period in

The apparent purpose was

to

completely

fill

the

marketing channels for wheat and put an end to the recurring shortages

sumers

which have plagued

millers, bakers,

and con-

of Agriculture Portaria in

November

of last year.

By

re-

wheat imports at the bank rate of exchange rather than at an artificial low rate, the subsidy that imported wheat had enjoyed for years was removed. Mills were immediately faced with the need to pay 39 percent more for wheat out of income earned selling flour at

payment

for

and appealed to the government for help. In addition, consumer resistance to the new prices of flour and flour products caused consumption to drop. According to one report, consumption of pasta products in Sao Paulo has fallen 25 percent as a mills

were unable

result of the price increase

petitor in the diet,

The Page 6

The problem

it

will

that of finding additional

dairy products, particularly butter,

demand

the supply and

situation

will

Community will be of major concern nonmember exporting countries. For U.S.-EEC trade

impact of the Dairy

products, however, the

dairy

in

CAP

on

to traditional

as presently constituted

is

not

expected to substantially alter the pattern of the past sev-

Normally, the United States

years.

exporter of dairy products to the

made

EEC.

but almost always during periods

when

is

We

sizable shipments to certain

not

have

a large

at

various

Member

States,

their

milk produc-

was down or when supplies of dairy products from were not available. U.S. trade will in all probability continue this pattern of bridging any gaps that may occur between local production, traditional external supply sources, and total requirements. tion

traditional sources

consumption caused wheat

up in storage as well as was further aggravated by the extremely heavy shipping schedule set up by CACEX. During November alone, 300,000 metric tons of wheat were shipped to Brazilian ports, followed by 158,000 tons m December. The result was a long delay in unloading the

The

at the mills.

difficulty

became

to

do

this

and the

fact that rice, a

com-

relatively cheaper.

experienced by the mills and the drop in

to pile

situation

ships, particularly in Santos.

of Brazil has attempted to help the mills by

granting them credit for the purchase of wheat.

on

their part, consider that they are

a favor by accepting the

The

mills,

doing the government

wheat and say that they are pro-

viding free storage for the government.

The marketing

situation for the mills has

been compli-

cated by the federal requirement that half of the wheat

mixed with 9 percent of manioc flour. Both pure and mixed flour are sold at controlled prices but only flour sold be

the prices of bread

the subsidized prices.

Many



have a strong impact also on third countries. Since the levy system under the Dairy CAP insulates the EEC area from outside competition and the levies imposed can be used to subsidize some types of

The Bank action, however, coincided with a sharp in-

crease in the price of wheat brought about by the Ministry quiring

production in other

Community.

The development of Community

alike.

CACEX’s

markets within the Community domestic

as France’s its

the largest

Wheat Imports Mount But Prices Climb Too

Brazil’s

1963.

same

the

within the

times

Council, this will in

its

as

be

likely to

is

Implications for world trade

eral

improved

fixed later this year

find

countries continues to grow.

outside the

the area has a great potential for increased milk produc-

If the final

may

reduced

already high

fat is

commodity most

The Netherlands, which

butter.

exporter,

in the

through

is

is

target price as a goal

might tend to limit connot expected to increase

consumption of edible countries, the

progressively

depend on the level of the targets fixed for producer prices. Milk prices in the EEC countries are already high in comparison with those in major exporting countries outside the Community. Even if prices do not rise much above their present levels, tion

EEC

at

surplus disposal, the level of the target prices decided

CAP

Dairy

effect of the

aim

sumption, which in any case rapidly. Since

export markets for en-

common

existence of a high

for the national prices to

affected

To make tic

The

these measures, import certificates are

all

required for fresh milk and cream and butter from third

controlled.

The

and pastas made with mixed flour are below the cost

fixed prices are said to be

of production for the mills.

wheat consumption all the wheat they want, so periodic shortages will not reduce consumption. On the other hand, the new high prices of wheat

The ultimate

is

not clear.

effect of this

On

tend to lower

on

Brazil’s

the one hand, mills

it.

U.S.

now have

—Jerome M.

Kuhl

Agricultural Attache, Rio de Janeiro

Foreign Agriculture

The Foreign Market

FRESH and PROCESSED FRUITS

for U.S. The

production of U.S.

overall

1964-65

in

fruits

and processed

fresh

the largest in several seasons.

is

With

most

our penetration of that area. Fragmentary

critical to

reports suggest that

movement

of the

home

crops was quite

prices generally lower than those of a year ago, exports

good during November and December.

should show some improvement; for the past 3 seasons,

Another key determinant of U.S. participation in the European market this winter is price. A price level no higher than that of a year ago would sustain this country’s chances to compete effectively with Argentina, principal Southern Hemisphere supplier to Europe during the early

they have been at record levels.

Export performance

during the

has been good; however, heavy

major

country’s

this

forepart

home

European

of

supplies in

1964-65

some of

coupled

markets,

with

lower prices in competing areas, have tempered export

winter months.

The

gains.

Argentine crop

will

For the

latter

marketing year, there are

the

half of

may

petitive situation

count for the bulk of export activity in the fresh decidu-

slightly

ous group. Western Europe

when

pick up

estimate indicates that the

be about 18 percent larger than

below-average

year’s

momentum. Reand somewhat stronger foreign price levels for some items should prompt greater activity than was evident during the first half of the marketing year for a number of our major export items. Three items apples, pears, and grapes normally acpromising signs that exports

first official

may

harvest,

suggesting

that

the

last

com-

be somewhat more intense this year.

cent readjustments in U.S. prices





the largest U.S. market for

is

both apples and pears, whereas

Canada

is

by

far the best

customer for fresh grapes. More apples for export a

near-record

crop

in

largely responsible for this country’s favorable showing.

A continuation of last season’s export performance would be a welcome assist to the disposition of the 1964 apple harvest. The commercial apple crop for 1964, at 140 million bushels, was about 15 million bushels larger than the 1963 harvest and the largest since 1937. Thus far, exmovement has been encouraging, with shipments

port

during July-November 1964 about one-fourth larger than

comparable period of 1963. Whether this favorable pace can be sustained for the balance of the marketing seain the

son

is

problematical for several reasons.

Although the 1964 apple crop in Western Europe is, in total, slightly below that of the preceding year, the “down”

— normally second have —Europe’s leading producer and — has had seventh record crop row, and France — European producer— has lies

mostly in West

U.S. exports of fresh pears in the

November)

Germany

the

largest

large crops. Italy

supplier

in a

its

third largest

crop only slightly below

tomer

in

Europe, the

a

Our best cusUnited Kingdom, has a bumper crop last year’s

record.

of dessert and cooking apples. If

the marketing of these

cantly into the early in the

large

crops extends

signifi-

months of 1965, U.S. participation

European market will be impaired. Traditionally, West European markets has been sharply limited first

when home marketings are Hence, January and February are the

of January,

at a seasonal high.

Prepared in the Fruit and Vegetable Division of the Foreign Agricultural Service.

February 22, 1965

months

(July-

was well below average. The volume about two and one-half times larger than that of a year earlier and shipments to Western Europe, particularly to the United Kingdom and Norway, are the U. S. crop

moving

to

Canada

is

1964-65 is

will,

last

season. Total exports for

without question, exceed

last season’s,

but

it

doubtful that the very favorable level of 1.4 million boxes

experienced in both 1962-63 and 1961-62 will be achieved.

Fresh grape exports through November of the current

marketing year closely approximate the 82,000 tons of a year ago. Canada normally takes about three-fourths of the export volume annually. At least 80 percent of the U.S. grape shipments are completed by the end of November of each season.

Slow export demand for canned

fruit

Within the fresh and processed

fruit family, canned from the standpoint of dollar earnings, have shown the largest export growth over the past decade. In 1962, export earnings from this group attained an alltime high of $79 million, nearly four times the amount for only 10 years earlier. Three items canned peaches, fruit cocktail, and pineapple dominate this group, consistently accountfruits,



ing for at least



90 percent of the

total

export volume.

This season, both canned peaches and canned fruit cocktail are in a record supply position. The 1964 pack of canned peaches was 4.5 million cases (basis 24 No. 2Vi cans) above that of the preceding year, and canned fruit cocktail was up about 3.6 million cases.

With these heavy supplies, it might be expected that exwould respond favorably. However, the performance

ports

access to

prior to the

5

ahead of those in the same period a year ago and only below the grand total of 774,000 boxes in 1963-64,

apple producer in Europe. All of the other major produc-

ing countries

first

of the current season are nearly 50 percent

moderately above those of

Western Europe, the United States had a surprisingly good export of apples last season, shipping out a grand total of 4.4 million bushels. Abnormally low prices in certain producing areas during the late fall and early winter months of 1963-64 were Despite

Pear exports up, grapes unchanged

in

exports to date has been disappointing, even though

prices have been generally lower than those of a year ago.

For the first 6 months of the current season, exports of canned peaches are lagging slightly behind last season’s and are approximately 1 million cases below those in the comparable period of 1962-63, when shipments established a new high. Exports of canned fruit cocktail thus far are only slightly ahead of those in 1963-64. Page 7

—a One reason items

for the lack of export response for these

common knowledge

the

is

two

that the United States

is

supply position, which has undoubtedly prompted

in a large

some of

the U.S. foreign

markets to adopt a “wait and

see” attitude with respect to price. Another tories carried over into the

that inven-

is

new marketing year



large inventory in the United

Kingdom,

particularly

of canned peaches, reflects that country’s record imports million cases

5.5

—during

the U.S. -foreign price differential had narrowed appreciably to the point where prices for Greek and Turkish raisins closely approximated U.S. levels. Foreign stocks as of January 1 were, in total, well below those of a year earlier.

reportedly

have been quite heavy, especially in the United Kingdom a big U.S. market for peaches and fruit cocktail.

The

By mid-January,

1963-64. This marked an in-

Australian raisin prices important



If the raisin pack now in progress in Australia also an important world supplier is only a moderate one, the



present favorable U.S.-foreign price relationship well continue into the ensuing months.

stands to improve considerably. fruit

exports to U.K. down

in

1963-64

Paradoxically, the United States in

growth,

this

its

was not a

participant

share of the British market taking a

beneficiary of the increased British import

was South

market

1963-64.

Recently, U.S. prices at the f.o.b. cannery level were cocktail



move which theoretically should stimulate further export gains. The magnitude of such gains, however, will likely depend upon the price

levels,

expected to be announced

shortly, for the new packs from the important Southern Hemisphere suppliers. South Africa and Australia. Should

prices be established

these

at

no lower than

last

1964-65 season could

still

levels

year’s, then U.S. exports for the

moderate increase over 1963-64. That year, 4.7 million cases of canned peaches and 2.9 million of canned register a

fruit cocktail

moved

into export.

canned pineapple so far are about 29 percent ahead of those in the same period of 1963-64. Most of the gain has been in shipments to Western Europe, particularly West Germany, and to a much lesser extent, Belgium, the Netherlands, and France. Movement for the balance of the season is expected to continue good. The final tally for 1964-65 will likely be above the 2.1 million cases of 1963-64 and may approach the postwar high of 2.4 million in 1962-63. In contrast, U.S. exports of

Prospects good for dried fruits

Of

the U.S. dried fruits, raisins and dried prunes are

Although Western Europe continues to be the leading market area for both of these commodities, Japan recently has emerged as our most important customer for raisins, taking about 20 to 26 per-

first 3 months of the current season (September through November) were about 11 percent ahead of the pace of a year earlier, and for the full 1964-65 season, they should register at least a moderate increase. However, the magnitude of export gains is likely to be

tempered by the producing areas.

cent of total U.S. exports during the past four seasons. raisins

and dried prunes ap-

supplies

of large

availability

packs

Above-average

are

in

other

evident

in

Argentina, Australia, France, Italy, and Yugoslavia. Fresh citrus exports to rise slightly

Increased Mediterranean supplies of better quality export oranges undoubtedly will restrict U.S. winter orange

exports to Europe. However, the slightly larger U.S. winter

orange crop is expected to result in increased exports to Canada, our most important market. This should more than offset losses elsewhere and possibly result in an increase in 1964-65 exports of winter oranges.

Winter orange shortages of

continuation

in

prompt a from Mexico, the fresh market

Florida should

heavy

relatively

imports

Israel, and several minor areas for sale in and for processing. The U.S. grapefruit crop is up substantially from last season, and exports should respond most favorably. Despite relatively short crops over the past few years, grapefruit

has done reasonably well in the export market. Total lemon exports were expected to decline because of

the only important export items.

Export prospects for U.S.

entirely conceivable

1956, and prices have declined accordingly.

largest since

fruit

is

56,069 tons exported in 1963-64. The 1964 dried prune pack in the United States was the Exports for the

reduced for both canned peaches and

It

can gain sufficient momentum to offset the losses experienced in the forepart of the season, with the net result that the total volume for 1964-65 will at least equal the

Africa, which accounted for about 62 percent of the total in

very

that U.S. exports for the balance of the marketing year

dramatic plunge, to 7 percent from a former level of at least 25 percent, because of relatively high U.S. prices.

Main

may

this setting,

the United States competitive position in the world market

crease of 850,000 cases over the preceding season.

Canned

Under

the

much

shorter U.S. crop for

1964-65, which

is

cur-

rently estimated to be about one-fourth smaller than last

season’s and well below average. In addition, Spain,

now

European summer market, is anticipating a larger harvest, and this may lessen U.S. opportunities in Europe this summer.

a fairly prominent supplier to tbe

pear reasonably good for 1964-65, as domestic output of

above average. In terms of marketable rai1964 California pack is larger than that of a year earlier, which though larger in total, included a large percentage of substandard-quality, rain-damaged raisins. Production abroad is moderately above the short pack of 1963 but still well below the bumper 1962 harvest. both

is

sins,

the

well

Early in the current marketing year, California prices

new

though lower than 1963-64’s, were significantly above those of most other world supfor

the

pliers.

A

However, el



raisin

somewhat depressed export movement followed. as the season progressed, the foreign price lev-

particularly in

Page 8

pack,

Turkey and Greece

—began

to advance.

Minor increase

citrus products

in

Prospects are for a slightly larger pack of the processed citrus products, and exports are expected to

minor

show

Canada. U.S. participation in the European market, however, will perhaps continue at about the levels of the past few seasons. least

at

a

Continued shortages ing

State,

orange

are

juice.

particularly

increase,

in

expected

Nearly

all

to

Florida, the principal processto

result

in

heavy

imports of

of the imported juice will be used

for blending with U.S. juice.

As orange production is revolume of

stored in Florida over the next few years, the

orange juice imports

is

expected to decline.

Foreign Agriculture

The Face of

15 Years as a Republic

India After

Last month, on January 26, India

marked

sovereign republic. (Its independence had

its

come

15th year as a 3 years earlier,

much has happened to this vast subcon470 million people. Slowly it has been changing from a purely pastoral land to a nation where both industry and agriculture share in the economy. Billions of dollars in money, goods, and services have poured into India to help it advance economically. There is hardly an in 1947.) In that period

tinent,

with

its

international agency, a foundation, or a leading nation that has

not contributed.

Among

these the United States probably ranks

been supplied. Particularly important has been the United States Food for Peace Program. Since 1956, over $2.8 billion worth of U.S. surfirst

in the aid that has

plus foods have been shipped to India, to be paid for in the

country’s

own

currency so that scarce foreign reserves could be

spent for economic development. Also, at least half of the

money

accruing from these sales has been loaned back to India.

Trombay was

fertilizer factory,

Above, cotton supplied

to India

under P.L. 480

mill near Delhi. Left, Indian farmers learn

Dam in Uttar Pradesh benefited from a P.L. 480 funds loan. Right, workmen, building one of India’s new railways. Below, Rihard

one of India’s largest, from P.L. 480 funds.

built with U.S. aid, part

to

is

spun

in

textile

use motor graders.

MARKET DEVELOPMENT

& export

r

0 Q

BAI

to

on American Brahman

Philippine Importers Decide

For Cattle Program, Reports A just

U.S. market development team back from the Philippines said

American Brahman

cattle are the first

BAI

breeds,

run

If

beef production.

become

A

Philippine buying mission repre-

poration plans to

Development Cor-

come

selections for

make

the

probably around 300 animals. This report came as a result of a 15-day trip to the Philippines by two of

officials

the

Brahman

American

Breeders Association, President Locke

specialist

Their primary objective was to

as-

prospects for increased sales

sess the

American Brahmans in a country which has long been accustomed to the Bos indicus type. Conferences with university and government officials, cattle ranchers

of

and dealers, and veterinarians gave promise that American Brahmans will in

the future be given a bigger share

Registered Brahmans only

The American Brahman team guarall

U.S. sales to the Phil-

ippines would be of registered cattle,

and with photographs of typical purebred U.S. Brahmans and

official

records, convinced Bureau of

test

Animal

Industry officials of the good results possible

Brahman

cattle

was the endorsement

of a Philippine rancher

150 head

in

1963 and

who imported is

pleased with

beef characteristics,

heat resis-

As a result of these efforts U.S. Brahmans are now being recommended by the BAI as the beef breed suited

for

portation costs

with

local

Though

trans-

crossing

stock of Indian origin.

make American Brah-

mans more expensive than Page 10

well

held traditionally by

cattle

and when war ended, about 200,000 animals remained. Today there are about 4.8 pines in the early 1940’s,

the

million cattle and carabao in the Phil-

the prewar figure.

Large red-meat-product imports (23 lb. in 1962, product weight) have not entirely bridged the gap bemillion

tween the supply and the demand from a population that has nearly doubled in the last 13 years. Certainly, the availabilities

The

of

fall

far short of meet-

ing nutritional requirements.

purchase

initial

The American Brahman Breeders

made

be

will

by the privately owned Philippine Sugar Development Corporation, although a BAI veterinarian will make

by the AmerBrahman Breeders Association. The Sugar Corporation’s expected

Association

planning

is

followup

a

before 1967.

trip to the Philippines

actual selections assisted

ican

purchase of about 2,000 head during the next 5 years will be made under a loan from the National Investment

Development Corporation, of the

institution

a financial

Philippine Govern-

ment. As collateral,

the

Sugar Cor-

molasses

crops

Negros

on

Island,

which produces roughly 60 percent of Philippine sugar.

all

The animals

will

be sold to the sugar producers at cost, with credit terms of up to 5 as part of

its

years.

livestock de-

velopment plans expects to import several thousand U.S. Brahmans for a 5-year program that will provide for pastures, improved managebetter

ment practices haps

for livestock,

extension

services

to

and perfarmers.

The program also calls for substantial numbers of imported hogs and dairy cattle

— many

from the United

Team

Chilean

Herefnrds Chile

some

Inspects

Canada

in

considering the purchase of

is

head

800-1,000

Hereford

cattle,

Canadian

of

according to a report

from John C. McDonald, Acting U.S. Agricultural Attache at Ottawa.

poration will pledge the next 5 years’

A

three-member

Chilean

agricul-

from

tural delegation has just returned

an inspection

trip to

Hereford estab-

lishments across Canada.

were

The Chileans

reportedly especially

interested

Herefords from British Columbia

in

because of the area’s similarity to Chiclimate and terrain. Actual pur-

in

le

chases would trip

be

some time

made on

this

return

a

spring.

Chile recently bought about

head of

cattle

from Australia

1,000

at

a re-

ported cost of $80-$ 120 a head.

In

the past, most of Chile’s livestock imports have

come from Argentina.

States.

No tax on

cattle imports

Cattle imports will also benefit the

Cattle

from

Dispersion Act passed in

1964 that permits the BAI cattle tax free for loan to

to

import

farmers for

purposes. Other legislation exempts basic industries, including the cattle and dairy industries, from special import and compensation taxes. In 1965 the exemption is 100 percent, to be reduced until 1970.

breeding

tance, and early maturity.

best

—might

purchases

First

Millions

officials.

and carabao were slaughtered during the Japanese occupation of the Philip-

from registered Brahmans.

Also helping promote purebred U.S.

their

Brahmans-

U.S.

Mexico or Venezuela.

The BAI

of the Philippine import business.

anteed that

—whose

the largest single market for

this breed, a spot

either

Paret and Executive Secretary Harry

Gayden, and FAS marketing Claude Dobbins.

of

seldom exceed 100 head

shipment of

the initial

purchases

Republic

United

to the

within 4 months to

States

offset this

s

ippines, but this barely approximates

Philippine

the

ize,

yearly

senting the Sugar

more than

import plans fully material-

its

the next 5 years with the aim of upgrading local stock and expanding in

officials believe that long-

profits will

price difference.

choice of importing groups that expect to purchase several thousand head

Marketing Team

I1.S.

m

a

r

the Indian

The need beef cattle

expanded numbers of most acute, according

Cattle to Italy Italy

the

Still

Duty Free

has received permission from

Common

Market Commission

to

extend until June 30, 1965, the authorization suspending duties cattle

on feeder

imported from third countries.

The initial authorization was granted on July 16, 1964, and has been extended several times since then. Since

last

summer,

Italy

has im-

for

ported more than 7,902 head of U.S.

is

feeder cattle and

some 8,000

calves.

Foreign Agriculture



— Promotion for California Dates

First

in

Japan Stresses Baking Uses

The first overseas market development program for California dates is

plus special

now

helped update sales to U.S. commer-

swing in selected Japanese

in full

where

cities

sponsors, the Califor-

its

nia

date industry,

and

FAS

hope

Associates,

launch full-scale sellpromotion aimed at

to

through

ing

Wheat

Japan’s confectionery-bakery trade.

make cial

processing techniques to

dates ready for immediate use,

bakeries and should stimulate

sell-

ing in Japan also.

Although U.S. exports of dates to Japan are at present only a fraction of those going to markets like West

Germany and Canada 498

tons

(1,021 tons and

respectively

1963-64),

in

Japan are held very possible with adequate promotion. Japan became the United States top

larger

raisin

sales

to

export market largely because

of intensive promotion

of raisins

in

bread and other baked goods.

Getting top priority in the current are bakers

project

—the

so effective in a raisin bread

Japan

in

seminars

training

promotional tool which proved ago.

years

several

campaign Walter

L. Frey, a top consultant of the Cal-

Date

ifornia

(CDAC),

major Japanese

in five

Committee

Advisory

holding baking seminars

is

cities

through

February.

Japanese bakers in the interior

by

reached

be

who

now

are

will

demonstrators

local

finishing

CDAC

date

baking courses. This second phase of the project

—designed

coverage

plete

of

com-

to insure

the

market



gets

underway next month. For all training. Wheat Associates is

to provide equipment, invite bakers

and confectioners, arrange press covand prepare recipe booklets.

erage,

The

project

survey

grew out of a market by Billy Peightal,

spring

last

manager of

CDAC, who

the

reported

Cheese Exhibited

U.S.

The United countries

to

States

the

cheese

The

exhibit

—held

Mitsukoshi department store,



one of Japan’s largest attracted some 50,000 persons, has now moved on to other major Japanese cities. According to Assistant Agricultural Attache David R. Strobel, the most the introduction by the biggest

three

of

types

Paese.

Although

with

dates,

the

sales potential lying

in industrial use.

The

baking

are

now

Mr.

Peightal

found, responded enthusiastically to a display of various date confections at last

year’s

show

fruit

the

in

U.S.

Trade Center, Tokyo. Followup visits showed that bakers were increasingly eager to capitalize on the Japanese liking for

Western-type sweets by

Japan’s

the

competitive

price

cheese are seen giving

optimism

cheese

imports of

U.S.

new cause

to U.S. producers. In

for

1964,

Japan imported $5.2 million of natural cheese; leading suppliers were Australia (2,342 metric tons) and Nor-

way

(2,217). U. S.

cheese exhibit

cheeses

natural

cheeses

of

made and marketed in by Japanese manu-

being

quantities

facturers, is

most cheese consumed the processed variety

in

made

The introduction of new types of

may

natural cheese trade,

growing

Japan,

and

cur-

States little

Gouda, and Blue types

the Cheddar,

smalt

natural

from imported natural cheeses.

U.S.

to

United

relatively

Camembert, and Bel

Port du Salut,

troduction

of

the

facturer of processed cheese in Japan

of

Japan

immediate

was manu-

Although

rently exports

significant feature of the exhibit

the Japanese market ripe for the in-

greatest

re-

Annual World Cheese

Exhibit at Tokyo.

Major Japanese Cities

was one of eight

demonstrate

cently at the 7th

at

in

Big Three of the

indicate that the

dairy

industry

in

Japan will attempt to broaden consumption to include natural cheese.

Many

new

cheese

spreads

were observed

domestically

and

processed

new packaging

at the exhibit.

sell-

ing such items as date-nut bread, date bars,

and cookies.

Other sales outlets for dates exist such as out-of-hand eating and pack-



aged dates are available

at

fancy-food

sections of Japan’s larger department stores

and

ever, the

few restaurants. How-

in a

CDAC

feels that for the

time

being, commercial baking outlets are sufficient

to

absorb the U.S. supply

available for export.

The

current campaign will put

ma-

emphasis on demonstrating to Japanese bakers and confectioners

jor

some of the superior ifornia

qualities of Cal-

handling and packaging by the U.S. date industry. dates.

February 22, 1965

Careful

Page 11

.

W 4)

R

CROPS

1D

A N O

MA

R K E T S

December

in

Venezuela Reduces Import Duties on Beans, Peas

and southern regions, which

in the central

include the large producing States of Parana, Sao Paulo,

The Government of Venezuela reduced the import duty on dry edible beans and peas from Bs0.30 per kilogram to BsO.15 per kilogram. The new duty, effective January 22, 1965, is equivalent to approximately US$1.50 per hundred-

ber and ends

weight. Imports continue to be subject to import licensing, however, and invoices certified on or before January 22

States of

are not eligible for the duty reduction.

Rio Grande do Sul, and others. Planting begins in Novemin December in the northern States of Maran-

hao, Amazonas, and the region nearby.



America

peas and one of the largest for U.S.

for U.S.

In

beans.

1963

currently the largest market in Latin

(latest

year of available data) the U.S.

supplied 88 percent of Venezuela’s total imports of beans,

and Costa Rica, 9 percent. The United States supplied 99.7 percent of the peas.

The

Ceara and Rio Grande do Norte. Normally the March and ends in July.

large forecast undoubtedly reflects efforts

Brazilian

behind

increase

the

population.

in

on January 25 that Japan is considering buying from Communist China. Estimates of the volume to be purchased range from 50,000 to 200,000 metric tons.

the

hundredweight from a previous support announced only 4 months earlier of $3.91 {Foreign Agriculture, February 1964).

this crop. Brazil

to the press

December

In

Ministry increased the suport price on beans to $4.08 per

The Ministry contemplates no Japan’s Minister of Agriculture and Forestry announced

by the

Ministry of Agriculture to increase production

of this staple food item, output of which has been lagging

1,

Japan May Purchase Rice From Communist China

begins in Febru-

It

northeast region near the

in the

Brazilian bean harvest begins in

This reduction of duty should favor bean and pea imports by Venezuela

March

ary and ends in

of beans in

exportable surplus from

has exported and imported small quantities

some previous

years, but the country usually

considered a nontrader of beans internationally.

is

rice

It

is

in other exporting countries

may

not be adequate to meet

The Food Agency budget for rice purchases abroad from October 1964 through March 1965 Japan’s import needs.

was

330,000 metric tons. However, import be higher, perhaps 400,000 tons or more.

tentatively set at

may

needs

Switzerland’s Rice Imports Decline

possible, therefore, that supplies of short-grain rice

Potential sources for rice imports include Taiwan, the

United

States,

South Korea, Spain, and Communist China.

Purchases of short-grain rice thus far during the second half of the fiscal year 1964 (October-March) follow.

1964

Switzerland’s imports of rice in January-October

metric

14,738

totaled

same months

down 7,820

tons,

in 1963.

Purchases from the United States,

form of milled ports.

On

tons from the

rice,

rose to 61

principally in

the

percent of total rice im-

from Italy dropped to same 1963 period. Italy

the other hand, imports

3,747 tons from

16,093

the

in

supplied 25 percent of the total with semimilled rice as the

major type.

SWITZERLAND’S RICE IMPORTS Total quantity

Source

Average

Period of shipment

Country of origin

1956-60

Metric tons

Taiwan

150,000

United States, California (Calrose)

Korea, Rep. of Total

78,000



14,000

November 1964-January 1965, March-May 1965, 75,000.

75,000;

January-March 1965, 54,000; February-March 1965, 24,000.

November-December

1964.

242,000

Italy:

Semimilled Milled Total

Netherlands, milled United States:

Semimilled Milled Brazil Expects

Record 1965 Bean Harvest

The 1965 bean

harvest in Brazil

Total

expected to reach

is

2.3 million metric tons, or 50 million (100 lb.) bags. This would be 44 percent larger than the 1.6 million tons harvested last year and more than 50 percent above the

average annual output of 1.5 million tons If

expectations

record for Brazil



materialize,

will

this

in



Total '

Metric

Metric

Metric

Metric

tons 17,272 3,628

tons

21,300 1,269

tons 15,136

tons 3,280

957

467

20,900

22,569

16,093

3,747

663

376

269

141

458 1,590

1,908 3,858

1,705 3,394

3,831 5,223

2,048

5,766

5,099

9,054

1,850

1,215

M,097

M,796

25,461

29,926

22,558

14,738

Includes small amount of broken.

Compiled from Statistique Mensuelle du Commerce Exterieur.

1955-59.

set

a

new high

the world’s leading bean producer with

a production 1V2

Other countries

January-October 1963 1964

1963

times larger than that of the United

U.S. Imports of

Meat Products Down

U.S. imports of nearly

all

In

1964

and meat product months of 1964 were

livestock

production in the central and southern regions, where 68 percent of the total Brazilian crop was produced last year.

items in November and in the first 1 1 below the levels of the previous year. Beef and veal imports continued small, as strong European demand attracted the majority of export surpluses from traditional exporting countries.

assumes usual production 32 percent was produced.

as last year, while those of

States.

The expectations

It

are based

on an

in the

Bean planting normally begins Page 12

official

forecast of

northern region, where

in

September and ends

Imports of pork were

below the 1963

at

approximately the same

level

mutton and lamb were well

levels.

Foreign Agriculture

There was slightly more wool imported in November 964 than in the same month a year earlier, but cumulative nports continued to trail the previous year’s by a subantial margin. High wool prices during the early part of 964 led to sharply reduced buying in primary markets and inceased use of manmade substitutes by domestic mills. I

January-November were down Imports of om the previous year. Shipments from Canada were down, id in fact, that country bought large numbers of animals om the United States around mid-year, when prices here below the Canadian level. These lower prices also II suited in smaller imports of feeder cattle from Mexico. live cattle in

U.K. lard imports through November were up 20 percent from the previous year. The United States was by far the largest supplier with about 90 percent of the market. Practically

all

other traditional

Poland shipped no lard to the United Kingdom during January-November 1964, compared with more than 3 million in the same period of 1963.

1,000

1,000

pounds

pounds

1,000

pounds

2,356

boneless Canned, inch

18,820

1,738

72,603

corned Pickled and cured Beef sausage Other beef

863,328

50,792

622,234

4,173 8

102,763

588

292

282

401 532

4,676 10,056 15,746

741,200

&

frozen

Total beef

& veal

89,799

1,227

1,304 21,554 23,497

58,871

1,031,854

72,188

Pork: shoulders

pork

Total pork

and goat

10,645 5,586

10,7% 6,056

127,374 64,499

126,695 63,289

16,231

16,852

191,873

189,984

1,686 1,352

1,%9

32,565 9,686 3,974

977,409

466

341 536

56,633 17,620 1,462

meat 109,534

78,569

1,299,442

723

282

4,162

6,290 6,857

9,713 6,225

98,770 153,207

86,410 101,359

Total wool

13,147

15,938

251,977

187,769

des and skins:

1,000 pieces

1,000 pieces 19

1,000 pieces

1,000 pieces

344 810 974 548

298 820

Lamb sausage

Total

red

meats

riety

3ol (clean basis)

20 56 127 50 781

battle

Lalf

Gp Juffalo

sheep and lamb Joat and kid dorse

90 84 21

990 570 29 300

1,000 31

^ig

1

^

67

pounds

Percent 89.6

.8

499,199 14,850 13,674 11,056 9,805 4,175 3,449

.1

802

.1

Percent 85.4

3.1

Sweden

14,320 10,103 4,150 4,102

Ireland

396

_

_

.

_

.

Denmark Germany, West Netherlands

Poland Others

Henry A. Lane &

2.1

2.2 .9

2.7 2.5

2.0 1.8 .7 .6

3,360

.7

330

.1

210



464,658

100.0

557,220

100.0

_

-

4.6

Co., Ltd.

Australian Meat Shipments to the United States

Three ships left Australia during January with 6,388,480 pounds of beef, 389,760 pounds of mutton, and 212,800 pounds of lamb for the United States. Ship and Destination'

sailing date

Cap Norte

_

Jan. 11

.

Eastern ports Charleston Norfolk Philadelphia

Arrival date

28,433 11,957

399 861

342 1,614

Number

Number

Number

99,888

75,493

749,442

457,861

Feb.

3 7

9

Beef Beef )Beef

11

(Beef

Boston

American Star

16

Charleston

7

Norfolk

9

Jan. 15

67,200 459,200 33,600 425,600 44,800 405,440 156,800 414,400 53,760

(Beef

[Mutton (Beef [Mutton (Beef

1

'Mutton Philadelphia

11

New York

13

(Beef

\

'

Mutton

(Beef

Boston

17

Beef

1,740,480 33,600 134,400 194,880

San Francisco

(Q

Beef

201,600

1

Mutton

Lamb

of the Census.

W estern port

Monterey

dentine Beef Exports Decline

1,538,880

(Mutton

leding.

Commerce, Bureau

425,600 154,560 427,840 78,400

(Lamb

New York

changes in the tariff schedule, statistics for 1963 1964 are not completely comparable. ® Includes cattle for of

Quantity

Pounds

393

24,949 13,624

Cargo

to

Department

of total

1,000

396,895 21,153 9,849

1,002

Number cattle’*

J.S.

Percent

Quantity

of total

:

Dutiable Duty-free

Owing

United States France _ Belgium _ _

Total

Canned bams and

Jther

pounds

16,008

9,372 51 1,137 3,998

Vlutton

Quantity

pounds 1,000

bone-in

Other

Jan. -Nov. 1964

Percent

1,000

Fresh & frozen,

Veal, fresh

LARD IMPORTS Jan. -Nov. 1963

1964

1963

Country of origin

meats: Beef and veal: Fresh & frozen, ;d

less

January-November

1964

1963

accounted for

suppliers

than in the previous year with the exception of Belgium.

U.K.

November Commodity

1

U.K. Lard Imports Climb

IMPORTS OF SELECTED LIVESTOCK PRODUCTS^

U.S.

e

United Kingdom continued to decline and accounted for 34 percent of the total compared with 70 percent in 1960.

_

Jan. 14

Argentine exports of chilled and frozen beef during 64 were reported at 418,000 metric tons (actual weight) the Argentine Meat Board. They were down 21 percent >m 1963 but still higher than in any other year since 39, despite

' Cities listed indicate location of purchaser and usually port of arrival and destination area, but meat may be diverted to other areas for sale. “ Arrival date not known.

Australian Meat Board.

a considerably greater decline in slaughter

d beef production.

Tung

The beef export market became more

December 1964 totaled 9,848 short tons, 21 percent below those in the same 1963 period. The reduction reflects

Shipments held up rather well because strong demand in Continental Europe and a decline in mestic consumption.

th larger

:rmany, and France.

iruary 22,

diversified in

1964

shipments, mainly frozen beef, to Italy, West

1965

The proportion of shipments

to the

Oil

Shipments From Buenos Aires

Exports of tung

oil

from Buenos Aires during August-

smaller outturns in both Argentina and Paraguay.

Shipments from Argentina, accounting for nearly fourPage 13

a

:

of the

fifths

December

total,

1963

down by about

were 6 percent below those in Augustshipments from Paraguay were

while

bu.)

reported in Foreign Agriculture

quantity agreed to

now

is

indicated

by

December

the

14,

reliable trade sources

Despite the substantial decline in total cumulative ship-

as 40,000 to 50,000 tons (1.5 mil. to 1.8 mil. bu.) for shipment during December 1964 and January-May 1965.

1964 period, those destined for the United

Prices negotiated at that time were as follows (f.o.b., con-

ments

in the

one-half.

6,609 tons, were up by nearly two-thirds from

States, at

verted from pounds sterling per metric ton)

same 1963 period. This increase reflected heavy shipments from Argentina made largely in November and December.

the

U.S. dollars

December 1964 -January 1965 February - March 1965

These larger exports to the United States reflect the change in the tung price structure. In recent months, prices for South American tung oil were sufficiently below the U.S. support level of 24 cents per pound so that the

CCC

acquired stocks of domestic

cember

31,

which

oil,

as of

De-

1964, totaled 15 million pounds.

Also contributing to the gain were the

efforts of exporters

and unload tung oil in New York before the dock strike, which began in mid-December. The bulk of the shipments to other countries from Buenos Aires moved to European markets with a smaller volume to Japan. Buenos Aires has been the major world of tung

oil

since

1961,

April

May

-

November^

Origin and

outranking

significantly

destination

Argentina:

To To

U.S. other countries

December^

Prices of U.S. soybeans, f.o.b. Chicago, rose recently

more than $3 per bushel following the purchase in January of over 3 million bushels by the USSR. It is expected that arrangements will be made at the Canton Fair in April of this year for an additional similar to

quantity

—40,000

tive total of

80,000 to 100,000 tons (2.9 mil. to 3.7 mil.

bu.) under the friendly-firms arrangement for the 13-month

period

December

1963

1964

1963

1964

Short

Short

Short

Short

tons 1,554

tons

tons

423

tons 1,979

1,217

670

tons 4,785 3,026

1,783 6,498

2,145

1,640

2,649

8,281

7,811

743

472 209

355 189

2,241 1,893

1,824

December

31, 1965.

JAPAN’S SOYBEAN IMPORTS Average

origin

1955-59 Mil. bu.

1961 Mil. bu. 40.5

1962

1963'

1964'

Mil. bu. 41.4

Mil. bu. 48.3

Mil. bu. 48.6

United States

_ 25.3

Brazil

-

.7

.1

.1

China, Mainland- . - -. Others

4.8

1.6

6.1

.3

.4

_ 31.1

42.6

TotaP '

Total

1964, to

1,

Country of

August-December"

1964

50,000 tons for shipment during the

to

balance of calendar 1965. This would bring the prospec-

AIRES'

Short

591

2.83

2.84

1965

Mainland China, which during the 1955-59 period supplied more than two-thirds of the world’s tung oil exports.

TUNG OIL SHIPMENTS FROM BUENOS

2.82

late

to deliver

source

per bushel

Period of shipment

_

Compiled from

.1

56.7

47.5

59.0

Totals computed from unrounded numbers.

'

Preliminary.

10.4

8.3

official sources.

Paraguay:

To U.S. To other

countries

12

755

681

544

4,134

2,037

To U.S. 2,297 To other countries 603 ~^00 Grand total

895

2,334

1,426

859

4,024 8,391

6,609 3,239

2,321

3,193

12,415

9,848

Total

Japan’s

soybean imports

in

213

1964 totaled 1.6 million was U.S. beans

tons (59.0 mil. bu.), of which 82 percent

and virtually

all

of the remainder, Chinese.

Total:

'

Presumed

to represent virtually all of

from Argentina and Paraguay.

Compiled from shipments



The demand to

the tung oil exported

Preliminary.

According

demand cannot

Among

to decree

the date published.

that U.S. shipments of 1964-crop beans so far

foreign

including

material,

compared with 283,661 tons (10.4 mil bu.) in

in

1964

315 million bushels, an increase of 10

percent from 1963.

which were consummated

at the

firm’’

negotiations,

Canton Fair

in

October

1964, provided for larger shipments of soybeans than was

Page 14

the

is

better than that of 1963.

conditions,

relating to purchasing U.S. beans.

Argentine Sunflowerseed and Peanut Area Increases

According

to

the

major sunflowerseed

first

oil

official

producer

estimate,

—has

area of sunflowerseed 23 percent to



Argentina

sown 2,634,100 acres from increased

its

in 1963-64. This is the largest acreage since 1961-62 and exceeds the 1954-55/1958-59 average by 15

2,137,400

Apparently the Japanese “friendly

reported.

On

(including

Communist China’s soybean production

publicly

morning-glory seed.

most Japanese importers and users prefer the pricing and shipping arrangements

280,000 tons under the Liao-Takasaki arrangement) will reach 350,000 to 400,000 metric tons (12.9 mil. to 14.7

estimated at

have been

than the 1963 crop because of higher moisture content, lower oil yields, and increased quantities of

less desirable

Under ordinary

appears possible that in calendar year 1965 Japanese

imports of soybeans from Communist China

is

yet be accurately evaluated.

other hand, there are fewer broken beans, and the color

Japan’s Impbrts of Chinese Soybeans To Increase

1964.

Japan continues

considerations of recent weeks that have favored

of 1964-crop beans

mil. bu.),

in

the importation of Chinese soybeans are trade complaints

No. 4212/1964 published in the Spanish Official Bulletin of State on January 5, 1965, duties have been suspended on tariff item 12.01-B-3 (soybeans for crushing) for a period of 3 months from

It

and meal

remains relatively stable. While imports from Communist China in 1965 are expected to increase, the extent to which the United States will participate in supplying the increased

Spain Suspends Import Duties on Soybeans

oil

increase, although the direct use of soybeans as food

Buenos Aires.

data, Boletin Maritimo,

for soybean

Instead of the

20,000 tons

(700,000

percent.

The

increased

acreage reflects

increased prices

for sunflowerseed.

Peanut

plantings

are

officially

estimated

at

895,000

Foreign Agriculture

:

above the 893,300 acres planted a year ago.

Indian

against 3,770 tons in January-October 1963.

1964 period. Exports to the an average of 23.2 cents), to Czechoslovakia 562,000 (35.9), to Hungary 2.3 million (12.6), and to East Germany 3.8 million (32.1). Combined flue-cured exports to these four countries were 69.6 million pounds, or 55 percent of total shipments.

Flue-cured Exports by Rhodesia, Zambia, Malawi

Other major markets for Indian flue-cured included the United Kingdom 33.3 million pounds (at 55.5 cents),

acres, slightly

In the period January-October 1964 Argentina exported oil compared with 50,352 in same period of 1963. There were no Argentine exports of sunflowerseed oil in the first 10 months of 1964 as

51,815 short tons of peanut the

Exports of flue-cured tobacco from the three new countries,

USSR

flue-cured

the

in

totaled 63 million pounds, (at

Japan 7.8 million

Belgium 2.4 million

(31.7),

(20.6),

and

Yugoslavia 4.3 million (21.1).

Rhodesia, Zambia, and Malawi (formerly the Federa-

tion of the



up 23 percent from 1963. The average export value per pound was equivalent to 49 U.S. record 223 million pounds

1964, compared with 63 cents in

cents in

India’s exports of all kinds of

Rhodesias and Nyasaland) in 1964 totaled a

1963. Larger

of the major markets

Canned

The United Kingdom, as usual, was the largest purchaser of flue-cured from these countries, taking 101 million pounds, compared with 92.8 million in 1963. West Ger-

canned

exports in

1964

pushed the

total to a

to practically

all

record high.

in

Denmark

38.2,

London

and the

USSR

London

(landed, duty paid) of selected

and juices are given

in the following table:

Price per dozen units Size of

quality

can

January October January 1964 1964 1965 '

CANNED FRUIT Apricots:

Whole, unpeeled, Choice

V.S.

U.S.

U.S.

dol.

dol.

dol.

Origin

.

303

2.54

2.38

2.41

U.S.

-

2V2 303

3.15 2.54 3.26

3.13 2.41 3.34 2.85 1.58

Africa Africa Australia U.S.

1.50

3.26 2.38 3.26 2.80 1.58

3.08 3.46 3.64 3.26 2.94 2.45

3.22 3.46 3.64 3.26 3.08 2.43

3.27 3.41 3.68 3.34 3.01 2.47

S. Africa Australia U.S. Australia S. Africa U.S.

3.36 3.68

3.48 3.55 4.60 3.22 3.34 2.06

Africa Australia U.S. S. Africa Australia

U.S.

Halves:

Fancy Choice

Do Do

- 21/2

303

_

In syrup _

1964 for principal markets, n terms of U.S. equivalents per pound, were as follows: ;he United Kingdom 58.2 cents. West Germany 45.3, the Netherlands 33.1, Japan 46.5, Australia 46.2, Malaysia 16.6, Belgium 36.8, the Republic of South Africa 45.8, 34.4,

fruits

Type and

nearly 3 million.

Hong Kong

Fruit and Juice Prices in

Selling prices in

many, which took 33.1 million, ranked second, with purchases about 10 million pounds above those in the previous year. The Netherlands increased its takings from 9.8 million in 1963 to 15.7 million last year, while Japan’s rose from 5.7 million to 9.2 million. Other big markets last year were Australia 7.4 million, Malaysia 6.4 million, Belgium 6.2 million, the Republic of South Africa 3.9 million, Hong Kong 3.7 million, Denmark 3.5 million, and the USSR

Average export prices

unmanufactured tobacco

during January-October 1964 totaled 142.6 million pounds, compared with 141.8 million in the similar 1963 period.

(1)

15 oz.

-

S.

S.

Spain

Peaches, halves:

Fancy

- 21/2

_

Do

- 21/2

Choice

- 21/2

Do Do Do

24.5.

- 21/2

- 21/2

.

- -.

303

Pears, halves:

Fancy

-

21/2

(1)

Do Do

-

21/2

-

21/2

In syrup

_

15

3.22 3.46 2.17

3.50 3.57 4.60 3.36 3.40 2.06

2.68 2.00 1.54

2.59 2.00 1.49

2.46 2.00 1.48

2.80 2.73

(1)

_ -20 oz.

2.62

2.61 2.62

Israel

_ 20 oz.

2.66

2.29

2.10

W. Indies

3.22 1.72 1.92

3.23 1.72 1.92

Taiwan Malaya Malaya

1.96 2.00

1.96 2.03 2.00 1.94

Israel

FLUE-CURED TOBACCO EXPORTS FROM RHODESIA, ZAMBIA, Destination

Jnited

1962

Kingdom

Germany, West •Jetherlands

apan Australia

_

Malaysia®

Jelgium iouth Africa, Rep. of_

long Kong

lenmark

_

_

JSSR Switzerland Igypt . ’ranee lustria

Total '

_

_

_

_

Preliminary.



Ay. 1964 export price

1,000

1,000

1,000

U .S. cents

pounds

pounds

pounds

per pound

80,766 25,553 12,250 6,524 4,129 6,505 7,237 3,199 6,409 3,019 2,945 1,443

92,419 23,130 9,843 5,748 3,667 6,663 3,121 3,217 7,454 2,099

101,039 33,110 15,663 9,197 7,444 6,410 6,206 3,864 3,685 3,539 2,945 1,986 1,710 1,488 1,465

892

1,447 10,499 2,607 14,734

3,358 3,654 1,776 14,298

189,836

181,339

58.2 45.3 33.1 46.5 46.2 46.6 36.8 45.8 34.4 38.2 24.5 37.6 41.6 64.1 45.5 44.5

1,431

223,098

New

High the

first

iverage export value of India’s exports in January-October

1964 was equivalent to 32.4 U.S. cents per pound. Soviet Bloc countries took a very high percentage of

oz.

303 15 oz.

-

8 oz.

_

S.

Italy

Spain U.S.

Grapefruit sections:

Fancy

_

-

No. 2 Quality not specified

Pineapple

303

U.S.

slices:

Fancy Standard

_

-

21/2

(1)

_

16

oz.

(1)

20

oz.

1.58

oz.

1.94 1.75 1.78 1.82

Standard, spiral

CANNED JUICE Single strength

Orange

-

_

_

Do

.

_

_

Do

.

19 2

10 oz. 2

1.91

1.86

W. Indies Israel

W. Indies

Not quoted.

Italy's Fig

0 months of 1964 reached a record 125.6 million pounds, k6 million above the previous high set in 1962. The

ebruaty 22, 1965

Do Do

49.1

Includes Singapore and Federation of Malaya.

21/2

Choice

Grapefruit

21,916

exports of flue-cured tobacco during

-

-

Fruit cocktail:

^

ndia’s Flue-cured Exports Hit India’s

Choice 1964^

1963

570

taly

)thers

AND MALAWI

- 21/2

_

Do

Production

Down

Output of dried figs during 1964-65 in the three commercial producing regions of Italy Puglia, Calabria, and Campania is estimated at 30,300 short tons. This is 4,000 tons, or 12 percent, below the 1963-64 pack.





Total output of fresh

figs

showed a

302,700 short tons from the 1963-64

similar decline, to

level of 314,400.

Of

Page 15

DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

U.S.

WASHINGTON. D

20250

C.

U.S.

POSTAGE AND FEES PAID DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

OFFICIAL BUSINESS

To change

your address or stop mailing, sheet and send to Foreign Agricultural Service, U.S. Dept, of Agriculture, Rm. 3918, Washington, D.C. 20250. tear

off

this

1964-65

the

total,

against 123,700 in

destination

Underlying reason for the reduction is the shift of land normally used for fig production to more profitable crops. Area planted entirely to figs within the regions decreased 5,000 acres from the 1963-64 figs

dropped 32,000

(Years ending August 31)

Country of

region where output rose.

of

ITALY’S EXPORTS OF DRIED FIGS

111,400 tons were used for drying the previous year. Puglia was the only

level,

while mixed plantings

acres.

Austria

_

Puglia Calabria

1963^

1964“

1963'

1964“

1,000 acres 101 111

1,000 acres 97 101

Short

Short

15 5

1,000 acres 27 12 5

218

200

tons 14,900 12,900 6,500

tons 15,700 8,200 6,400

49

44

430

398

34,300

30,300

29

Campania Total _ '



Revised.

—up

figs

1964-65 are expected to

in

total

14 percent from those of 1963-64 and 3

percent from those of 1962-63. During 1964 Austria im-

ported 47 percent of Italy’s dried figs, thereby being Italy’s most important fig purchaser. French imports during the

same period decreased 43

percent, while exports to the

imports of dried

figs

are

continuing

Imports, at 1,900 tons, are forecast for 1964-65 crease of 800 short tons over

1963-64 and

to

rise.

—an

in-

AND DISTRIBUTION OF DRIED

FIGS

Final 1962-63

Revised 1963-64

Forecast' 1964-65

Short

Short

Short

tons

tons

tons

SUPPLY Production of dried figs Stocks, Sept. 1 Imports, Sept. 1-Aug. 31 Total supply

40,300

42,200

37,300

600 600

500

500

1,100

1,900

41,500

43,800

39,700

3,200 37,800

2,900 40,400

3,300 35,900

DISTRIBUTION Exports, Sept. 1-Aug. 31

Domestic disappearance Stocks, Aug. 31

'

500

500

500

41,500

43,800

39,700

All figures besides beginning stocks

casts.

Page 16

897 261 361

-

.. 3,170

2,873

figs

on the

calendar 1963.

ITALY’S

WHOLESALE PRICES OF DRIED

Month'

January February

May June

3.45 3.59 3.67 3.81 3.81 3.96 3.96 3.96

4.88 5.55 5.88 6.42

6.82

..

..

_

-.

July

.

August September



..

First

.

-

.

Tuesday

— — — —

3.81 ..

November December '

Cents per lb.

-

— —

1964 Cents per lb.

Cents per lb.

-..

of

7.44 8.16 9.62

4.17 4.64 4.39

3.19 4.39 4.59

figs

1963

Cents per lb. ..

-

March April

1964

1963

FIGS AT BARI Edible

Industrial figs

— — — — — — — — —

8.89 9.62 9.98

month.

Ecuador To Have Dairy Training Center

Item

Total distribution

262 583

1,300 over

1962-63.

ITALY’S SUPPLY

. 1,574 ...

-

October

United States remained almost the same. Italian

1,354



France United States Others

Preliminary.

Exports of dried 3,300 tons

tons

751

Bari market (except December) were higher than those for

1964“

1,000 acres

Short

tons

Average 1964 wholesale prices for dried

Dried fig production

Mixed

Solid-planted

1963 ‘

Short

PRODUCTION AND AREA

Area Region

1963-64

__

_

Total

ITALY’S FIG

1962-63

and production are

fore-

The Ecuadoran Minister of Agriculture and Livestock, and the Ambassador of the Netherlands recently signed a technical assistance agreement to establish a dairy training center for applied instruction and research on management and production

Under ment,

this

office

practices.

agreement, Ecuador facilities,

and

will furnish land, equip-

field

personnel,

besides

the

continuous operation of this center. The Netherlands agreed to donate modern milking expenses required

for

the

equipment and dairy buildings and

to give technical assis-

tance for a period of 5 years. In

addition,

the

government

will

provide scholarships

for study and practical training at scientific centers in the

Netherlands, also for a 5-year period. Foreign Agriculture

1965
Agriculture Economic aspects Periodicals, Produce trade Periodicals
English