Foreign agriculture :weekly magazine of the United States Department of Agriculture, Foreign Agricultural Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture

Historic, Do not Archive Document assume content scientific knowledge, reflects current policies, or practices. APRIL 8, 1963 EFTA RE-EXA...

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Historic,

Do

not

Archive Document

assume content

scientific

knowledge,

reflects current

policies, or practices.

APRIL

8,

1963

EFTA RE-EXAMINES ITS

TRADING POSITION

BUILDING FOREIGN MARKETS

FOR

SELLING

U.S.

TURKEYS

HOGS BY TELETYPE

FOREIGN AGRICULTURE Including

FOREIGN CROPS

AND MARKETS

A WEEKLY MAGAZINE OF THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

FOREIGN AGRICULTURAL SERVICE

FOREIGN AGRICULTURE Including

APRIL

FOREIGN CROPS AND MARKETS

VOLUME

8

,

NUMBER



1

1963 14

Contents

Danish butter

is

the

Denmark

EFTA Re-examines

7

How To

8

Varied Problems Highlight Agricultural Situation

Build

a

Its

Trading Position

Foreign Market for U.S. Turkeys

packed

for export to Great Britain.

Among

3

EFTA

countries,

biggest exporter of farm products. (See EFTA article, opposite page.) is

in

Lands of Asia and Oceania

9 10

Selling

Hogs by Teletype

Canada

Major Agricultural Fair— Symposium Scheduled for Europe

11

in

Crops and Markets

November

(Commodity index on page

R.

Renne, Assistant Secretary for International Affairs

Raymond A.

loanes. Administrator, Foreign Agricultural Service

Editor: Alice Fray Nelson

Associate Editor: Ruth A. Oviatt

Advisory Board: W. A. Minor, Chairman; Wilhelm Anderson, Dean,

16)

Freeman, Secretary of Agriculture

Orville L.

Roland

in

F. Leslie

Erhardt, David L.

Burton A. Baker, Douglas M. Crawford, John H.

Hume, Robert

Material in this magazine is not copyrighted; source would be appreciated.

it

0. Link,

may be

Kenneth

reprinted.

A

W.

Olson, Donald

credit line

M. Rubel.

acknowledging the

Foreign Agriculture is published weekly by the Foreign Agricultural Service, United States Departof Agriculture, Washington 25, D. C. Use of funds for printing this publication has been approved by the Director of the Bureau of the Budget (December 22, 1962). Yearly subscription rate is $5.50, domestic, $8.00, foreign; single copies are 15 cents. Orders should be sent to the Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C.

ment

EFTA Re-Examines -in

The Common Market’s bid for

Common Market s

the

light of

membership came

veto of the United as a

blow

Kingdom’s

to the seven countries

(EFTA)

of the European Free Trade Association

that

none of these countries has withdrawn

for entry, they

Meeting ial

in

which

have

petition, but ex-

perhaps the time

feels that

all

its

adopted a wait-and-see

Geneva on February

18, the

had

Today

expected to follow Britain into the Community.

cept for Austria

Trading Position

Its

is

ripe

this

EFTA

Minister-

has meant to the economic integration of Europe and

stating that

EFTA’s

task for the present

of barriers between

its

EFTA

the support of the

Meanwhile,

provide



also pledged

in

to agricultural policy

and

Austria,

—Great

Britain,

Switzerland,

and

has

Nor

policy.

fundamental changes will be needed of support

to

farmers

local

Some changes by

statements

of

are

not been

time to

clear

whether

is

it

in the

present system

through direct government

payments based on guaranteed prices inevitable

government

to producers.

and have been indicated

The

officials.

recent

on the question

as

it

pertains

points the

way toward future trends. House of Commons on February

In a debate in the

a

number of

items,

also confirmed the need for "a strong

combined with free and prosperous

He agri-

cultural industry.”

Mr. Harold Woolley, president of the powerful National Farmers’

system

Union,

we

has

repeatedly

operate under,

ideally suited

is

United Kingdom

12,

the Prime Minister stated that "the present system of open-

that "it

trade.

an-

nouncement of the results of the annual price review, which establishes the level of the guaranteed prices, also

sit-

From U.S. agricultural have come the following re-

light

The United Kingdom’s

new

Since the

entry often at far lower prices, has serious drawbacks.”

trade.’’

"What now?"

which throw some

there

negotiations,

formulate an entirely

Market.

ended subsidy on

Sweden,

these countries

Common

the

world

government leaders have been assessing the

uation and asking,

ports

to

entering

countries to "all practical pro-

in the countries themselves

Norway,

Denmark,

The Council

members.

posals designed to increase

attaches

breakdown of

stimulus to trade by pursuing the dismantlement

a further

Portugal

must be

the country’s

attitude.

Council issued a communique regretting the setback that

exclusion of Great Britain

the

pointed

1947 and

out

that

1957

for the circumstances of this country”

would be

"the

Acts,

is

and

a reckless folly to scrap the structure that

regarded with admiration and indeed with some envy

by many foreign countries.” agricultural planning during the

past 2 years has been based largely

on the assumption of

Some

feel

that

Britain’s

policy

now

will

be

directed

toward preparing for entry into the European Economic

Swiss haying scene, typical of

EFTA

countries

'

Among

those at

in

Geneva

to

right:

EFTA

the

meeting

in mid-February were, left j

Swedish Minister of Agri-i Holmquist; Swiss Foreign

culture

i|

Wahlen; Austrian Ministers

Minister

I

of Trade Bock; Austrian Foreign Min-\ is ter Kreisky; Swedish Minister of

Trade Lange; and Swiss Minister of

Commerce

Community

some not too

at

Mr. Edward

distant future.

Heath, chief negotiator for Great Britain, on January 30 in his

concluding speech of the

final

"we

"Six” and Britain, stated that

meeting between the

in Britain are not

going

out British participation.

work out some form of would be interested in products

agricultural

\

Schaffner.

Also, that

the British could

if

association with the

EEC, Denmark

a similar arrangement, provided

could

\

on the same

enter

basis

its

as j

our back on Europe,” and later in the House of

to turn

Commons he cies

"We

said,

must be borne

in

mind

world markets,

own

its

it

is

agriculture,

back on

its

Commonwealth

certain

home

On numerous

sup-

occasions,

countries,

EFTA

its

its

partners,

trial

products in exchange for the right to

this,

the largest agricultural import market in the world. this rather

complicated task,

it

sell

produce

would appear

in

that

long-time changes in agricultural policy will probably be

made tion,

very gradually.

present level of

home produc-

which provides about half of the food requirements

of the country, ture,

The

is

considered by the Minister of Agricul-

according to his recent statement, as being about right.

Changes

in the policy suggest a gradual reduction of the

present large outlays by the Exchequer for direct payments

other

Agriculture, in his

announcement of the

are being asked to restrict their production, steps

volume local

is

ducing

tariffs

bilities

of

within the

As

countries.

on

agricultural commodities

annual

reviews

of

The Danish Government larger outlets for

its

and the

also

to

curtail

imports,

particularly

may be

where the

such as to endanger the price structure on the

is

markets

and

Exchequer.

to

result

in

a

larger

—Robert

outlay

by

the

N. Anderson

re-

feasi-

developments

agricultural

enough market

much

ready buys 70 percent of is

no

its

restriction

Britain,

an attempt to find new or

now

countries.

be of

to

negotiating with

is

in

products

Common Market

and there

EFTA

EFTA.

Sweden, and other countries

other

permanent

a result, the

expected to investigate the possibilities for

sold to

Only

help.

Germany and

Britain

is

a large

However, Britain

al-

bacon imports from Denmark,

When Denmark

on imports.

requested an increase in the British quota for Danish butter,

the British

quotas for

all

Government responded by

increasing the

suppliers by 5 percent, but this will be of

only modest assistance to Danish farmers.

Danish agricultural leaders maintain that

recent price review, mentioned that since British farmers

necessary

member

Council

to farmers.

The Minister of

ac-

reductions on manufactured

tariff

broader coverage for agricultural products was sought from

or other countries which provide markets for British indus-

With

intra-EFTA

celeration of

products to keep in step with the EEC, in return for which

its

have reiterated that Britain will not turn

also, officials

Ministerial Council meeting at

industry must

which assures

and saves foreign exchange.

plies

is

In doing so, Britain does not intend to aban-

down.

prices

don

in

EFTA

preferable to keep food

primarily an industrial country, and since

compete

countries.

Geneva, the Danish Government proposed a further

United Kingdom

that the

member

At the February

shall seek to coordinate our poli-

with the Community as far as possible.”

It

those of

to continue to sell a large part of

West Germany, and strenuous

efforts

maintain the entry into that market.

many should it

sells

it

is

essential

Danish farm products

They

in

be made to

will

feel that

Ger-

Denmark buys more there than and should arrange with the EEC to make special realize that

arrangements to permit entry of Danish agricultural products.

The

recent

West German-Polish

trade agreement in-

creasing agricultural imports from Poland was mentioned

Denmark

as

Although Danish leaders were dismayed by the break-

down

of

EEC-UK

negotiations to which

its

own member-

ship application was tied, the government stated

it

would

not consider membership or association at this time with-

Page 4

an example of special arrangements. Agricultural leaders also feel that neighboring countries

should realize that than

its

soil

Denmark

has no natural resources other

and should permit Denmark

to sell

ucts at prices covering the costs of production.

its

prod-

In spite of

Foreign Agriculture

;

Left, prosperous

Illl,

Norwegian farm.

H

Norway

k

with high support prices for

is

a food-deficit country

both grain and livestock products.

'

1/4

'

l i

Famous Danish Landrace pigs are scientifcally fed so they will produce the

maximum

of

and the minimum of for a given amount of feed. lean meat

fat

I

M

problems, they feel that they can arrange for continuing i

exports during the next

few

years.

—Harold

L. Koeller

ts |j

Norway

is

After the rupture of the United Kingdom’s negotiations J

with the EEC, the Norwegian Government stated that there absolutely

is ]|

mon Market

no question of Norway’s joining the Comunless the United

Kingdom

Govern-

joins.

i

ment spokesmen

stressed the necessity to seek, mainly in

EFTA, Nordic

1

the

Council, and

OECD,

ways and means of

finding a solution of current difficulties. to

They continued

emphasize, however, that the eventual goal of an ex-

panded

EEC

remains valid for Norway.

Norway’s agricultural leaders have not been so concerned with the postponement of Norway’s possible ad-

herence to the f

Denmark.

EEC

This

deficit country,

is

as their counterparts in

due

to the fact that

come gradually

agricultural leaders

to the conclusion that

ture could adjust to

Common Market

without unbearably

price levels

believe that

bership

disastrous

many

subsidies

agriculture as well as

some

production patterns.

A

those in the mountains

sidered marginal

and com-

EEC memfor a

farms on the better

both crop and livestock

shift in

large

dis-

enjoyed by Norwegian

number of

and on poor

farms, especially

soils,

must be con-

soils

after

EEC

membership.

probably could adjust to

Larger

Common

Market conditions through shifting from one crop other and

large

from an economic viewpoint, and most of

would disappear

these

now

had

agricul-

membership would make necessary the

continuation of

Y

problems, a consid-

difficult

number of them continue to would be difficult if not of Norwegian farmers.

Norwegian

erable

Certainly,

a food-

uneconomic production for

While many

"security” reasons.

part

is

with high support prices for both grain and

livestock products to encourage

petition

neighboring

Norway

from one

to an-

from more efficient through machinery, more fertilizer and pesti-

livestock product to another, or

grain to livestock; and by becoming

more or better cides, improved seeds, and higher-producing livestock. In the meantime, Norwegian agriculture expects to go along use of

April

8,

1963

Swedish scene

and



cooperative grain elevator,

in foreground, timber that has been floated

down

river

from cutting area

to the

saw

mill.

Page 5

about as

has been, with the same subsidization and the

it

same surpluses of export,

to

difficult

certain

which

products

livestock

are

and only then with costly subsidies.

— Harold

alternative

and

dangerous as to make

sideration only

Koeller

L.

believed to be so economically unattractive

is

politically

if

it

Austria must, therefore, in the opinion of press for an early association with the

Sweden

Market.

Though

Government had assumed

the Swedish

Kingdom and

negotiations between the United

would be

and

despair,

it

the

EEC

breakdown was no cause of

their

successful,

that the

implied no catastrophe for Sweden.

Sweden would, of

course, continue to

rope’s economic integration.

up to the EEC to make the next move. Sweden along with the other EFTA countries

is

working

in

its

agricultural production

For some years, agricultural output has remained

country’s foreign trade

carried out largely with

is

two European trade groups

For that reason, Sweden

EFTA

keep

tariff

feels

it

—EFTA

necessary to

and trade barrier reductions abreast of

EEC

those occurring in the

make

so as to

the ultimately

to

36 percent of Sweden’s agricultural exports the EFTA countries, including the United King-

dom, and 44 percent to the EEC area. Trade with the seems to be on the increase at the expense of trade

EFTA nations.

In general, traditional production and

trade patterns will persist, at least for the next

few

is

in

the

his-

li

member countries of the EEC, members in EFTA. The veto of the

fellow

its

plication

membership

for

the

in

well as

as

cuss

British apIK

EEC was

surprise to

a

They considered

the

membership

that their associate

Community depended

in

upon the

suc-

and ultimately other nations becoming

full

to a great extent

tilt

cess of Britain

If

members.

And

while the Swiss have no intention of withSEV

drawing

their proposal for associate

membership, they

feel iffi

that time will be required to effect a readjustment of condi-

[01

Switzerland has a keen interest in European integration an

and has repeatedly expressed occupy a place

in

a unified

desire

its

Europe and

continue

to

economic

af-

to its

21

The

fairs.

—both

country’s agriculture continues to be a

on the domestic and the international

problem

level.

Its ::

years.

—Einar

high agricultural costs and the desire to encourage the sup-

Jensen

port of the agricultural economy to the point of subsidizing

production remain major problems.

Austria

Of

interest

tions brought about by the veto.

EEC with

grounded deeply

Ellertson

economic, and political relationships between Swit-

zerland and the

1962,

were

C.

la

expected merger as painless as possible. In

Switzerland’s

them.

the countries of the

and EEC.

—Norris

too

unchanged.

The

"incompatible with

is

Switzerland

torical,

the most successful country

the world in implementing

policy.

EEC

membership with the

Union

Soviet

position that Austrian

its

the obligation assumed under the 1955 State Treaty.”

to

strengthen cooperation within the Association. still is

Geneva conference. The

meanwhile, re-emphasized

it

Meanwhile,

is

Common

nations approved of this action at the

application for association

Its

with the Community has not been withdrawn; however,

Sweden has been and

EFTA

recent (February 18) has,

leaders,;

its

European

intends to do so, and was gratified that the

It

remaining

associate

work toward Eu-

an option for con-

other arrangements do not materialize.

Furthermore, there

a

is »

a definite trend in the reduction of the active

EFTA

the seven

countries, only Austria

EEC

thinking in terms of approaching the

is

farm popula-

currently

for early

mem-

it

tion of the country.

Swiss leaders plan no further formal initiative with

reE

bership.

The Austrian Foreign

Bruno Kreisky,

Minister, Dr.

spect to

membership

in the

EEC

at the

They

present time.

to-

are

maintaining a position of waiting for developments

gether with Dr. Fritz Bock, Minister of Trade, outlined the

Austrian position to the

EFTA

ference in mid-February.

nations at the

including the

While

ment’s resolution to solidify

its

Geneva con-

from forthcoming conferences of other international bodies,

reiterating his

ties

EFTA

with

governnations,

develop some

Dr. Kreisky pointed out that preservation of Austria’s export markets in the

Some 50

nomic problem. go

to the

common

EEC was

the country’s foremost eco-

percent of

all

tariff

Austrian exports

1,

1963,

and intensify Austria’s export problem. its

exports go to

EEC

nations,

Austrian agriculture, in particular, Dr. Kreisky said, must find

some arrangement

munity.

The

to continue trading

with the

substitution of variable levies for tariffs,

exports of livestock and

now dairy

products to the Community, he added.

For Austria, the immediate alternative trade levels with

EEC

countries

with Soviet Bloc nations. availabilities

Page 6

Both

is

Portugal feels that

member full

A

to

its

advantage

Market, either

to

become

a

an associate or

as

years, its

and naturally wants trade it

is

with

with

to retain them.

OECD

EEC

countries,

countries, but

and

more

with Britain.

it is

tiles,

trade, this

many

a fairly large portion of

an expansion of trade terms of commodity

is

The country had wanted to join along with now that Britain is not to be admitted Portugal may reappraise its position.

large portion of

In

in

it

Common

Portugal has had important trading arrangements with Britain for

of

and economic dependence on such

member.

at this time,

continued high

to

of the

Great Britain, but

Com-

being applied by the EEC, would raise almost insurmountable barriers to Austrian

Portugal

adjustments in the

external tariff to be put into effect by July

Because 75 percent of

—Print Hudson

ket countries.

EEC, and the proposed

will complicate

EFTA meetings in May, and the outcome of GATT. In the meantime, they hope to type of relationship with the Common Mar-

negotiations in the

1962 Portugal’s chief exports were

and Port wine, going mostly

Great Britain, and

its

to the

fish,

cork,

United

tex-

States,

European trading partners.

—Roy

Sellers

Foreign Agriculture

t

— ,

®tt con-

How To

Build a Foreign

p

e.

lets,

non

for U.S. Turkeys

Market

the:

the

David L. Hume, Assistant Administrator Foreign Agricultural Service, tells the Pacific Dairy and Poultry Association why we should try to sell our turkeys abroad and how to go about it.

ion

ian

'ith



-on

It

we should be

timely that today

particularly

is

dis-

cussing the foreign aspects of our poultry business.

We

two

direc-

^

are in a real sense at the fork of the road, with tions facing us

We „

— and

alternatives always require decisions.

on the one hand with the force of pro-

are faced

Western Europe.

This protectionism

expressing

is

Turkeys have been featured

most U.S. trade exhibits

at

many Europeans

abroad, so that

tectionism evolving in our most valuable overseas market

several forms, but mainly in the fields of economics,

and

in

I

and health barriers

sanitary

These are

to trade.

them.

are familiar with

itself in

real prob-

me

merchandising organization told

tional

that his calcula-

lems and could give the fainthearted cause for taking that

tions indicated that the approximately 18 million

pounds of

fork of the road which leads away from exports, which

turkeys exported in

l-l/

and which withdraws from the

turns inward,

the

new

lands far from home.

Some

insecurity of

will take this road,

time being) because in truth, the lifeblood of

the U.S. poultry industry



is

is

another fork which

and Denmark But there

—unlike those of

its

the Netherlands

the peak of their marketings in the fall of that year.

In other words, at times

I

believe

and

will consciously continue to follow,

proximately balance,

demand

this

some of us one leads

to

It

Decade of change

of turkeys

than

1

at

Ten

West Germany.

is

around

may be

turkeys

relatively small, they can

than

5

years ago exports

Some

Last year turkey

engaged

37 million pounds, which amounted to 3

can

I

And how

my

time and resources?

whereas

now

The changes you

all.

I

Furthermore,

production.

they are going to

some 50

to

countries.

remind you of the great variety

our turkey products today as compared to

when we

offered

virtually

a

single

item:

in

10 years ago

New York

considered in the backdrop of the total business

of the industry the foreign deal

is

indeed a modest

However, turkey exports generally move overseas est

volume

when even to

in

Most of you know

the total market,

demand can be

affair.

in great-

very valuable

including returns of producers.



is

It

where

In

it

is

How how

find out

without overextending

this

Frankly, these are difficult ques-

—of

is

no

secret that in

essential

that every producer

and

This

under-

is

America the margin of

been pinched down to the point

for trade to be conducted

time does not lend

ately obtaining large

it

Indeed, the top economist of a na-

I

turkeys and other products too

in

large

Generally speaking, the state of the foreign market at this

these three months.

1963

I

volumes so that an individual can take enough money home to pay his rent and feed and clothe himself and family.

ticular, are

8,

do

can

looking for the big-volume customer.

standable.

1961 about 40 percent of the annual volume moved during

April

I

How

as well as

dealer in our industry

August, September, and October, a period

small additional

can

profit in our industry has

dressed, fresh chilled or frozen.

When

Common

tions to answer.

in the nature of our products are familiar to

need only

with the

market receive are:

in servicing the foreign

10 years

tries,

— even

strike.

get into this business?

ago turkeys were exported to three or four foreign coun-

national

producers.

of the most frequent questions which those of us

done?

of

to

1962 they were 32

In

Steps to take

it’s

percent

1961

in

Market and the year-end dock

have an extremely

on returns

effect

turkey exports are growing.

million pounds per year were less

percent of total U.S. production.

exports were

demand.

Today our most important foreign

was Canada.

offshore customer

this "additional”

worth emphasizing, that even though exports of

percent greater

years ago our most important foreign customer for

demand apmuch additional

supply and

to account for a relatively large increase in price.

is

And

turkeys

when

doesn’t take very

important and beneficial

those markets far away from home.

Ten

it

Exports can and do contribute to

domestic market.

cents

2

per pound in improved returns of turkey producers during

and, no doubt their businesses will flourish and expand (at least for the

1959 accounted for about

is

new

necessary

itself to the

volumes of

in

many

to

start

prospects of immedi-

trade.

Turkeys, in par-

parts of the world,

on the

basis

and therefore

of small samples.

Page 7

And

we

so

are talking to a large ex-

pioneering job that

tent about a

mains

however, by which you can gradually

move ground

First,

much

which

I

was

prospect

lating

is,

learn something

from every Foreign

not

is

The

in

Washington have

You

tries.

requesting them from us. these people,

to

food

economic

lists

by

Write

to

bank something about prosdoing business

Through

countries.

in

foreign

within

years

United

may be

able to give

Through

office.

the

sys-

regulations,

understanding

These

you

foreign

publications

at

You

modest can do

are

packaging

marketing.

available

time.

If

Of

fiscal

you

or

you

and will

later it

be

will

an

not

already

this activity

to an actual sale.

make two

Sooner sales,

not be long before you exporter

have enough business eign trip to your Page 8

agricultural

United

imports

$1,180 million

supplied

States

—about

14 percent

less

than the year before but well above

1956-60 average.

Most of

shipments to the area moved under

new

and

may even

Biggest

were Japan and the

customers

From Far

Eastern

the

countries,

United States bought about $700 mil-

worth of argicultural products



1962

chiefly

coconut products, and third

the

of

on

production

of

communes were downgraded,

total

—was

still

growing, though

sugar,

in

rubber,

About

tea.

came

from

a

the



the it

the area’s

farm prod-

world’s

crisis

may now have

tecting foreign exchange reserves

try.

and

in the cotton textile indus-

Agriculture remained highly pro-

ductive,

markets.

from

eased

slightly in the absence of natural dis-

Grain imports declined some-

asters.

what

in

1962, though

and

5

million

still

between 4

Imports

tons.

are

scheduled to continue in 1963.

Oceania moves ahead In Australia, a recent excess of im-

ports

was

offset

by an inflow of for-

eign capital, and major export prices

were favorable, owing

to

large sales

of wheat to Mainland China, wool to

These and other

sales

may help com-

pensate for the possible loss of U.K. dairy markets.

In

New

payments problem,

A

improving.

but

cereals

its

emphasis

toward

is

Zealand, the

though acute,

is

highly restrictive im-

port licensing program adopted early

was

the year

land too seeks against

U.K.

export

later eased as

new

New

Zea-

markets, hedging

sales losses.

fastest

slowed somewhat

response to government actions pro-

to justify a for-

private

and some free marketing were

Indonesia, and Malaya combined.

slump

tools;

labor was shifted to rural areas; the

in

to a

chemical

and farm

earnings turned upward.

in

first”

Industry was directed to con-

Philippines; another third, from India,

ucts

Commu

"agriculture

Japan, and meat to the United States.

Philippines.

fiscal

come

the

About half the U.S. farm

Government programs.

an

declared

fertilizers, insecticides,

Japan and of grain to India and

to

money

will

In April 1962, the Chinese

centrate

1962, totaling more than $3 the

cut-

continues

crisis

The food

area’s

The economy of Japan

doing business, eventually will lead

China's

3.

the

and

under Public Law 480.

farm

more gradual

best cash customer for U.S.

you are

to be

grains and cotton continued to

nists

of these things with-

out investing a great deal of

and

to

prices. all

had

ting commercial imports, though food

permitted.

for the last

lion

requirements, and other facts helpful in

to the disappointing lag

battled by stimulating exports

output has remained nearly unchanged

cash

garding the economies, marketing import

s

rate,

of agricultural production.

India’s chronic trade deficit

plots

of

re-

tems,

owing

in the rise

over the past few years, and per capita

U.S.

much information

published

has

dif-

States.

Department

U.S.

reduced

a

occasionally

shifting

of increase has become

Department of Commerce

the

was

from

arising

Pakistan.

to potential customers.

field

largely

less financial risk

the

Also, your bank

Commerce

progress

Zealand, steady

decline occurred in exports of cotton

than you can making open sales to a

your

New

Far East rose 2 points, but the rate

the proper use of

export business with

Visit

agriculture over industry.

Total agricultural production in the

the

you leads

new em-

you can frequently do

a letter of credit

customer

continuing

the

Far East advances slowly

in

for

In

countries.

hampered by balance of payments

billion,

pects

China,

upon

Find out from the foreign departa

many

forced a strong

crisis

can use.

ment of

in

In Australia and

you what they

tell

at

f Jilt

Communist

of

lists

describe your products,

and ask them

con-

policy.

number of coun-

can obtain these

also continJl5

grow, but

to

receive.

and actual customers of U.S.

poultry products in a

commodities

export patterns.

Agricultural

the

economy

In India, the

ued

This

ficulties

in

re-

slowed pace of eco-

the

to

single let-

you write, every reply you

Far

the

In

this

however, you will

important thing

1962.

farm

to

tributed

India or Thailand or Iran, Colombia,

potential

as the Japanese

diet improves.

will

nomic advance

and scores of other countries.

Service

and livestock products

inter-

immediate carlot

for

during

wide variety of problems

a

phasis

We

customary

its

replies,

you now there

tell

Oceania East,

business for turkeys or U.S. broilers in

ter

played

letters to agri-

American embas-

they will be truthful

can

I

m id

key role in the economies of Asia and

number of these replies The reason for be discouraging. for

(tatii

without

field

A

that

Lands of Asia and Oceania

in

f.

would write

sies in countries in

is

Situation Agriculture

attaches at

ested.

St

investment.

I

cultural

back-

gain

to

foreign

the

in

much

too

begin

and

in

Varied Problems Highlight Agricultural

There are ways,

be done.

to

re-

shifting

fruits, vegetables,

Based on The 1963 Far munist

China,

Situation,

Oceania

published

USDA’s Economic

in

East,

Com-

Agricultural

March

Research

by

Service

and obtainable from the Division of Information, Management Operations Staff, USD A, Washington 25, DC. Foreign Agriculture





Hogs by Teletype

Selling

Canada

in

I

Ontario’s

up with

hog producers have come

way of marketing

novel

a

mand

for hogs together with the clos-

to $5 per hundred weight higher than those in the

have averaged $3

ing price for the previous week, sets

live

the starting price for the machine.

United

se

hogs that has resulted in higher

re-

The master

turns to farmers and processors alike.

teletype lowers the price

States.

Meat processors

find the system sat-

n

They

hogs electronically by

sell their

one of the op-

5 cents per cwt. until

isfactory

Every

too.

buyer

has

an

e

erators at the 18 buying centers presses

teletype.

equal opportunity to obtain the vol-

lag!

^

2

May

old this

years

child of the

Hog



the brain-

is

someone

a button, thus signifying that

This electronic hog-selling system n

Producers Marketing

wants to make a purchase.

The

tele-

type then stops, and a light flashes in

ume he wants

at a

given price, which

the buyers themselves can establish.

Like anything new, teletype selling

t

Board of Ontario, Canada’s most im-

the

central

giving the

office

buyer’s

has yet to endure the

test

of

time.

)(j

portant

hog-producing and pork-con-

suming

province.

number.

If the price

drops $1 before

Meanwhile,

the

system

continues

to

1C

master

ing Federal

f

offered for sale.

a|

connects

il

ie

commercial hav-

plants

to

Government grading

q.

a

Toronto,

in

the

all

hogs going

slaughter

in.

machine

teletype

which

over

of

consists

It

The master

are

teletype

lot

again that day or

price,

to

government

official

Ontario and one in Quebec,

ses.

The packing

tario

Hog

e

e

producers had tried to develop a cooperative

agency

sales

that

would

handle their hog marketings successfully.

It

know

was

the

packing plant,

So

far,

the Producers Board charges

operating costs, most farmers believe

ing

that

completely satisfac-

asked

teletype

COMPANY

OF

CANADA

sell-

Canadian hog prices

data about hogs for sale to the

central

a

BELL TELEPHONE

referendum

Bell

the

Telephone Company of Canada velop

show

Right master teletype that sends

they

ONTARIO HOG PRODUCERS CO-OPERATIVE SALES SYSTEM PREPARED BY

Results

marketing meth-

Finally,

tory.

first

marketing board, pro-

None was

ods.

Rossiter

they are receiving a fair price for their

established.

several

J.

hogs, partly because there are no "hidto the producer.

tried

— Fred

hog producers have been

20 months of teletype

ducers

interest.

On-

Also,

a favorable

watching the Canadian ex-

for each carcass on the basis of grade

of the

a

are

—and

American

and weight.

den costs”

establish

hog producers of Ontario

of the whole of North

who

among

Producers Marketing Board

and hogs were often delivered, even

Armed with

for itself

grades the carcasplant pays the

slaughtered, before the price had been

to

the

good name

a

were shipped

plants,

build a

periment with

the farmer 42 cents per head to cover

packing

with

the

Though

than

less

and shippers sometimes be-

affiliated

until

when

15 percent of the hogs

came

over

well satisfied with the teletype setup.

through the terminal markets. truckers

to offer the

lower starting

for farmers to

difficult

the market price

it

general

After the purchased hogs have been

chines in 17 packaging houses across

For about 10 years, Ontario’s hog

the

sale.

at

buying

teletype

at a

hold

following day’s

slaughtered

with

made,

managers decide whether

ma-

1

1

been

has

sale

a

,

18 buying centers.

Below, York-

shire hogs, typical breed marketed.

to de-

system

for

marketing hogs. Selling

by

teletype

operates

this

way: Farmers deliver their hogs to one

managed by the

of 45 assembly yards

Hog sive

Producers Board,

buying agency

the hogs are

now

the exclu-

Canada. There,

in

marked with

tattoos de-

noting ownership and are assembled into truck loads or multiples of such.

The assembly yard manager then phones the central give the

ready for

Every

office in

number of hogs

tele-

Toronto in each

to lot

sale.

Monday

after

reviewing

April

8,

1963

the

the

central

supply

office,

and

de-

Page 9

provide a dramatic introduction

will

Major Agricultural Fair-Symposium

as the first point in the exhibit.

One



Scheduled for Europe

a

A

major U.S. food and agricultural

ments

food and agricultural technol-

in

the

largest

displays



November

in

of

covering 16,000 square feet

modern food market

sale

will be

offering

for

an array of U.S. food products.

in

ogy, in Europe, in the United States,

U.S. trade cooperators will have spe-

by the Unit-

and elsewhere, have introduced many

cial

ed States Department of Agriculture

new

fruits

and cooperating U.S. food and

and technical nature,

exhibit-symposium

Western Europe

be

will

this fall

held

agri-

The

exhibit will take place

7-24

Building

the

at

Amsterdam, the Nether-

in

exhibition

sites.

ance from

all

be

Novem-

trade

Widespread attend-

of Western Europe will

The

invited.

Europe

of

relations

U.S.

Secretary

Freeman,

and

the

nouncement

making

the

States

Europe and the United most

world’s

the

as

active

trading partners, with food and agri-

in

"In carrying out any business op-

trade,

is

it

magnitude of desirable

this

we

to

expect

of as

our Euroit

to

be to

U.S.

two-

from time

to

time to take inventory, examine prob-

and organizations

firms

the

of

following

Europe

States to discuss

atmosphere

a

and in

an open friendly

wide range of matters

that concern our respective

food and

agricultural

including

those

of

relationships,

technology,

distribution,

and trade

marketing and policy.

"For example, the rapid advance Page 10

between Europe and the United

Washington

Agriculture,

DC.; Food and

pean

hibition

U.S.

to

commercial

tural

materials,

throughout

mainly

the

how

both

to

the

to

A

sponsoring

been

world

will

general

"theme

U.S.

their

Also, there will be exhibits

U.S. hides and skins and

leaf.

and demonstrations of

inspection

and grading proce-

farm exports must meet high

They

will

also

indicate

U.S. methods of protecting and

West European needs. • At least two major demonstra-

tion kitchens, supervised by trade rep-

since

1955,

offer

public

and

theater”

and home economists, will

prepare U.S. foods for sampling. U.S. -style

barbecue exhibit will

A also

prepare U.S. foods for sampling.

attractions to

trade representatives of the Continent.



distribute

will demonstrate,

improving food quality can be adapted

European-

at international trade fairs.

The program

process

raw agricul-

and hand out samples of

resentatives

has

or

These firms

that U.S.

23,

the Netherlands.

Department

U.S.

that

dures will show European consumers

of

Amsterdam,

Building,

firms

made from

• Displays

Agriculture Inforfor

feet will be

and associated Euro-

foods

standards.

Center

States,

variety of Euro-

About 20,000 square

rented

U.S.

Agricultural

Department

U.S.

wide

relat-

pean products that U.S. consumers buy.

International Trade Fairs Di-

Service,

exhibit,

two-way trade

extensive

will display the

tobacco

United

the

the

made from

dresses:

Foreign

and

of seeds and feedstuff s and products

ad-

mation

Western

complementary

sell,

American Trade, c/o R.A.I. Ex-

bring together respected leaders from

A

products.

either

rice,

meat,

honey,

products,

to

Amsterdam Exhibit-Symposium, may write to

helpful answers. to

ing

wishing information about par-

lems constructively, and seek mutually

"At the symposium we hope

soybean

foods.

ticipation in the

wheat,

vegetables,

processed food items.



The food and agriculture exhibition Amsterdam will be part of the

vision,

trade.

way

as

and

and

ourselves.”

culture a highly important part of this

eration of the

pertinent,

and value

interest

pean friends

an-

exhibit will be presented in a context

of Western

much

the

continuing series of exhibits that the

"This symposium-

said:

program timely and

make

to

promoting poultry,

booths



do our best

will

Or-

Agriculture

of in

"We

two-way

active

United States will be emphasized.

ville

affecting internal

international trade.

Exhibition

R.A.I.

one of the Continent’s leading

lands,

scientific

production and distribution as well as

cultural groups.

ber

of a purely

questions

production



A

trade

lounge will provide a

place for European trade representatives

and businessmen

to

meet with

their U.S. counterparts.

Foreign Agriculture

Ecuador Plans a Better Livestock Economy

CROPS AND MARKETS

In

with the further development of

line

livestock

its

Government of Ecuador was recently granted $500,000 from the U.S. Export-Import Bank for the purchase of 400 beef cattle and 200 dairy cattle from the Unitindustry, the

ed

Northern Ireland Searchs for Pork Outlets Three Northern Ireland bacon-producing firms are operating with the pig marketing board in an effort

new

find

A

pork

outlets for

fourth test pork shipment

ship

to

is

An

officer

it

was possible

to the

go

tons.

ian requirements

Canada.

in

to

The

about cutting techniques there.

all

United

Canada

to

carcasses

accordance with the Canad-

be used partly

to

Veterinary Science, University of Guayaquil.

The government providing land,

The

plans to match funds for this project by

and crops.

cattle,

control of livestock diseases

very important for

is

the development of a versatile livestock industry in Ecua-

During the past

coast, including

several provinces along the

year,

Guayas, Eloro, and Las Rios, continued to

report foot-and-mouth

Venezuela has

disease outbreaks.

offered to provide Ecuador with 100,000 units of vaccine to

combat

A

this

problem.

Dutch firm has been authorized

to

extend to Ecuador

and shipped uncured ready for meat pack-

$3.6 million for the purposes of importing dairy

The

establishing a quarantine station,

three completed

trial

shipments have

been received by different firms and each has arrived

all

culture and

dor.

to ship the trial runs, representatives to

also requested $1 million

equipment and scholarships for the School of Agri-

for

ship-

trial

of the pig marketing board reported that, be-

were then cut and trimmed

ers in

Two

Canada and one

from each of the three companies had learn

to

enroute to Canada by

Each consignment weighed about 10

States.

co-

United States and Canada.

containers.

refrigerated

special

in

ments have already gone

fore

in the

The government has

States.

from the United Nation’s Special Fund

nical aid

cattle,

and providing more

tech-

and training for Ecuadoran veterinarians.

satisfactorily.

New Australian

Meat Shipments to the

Three ships

left Australia the first

Eight ships are scheuled to leave

U.S.

and second weeks of

March with 12,541,760 pounds of beef, 3,017,280 pounds of mutton, 188,160 pounds of lamb and 22,400 pounds of variety meats for the

United

Zealand Meat Shipments to the U.S.

April with States

— 21,616,000 pounds

000 pounds

for the

West

Destina-

sailing date

1

tion

Arrival date

Sailing date

Zealand Star City of Birkenhead

Pounds Orleans

Apr.

1

(Beef

857,920 940,800 (Beef 824,320 Mutton 434,560 (Beef 367,360 353,920 ] Mutton (Beef 349,440 145,600 ] Mutton (Beef 3,214,400 519,680 j Mutton Beef 396,480 (Beef 723,520 (Var. meats 6,720 (Beef 33,600 170,240 ) Mutton 221,760 (Beef 112,000 ) Mutton 3,463,040 f Beef 168,000 1 Mutton Lamb 33,600 499,520 (Beef -{Mutton 33,600 15,680 [Var. meats 613,760 (Beef 123,200 jLamb )

Tampa

Apr.

...

4

Houston

Apr.

Philadelphia

Apr. 11

New York

Apr. 18

Boston Everglades

Apr. 19 Apr. 7

Charleston

Apr. 10

Norfolk

Apr. 12

New

Apr. 14

York

tion

Mutton

8

...

April 6 April 23

East Coast do. do. do.

1

Delphic Port Jackson Monterey

April 30 April 5

Quantity

Oronsay Mariposa 1

Originally to sail

March

30;

Frost Reduces Taiwan's

The prolonged

6,272

560 3,584 11,200

West Coast

April 20 April 22 April 30

Saracen

I

Nottingham Mar. 1

Destina-

pounds

New New

Coast.

Quantity

Eastern and ...

for the East Coast, and 4,928,-

1,000

Cargo

.

Gulf ports: Lake Ontario Mar. 8

Zealand during

States.

Ship

Ship and

New

26,544,000 pounds of meat for the United

do. do. do.

now

448 3,920

224 336

sailing April 23.

1963 Tobacco Harvest

cold weather in

Taiwan during January

caused extensive front damage to one-third of the 1962-63 tobacco acreage.

Harvest

is

currently placed at 32.2 million pounds, com-

pared with the

earlier pre-frost forecast of 38.0 million

and

|

Boston

Apr. 24

Philadelphia

Apr. 26

Los Angeles

Mar. 28

W

estern ports: Sierra

...

Mar. 9

(Beef 1

San Francisco Mar. 31

Mutton

(Beef

Mutton [Lamb

1

Seattle

Portland

Apr. Apr.

6 8

Beef Beef

353,920 100,800 154,560 38,080 31,360 291,200 176,960

the 1962 harvest of 33.6 million.

After declining for a number of years, planted acreage turned upward this season in response to government policy of

supplying domestic requirements from the local crops

and affording the opportunity to export some of the lower grades of flue-cured as an additional foreign exchange earner. However, the frost nullified the as far as possible

prospective goals.

Planted acreage this season

compared with 18,300 1

Cities listed indicate location of purchaser

of arrival, but

April

8,

meat may be diverted

1963

and usually the port

to other areas for sale.

is

placed at 21,720 acres,

acres in 1962.

Most of the

increase

occurred in the Pingtung and Taichung areas.

Page

1

West Gentian Cigarette

West Germany (including West

Cigarette sales in

lin) continued to rise in 1962,

Sales of cigarettes during

downward

retail price

trends.

1962 totaled 83-3 billion pieces

from the 78.0

6.7 percent

average

Ber-

while the sales of the other

tobacco products continued their

—up

each

Sales Greater

The

billion sold in 1961.

was equivalent

The

per capita consumption by persons 15 years old and over

during 1962, was 1,858 pieces, compared with 1,756 pieces for 1961, and 1,619 pieces for I960. Filter-tipped cigacontinued to grow in popularity and accounted for

rettes

75.9 percent of total

sales,

compared with 72.8 percent

in

only

at

down

3,988 million pieces, were

The 1962 or

cents for

price per cigar rose

The per

1961.

to

5.7

from

cents

5.5

15 years old and over for last year totaled 89 pieces, com-

pared with 93 and 100 pieces for 1961 and I960.

An

average.

the 1961 level of 4.0 million.

tobacco were also

down

9-5 percent

Sales of fine-cut

from

chewing

3.6 percent.

The

countered in

its

rise

through the

9 months of

first

Cigarette output totaled 20.8 million cent

pounds

from the 20.2 million produced

If the

in

—up

1962. 3 per-

Jan. -Sept.

on crop

effect

In an effort to riety will

more

In 1962,

size.

surmount weather

be planted

1961.

this year at

obstacles,

70i

A

stil

cl

a later va-

November when

rains are less intensive.

in

W

seri

Guanacaste so that har-

vesting of the fiber could take place in

6

sa

if

1

Cloves Drops

1962

in

World

exports of cloves during 1962 amounted to 27 million pounds, 10 percent below 1961 exports of 30.5

.‘0

.

is

Shipments from Zanzibar, the world’s largest producer, totaled 17.7 million pounds, compared with 18.6 mdlion in 1961. Exports from the Malagasy Republic million.

to 9-9 million

the previous year.

Cigarette production for domestic consumption in Greece to

was only about

recent years of cultivation are

first

7

1962, or half the expects

estimated 450,000 pounds of fiber were pro

having a stunting

amounted

Greek Cigarette Output Continues To Rise

continued

in

1962, compared with 600,000 pounds in 1961. adverse weather conditions which the crop en

World Trade

smoking tobacco were 4.9 percent below the 17.4 million pounds sold in 1961. The sales of pipe

down

acre

in

Sales of fine-cut

tobaccos totaled 3.6 million pounds,

seasoi

ous weather conditions interfered with production.

consumption by persons

capita

this

i::

yield of Costa Rican kenaf

800 pounds per

duced

3

percent from the 4,112 million pieces sold during 1961.

The average

smaller

Costa Rica's Kenaf Problems

1961. Sales of cigars,

fractionally

about equal offtake and leave stocks unchanged from th near-minimum beginning carryover of 11,000 bales.

to 41.8 U.S. cents per

package of 20, unchanged from the preceding year.

was

year,

Other major suppliers of cotton to Denmark include Pen Nigeria, and Turkey. Total imports this season likely wi.

pounds,

down from

11.9 million

Zanzibar and the Malagasy Republic

supply about 98 percent of the cloves entering into world trade. A slackening of the clove demand in Indonesia, the world’s largest importer of cloves,

is

the major reason, I

for the decline.

percentage gain continued through the fourth quarter

of 1962, output for full calendar year 1962 will have ap-

Malagasy Republic's Vanilla Exports Up

proached 28 million, compared with 27.1 million for 1961.

Exports of vanilla beans from the Malagasy Republic (the world’s largest producer and exporter)

Flue-Cured Auction Sales

Open

totaled

Rhodesia

in

640 metric

The high

ous year.

Auction sales for the 1963 Rhodesian flue-cured crop

opened the

in Salisbury

first

on March

Grower

12.

prices during

3 days averaged the equivalent of 42.4 U.S. cents

per pound, compared with 43.9 cents during the

A

last year.

total of 2.4 million

pared with 2.3 million pounds

pounds were

first

week

sold,

com-

tons,

during 1962 compared with 585 tons the previ-

level of exports

is

attributed to the

larger availability of supplies

from the bumper I960 and 1961 harvests. Although the 1962 crop was reduced to an estimated 350 tons, a bumper outturn is forecast for 1963. The Malagasy Republic supplied 80 percent of the vanilla

imported into the United

the

States,

last year.

vanilla totaled

consumer.

716

tons,

Denmark's Cotton Industry Thriving

During

1962,

up from 6l 3 tons

U.S. in

world’s vanilla

largest

imports

1961.

Denmark’s cotton industry, unlike those of most Western European countries, has been busy during the first half

Brazil

of 1962-63.

1962-63 coffee marketing year (July-February) totaled 11,693,947 bags, compared with 12,489,047 bags during the same period of 1961. Exports for February 1963, how-

Domestic demand continued

the industry faced strong competition

firm,

although

from imports.

Mill consumption of cotton, which totaled 22,000 bales

(500 pounds gross) during the first half (August-January) of the current season, was about the same as in this period offtake.

last

season,

and

reflects

a continued high

If the present rate continues,

this season will

total

rate

Denmark

for the

first

half of the

current season totaled 19,000 bales, compared with 18,000 a year earlier.

Page 12

The

U.S. share of the

total, at

Coffee Exports Drop

ever, amounted to 1,511,386 month of February since 1959-

bags,

first

8 months of the

the highest

for

the

of

consumption

be near the 43,000 bales used in 1961-62.

Imports of cotton into

s

Coffee exports from Brazil for the

6,000 bales

Sugar Price Support Announced by Canada Canada

s Agricultural Stabilization Board has announced 1962 sugar support price of $12.75 per short ton of beets yielding 250 pounds of refined sugar will remain

that the

in effect for

1963.

Foreign Agriculture

'

world sugar prices remain

If s

make

to

paired

at their present height,

GRAIN: CANADIAN SEEDING INTENTIONS,

it

1963

the Stabilization Board will not be re-

quite possible

payment

deficiency

a

I960

1961

1962

1,000

1,000

1,000

1,000

acres

acres

acres

acres

525 24,013

561 24,755

450

490

26,443

26,570

24,538

25,316

26,893

27,060

11,184 6,857 561 1,366

11,530 5,529 56

11,998 5,287

11,518 5,866

668

691

1,5 66

1,522

1,538

Grain

Canadian sugar

to

Intended for 1963

II

?eet

growers for their 1963 crop.

The wholesale

from $7.20

creased af

refined price of sugar f.o.b. Montreal inin

October of 1962 to $11.95 in March

This compares with the price

1963.

United

rise in the

States of

$9.15 in October 1962 to $10.20

Austria

Exports

in

March 1963.

Winter wheat Spring wheat Total wheat 1

Oats for grain Barley

Rye ted

which have been

Austria’s exports of dried milk, for several years, increased in

1962

West Germany

pounds and Switzerland,

million

pounds.

took

Italy

received 8

million pounds to 8

1

million

3

Kingdom and West Germany,

United

Summer

2 million each.

several years, the principal

market for Austria’s cheese has all

The United States purchased The remainder of 1962 exports went to Western European countries, particularly West Germany, Belgium, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. Austrian cheese shipments. million pounds.

Mexico plans

Denmark,

and the Netherlands,

W. Germany,

3

million, Finland,

Other suppliers:

million.

1

2

France, Switzerland, Czechoslovakia.

Italy,

421

451

46,789

47,124

26,893

27,860

27,398

27,009

including

hay,

2

Provinces.

Prairie

to increase rice acreage in

331.000 acres from 1961

Major expansion

totals

1963

In

large declines as

damage and

much

for

The

to a record

dropback to

year’s

last

of 362,000.

will be in the State of Sinaloa, the pro-

Sinaloa suffered

ducer of 42 percent of the present crop.

experienced a combination of weather

it

a 45,000-acre decrease.

losses accounted

Its

of the country’s 9-percent drop in rice output.

however, has several thousand additional acres

State,

suitable for rice should irrigation by provided.

Imports of cheese were up 4 percent to 8 million pounds. Principal suppliers were million,

400 44,902

371.000 acres to counterbalance

been Italy which in 1962 took close to 80 percent of

1

2

456 44,962

Mexico To Grow More Rice

For the past

in 1961.

1962 compared with 15 million

about

fallow

Includes acreage for Prairie Provinces only.

pounds, and the

Austria exported a record 18 million pounds of cheese in

grain

2 million.

up

Butter sales in Austria were million

19 million pounds

to

Total

1

United Kingdom.

to the

rising

1

Almost half of 1962 shipments

26 percent above 1961.

went

Mixed -grains Corn for grain

More Dairy Products

Except for the 1962 risen steadily

285,000

to

figures,

Mexico’s

from an average of 190,000

in

Higher

1955-59.

rice

acreage has

acres in

yields per acre

1945-49

have helped

From 1950 through I960

production increase rapidly.

rice

acreage rose 24 percent; yields per acre, 13 percent; and

May

Philippines

Require Rice Imports

production, 40 percent.

The Philippine Republic may need rice imports in 1963 beginning about July 1. At the present per capita level, In

current supplies appear short of overall requirements.

order to stabilize prices, as milled rice

The

may

many

150,000 metric tons of

as

harvest (mainly December-January)

Almost

all

were on hand

at

was a good one, and

the beginning of the year.

of milled

may be about

1

Official

Planned increases for other grains are partly

be slightly larger than

last year,

oats. if

Wheat

to the

in

1962 reached

Most of

rice.

it

a

record

63,023 metric tons

was exported by

CONASUPO





show nearly half 30,082 tons went The 13,450 tons reported by the

statistics

the Soviet Union.

trade as going to Switzerland actually were shipped to

percent

Mexicans have increased

offset

by a

acreage will

plans are carried out.

Da-

kar (Senegal) through a Swiss firm.

above 1962, according to March intentions of farmers.

proposed reduction in acreage of

also lead

the fourth quarter.

to

Canada’s grain acreage in 1963

may

It

(Compania Nacional de Subsistences Populares) during

1961 imports (9,200 tons) were from Thailand.

Canada Plans Slightly More Grain Acreage

rice.

importation of higher grades of rice this year.

Exports

The 1961-62

resulted in a higher-than-normal pro-

exports largely to broken

be imported for domestic needs.

Philippines imported no rice in 1962.

large supplies

Crop damage has

portion of broken grains which will, in turn, limit 1963

recent years.

Not only

population, but the greater:

1959 (10

is

consumption sharply

rice it

rising

amount of milled

lb.),

I960 (15

in

because of growing

lb.),

rice

per capita

and 1961 (17

is

lb.)

However, the government has emphasized that these are Yield per

merely early-season intentions, subject to change.

More

Year 1

-percent rise in total wheat acreage.

of 1.2 million acres

is

planned for durum



A

cut

a million acres

from Saskatchewan and 200,000 acres from Alberta. Prospective barley

while oats for

all

acreage

is

up about 600,000

acres

purposes shows a planned reduction

Any

of approximately 500,000 acres.

and barley would be largely

offset

increases in

wheat

1,000

Average: 1945-49 1950-54 1955-59 1960 1961 1962 1 1 1963

Production

1963

as well as oats.

1,000

1,000

acres

Founds

cwt.

M.T.

190 235 285 352 362 331 371

1,731 1,574 1,854 2,051 2,028 2,025

3,289 3,699 5,283 7,220 7,340 6,702

149 168 240 328 333 304

by reduced acreage in 1

summerfallow

8,

acre

plantings of bread-type wheat will probably ac-

count for the

April

Acreage

Preliminary, unofficial estimates. official data, except as noted.

Compiled from

Page

1

pear pack will probably equal

Belgium-Luxembourg imports More Rice

and mixed

apricot

Rice imports into Belgium-Luxembourg for January-Sep-

tember 1962 rose to 45,200 metric tons from 36,200 in the

Much

same months of 1961. broken

rice

of the increase consisted of

imported largely for industrial purposes.

Milled and other

rice imports, at

were 2,400 more than

in

1

A

1961.

sharp decline in milled rice from the United States was

by larger quantities from Communist China, Uru-

offset

MCI

packs are expected.

fruit

Australian canned deciduous fruit exports in 1963 are

now

Shipments

1962.

in

ft

expected to exceed the record 4,280,000 cases shipped

mixed

6,400 tons for 1962,

January-September

M

Smaller canned

last year’s.

fruits are

canned

of

apricots,

canned pears may be down.

The United Kingdom

major market for Australian canned

U

K. are expected to hold

is

the

taking over 4

fruits

million cases (95 percent of the total) in 1962. to the

and

peaches,

expected to increase while shipments of

this level in

Exports

1963.

guay, Argentina, and Brazil.

BELGIUM-LUXEMBOURG: RICE IMPORTS BY COUNTRY OF ORIGIN, JANUARY-SEPTEMBER, 1961 AND 1962 Broken

Milled

Origin

Metric

Metric tons

tons 2,107 1,751 4,120 3,518 4,286

Total

Metric

Metric

tons

5,677 1,680

2,164 2,083 2,136

2,662

70

tons 2,107 1,751 5,908 3,563 4,286 2,125 2,164 10,422 3,886

11,270

22,165

2,777

36,212

1961: Argentina

Burma 1,788

Brazil

Communist China

Other

...

Egypt Spain Thailand United States Others

45

2,125

Total

1962: Argentina

1,536

Burma Brazil

Communist China

3,043 2,541

...

Thailand United States

2,513 12,793 2,418

374 353

610

1,928

6,496 1,310 2,659

200 639 746 997

4,423 13,146 5,461 5,079 6,696 3,128 2,627 4,678

28,799

5,237

45,238

1,179 1,881 1.022

Uruguay Others

11,202

Total

AUSTRALIAN PRODUCTION AND EXPORTS OF CANNED

Canned

Minimum grower

Fruit

Estimated

1960

1,000

Production Apricots

cases

1961

1,000

1

cases

1

1962

1.000

1

cases

cases

1

190

918 441

800 400

1,675 2,621

3,259 3,006

3,500 3,000

Peaches Pears

1,862 2,130

Total

4,926

5,237

4,820

7,624

7,700

360

76

317 157

350 250

Fruit

334

278 99

121

Peaches Pears

102 1,003 1,655

1,100 2,016

1,871

1,564 2,242

1,660 2,100

Total

3,120

3,493

2,861

4,280

4,360

now

estimated

Apricotts

Mixed

1

fruit

793

Cases equal 24 No. 2 V2 cans.

Spain's Table Olive Pack Small Spain’s 1962 pack of export-type olives at

1963 have

35,100 short tons

While

been established by the Australian Fruit Industry Sugar



The 1962-63

is

from the

a slight reduction

production

the

forecast,

earlier

however,

of

I

"Manzanillas”

this

season I

I

topped the 1961-62 crop by 2,900 tons, the production of Concession Committee. Prices this season

were

set at the

same

"Gordals”

(i.e.

"Queens”) was

level as last year.

These minimum prices are mandatory for processors who

produced

less

than half the amount

The production of

1961-62.

in

other exportable

varieties also declined substantially in 1962-63.

desire to qualify for domestic

AUSTRALIAN

and export sugar

rebates.

The 1962

MINIMUM PRICES FOR FIRST-QUALITY CANNING FRUIT 1

Price per short ton Fruit

Apricots Peaches, cling clear center Peaches, cling others Peaches, free stone Pears,

Bartlett

Pears,

Packham’s Triumph

....

1963

erable controversy reportedly

US.

US.

the reasons for the decline in table olive production this

dal.

dol.

dol.

dol.

60 80 76

76 88

86

52

60 84 68

86 88 84 60 84 68

76 60

88 84 60 84 68

season.

a

may

= 2i/2

1961-62 caused many new roots

amount of

Page 14

Board has not

to rot, thereby reducing the

nutrients that the trees could assimilate.

Spain’s table olive exports during the 1961-62 marketing

(December 1-November 30) totaled 48,600 short from the 62,328 tons shipped

in

1960-61

but well

above

earlier

yet released

record canned peach pack while the canned

expectations.

Export

data by country of destination are not yet available for the

62 season, but the United Fruits

estimates for 1963, but present indications point to-

new

believe that the large droppage of olives

tons, a considerable decline

Australian canned deciduous fruit pack

(24

Some

from the trees was due to the exceedingly dry and hot 1961weather during the summer of 1962, while others main1962tain that the heavy rains that fell during the winter of

basis) record set in 1962.

ward

the Spanish trade as to

1962

equal or slightly exceed the 7.6 million cases

official

among

1961

Record Large Australian Canned Fruit Pack

Canned

have been

December 1962. Also, there have been no reports of tree damage from these storms. There was, however, consid-

season

Australian

to

freezes that occcurred in

US.

Delivered either to the grower’s railroad siding or to the cannery door.

The

was reported

snow and

US.

1

The 1963

table olive crop

harvested before the

I960

84

j

Exports

over stocks were revised upward. prices for canning fruit in

si

;

!

701 233

57 6 201 2,045 2,415

Mixed

:

1,000

1,000

1

cases

1963

has been increased to 43,100 tons, since early 1962 carry-

Level

Price

i

Average 1956-60

Fruit

forecast of 36,900 tons.

Australia Sets Canning

/.

FRUITS, 1960-63

Italy

States, Brazil,

continued to be the main purchasers.

Canada, and

In the current

63 season, the Spanish trade reports that table olive exports

to

the

United

States,

Canada,

and Puerto Rico Foreign Agriculture

\f.

Ship-

otaled 6,600 short tons through February 15, 1963.

nents to Brazil during the same period

amounted

about

to

175 tons.

Up

Ceylon's Exports of Coconut Products

Ceylon’s exports of copra in 1962, at 72,382 long tons,

were nearly one-third greater than the 54,987 tons shipped

On March ninimum

the following prices were established as a

1,

for

which export permits would be issued:

Queens

Stuffed Stuffed

Manzanillas

96 1 by 11

1

Desiccated coconut ex-

ports rose by one percent to 54,913 short tons.

726 680 943 662

Second Class Queens

exports increased from

oil

percent in 1962 to 102,171 tons.

Dollars per short ton

Whole Queens

Coconut

in 1961.

Down

Greek Olive Oil Production Greece’s production of olive

1962-63

in

oil

Sharply officially

is

estimated at only 61,500 short tons compared with the

Other types and

varieties are not subject to price or trade

Processors report that the labor cost of preparing stuffed dives has increased by about

$60 per ninimum wage was increased from 60 lay

and wages for

men.

evel as for

dive oil processing las

women were Inasmuch

cents to $1.00 per

bulk of the work in

is

done by women

accounted for the major part of these increased

Another factor affecting the cost of stuffed olives the price of pimentos.

ncrease

in

dmento

prices

>ound

Packers

needed

is

report

season to an alltime high of 34.0 cents.

last

this

costs.

the that

have increased from around 11.3 cents per

>een estimated that re

same

established at the

as the

and packing

short ton since the

It

has

about 550 to 600 pounds of pimentos

to turn out

1

because of infestation of the dacus of the oil

oil

Beginning stocks

Production

Total supply

ing

booked previously for export during the 1961 -62

marketing

Queens Total (lonexportable

Total

olives

1962-63 estimate xportable quality: Manzanillas

Queens Total lonexportable Total

Short tons 24,300 14,500 9,700

Short tons 31,600 15,000 14,500

12,600

48,500

61,100

9,400

9,400

12,600

57,900

70,500

Short tons 7,300



No

imports of olive

domestic

oil are

olives

in late

sale of olive

50

percent

last year’s

is

made

The

oils.

and

oil

Others Total

lonexportable Total

olives

:



Queens Others Total lonexportable Total

olives

The

oils.

drachmas

available to wholesalers at 14.5

oil

imports for use in blending with olive

from the United

tons, largely soybean oil

through mid-March amounted

to

9,000 coming from the United

States.

Good Moisture

oil

during

Arrivals

States.

about 15,000 tons, nearly

China's Surplus Soybean Belt

in

surplus-soybean producing area of Mainland

—Northeast

(Manchuria)

China

—which

comprises

5,500 2,400

pears to have had relatively normal weather during the fall

35,100

43,100

and winter of 1962-63.

6,300

6,300

8,000

41,400

49,400

Ending

Exports

Domestic consumption

700



8,000

the provinces of Liaoning, Kirin, and Heilungkiang,

Apparently, most of the area

Over the south and

east,

precipitation has been

Short tons 3,900

Short tons 4,900

700

700

3,900

3,400

43,600

9,500

8,000

5,000

4,400



48,600

13,900

8,000

— — — —

33,200

8,100

4,400

1,900

37,600

10,000

normal

stocks

Short tons 22,800 13,600 7,200

5,000

is

above-average moisture conditions.

may have had

24,300 6,200 2,700

ap-

going into the spring planting season with average or

is

dry spell over most of the

fall

erable proportions of Harbin the Sungari River.

however,

The western

less-than-average precipitation.

reached into the northeast

try’s

1962-63 estimate xportable quality: Manzanillas

blended using

seed

per kilogram (21.9 U.S. cents per pound).

China 27,200

1961-62

Queens

the

outturn,

31,100 6,200 5,800

3,900

distribution:

Manzanillas

oil

oils are

percent

50

to greater-than-normal since last fall.

xportable quality:

from

largely

record crop.

authorized controlled blending

3

and seed

olive

exports

December.

consumption will be maintained

and

of the

latter part

additional

anticipated in 1962-63 since

heavy stocks carried forward from

The major

3,400

Others

approach 5,000

the 1962-63 marketing year are expected to exceed 25,000

500 4,800

Others

However,

year.

were prohibited by the government

Seed

apply:

1961-62 xportable quality: a Manzanillas

to

Of this quantity, nearly 4,200 tons were moved durNovember and December 1962, much having been

tons.

blend Year and type

marketing year, No-

in the current

vember-October 1962-63, were expected

Because of the reduced 1962-63 olive

TABLE OLIVE SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION 1961-62 AND ESTIMATED 1962-63

partly

however, quality

fly;

about average.

is

Exports of olive

short ton of stuffed olives.

current

the smallest since 1950-51

is

government on January

PANISH

The

record outturn of 250,000 tons in 1961-62. "offyear” oil outturn

;ontrols.

fairly

How

fringe far this

not clear; probably a severe

and winter covered considand the bean areas along

Late in January and early in February,

heavy snow reportedly covered the coun-

northeastern crop

area with

the possible

exception

of the western edge.

1,800

3,100

1,800

1,800

Canadians Plan To Plant More Oilseeds As of March this year’s

actual

1,

flaxseed,

Canadian farmers planned

to increase

rapeseed, and soybean acreages

acreages seeded in

from

1962, according to the annual

-

1

l

(

l

DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

U.S.

WASHINGTON

25, D. C.

U.S.

POSTAGE AND FEES PAID DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

OFFICIAL BUSINESS

To change your

address

or stop

mailing,

and send to Foreign Agricultural Service, U.S. Dept, of Agriculture, Room 5918, Washington 25, D.C. off

tear

label

this

Dominion BuThe "intended” acreages are merely indicative of farmers’ plans on March 1, and acreage actually seeded, therefore, may vary considerably from plans. acreage intentions survey conducted by the

reau of

CROPS AND MARKETS INDEX (Other commodity articles

Statistics.

listed

on page 2)

Cotton

12

Denmark's Cotton Industry Thriving

Dairy and Poultry Products

CANADIAN OILSEEDS ACREAGE,

AND ACREAGE

1960-62

INTENTIONS AS OF

3

1

Austria Exports

Fats, Oilseeds,

Intended acreage

Seeded acreage

1963

Oilseed acreage

Flaxseed

.

Rapeseed Soybeans

1960

1961

1962

1963

1,000

1,000

1,000

1,000

acres

acres

2,507.5

2,075.4 710.3 212.0

acres 1,414.6

acres 1,570.1

1

763.0 226.5

More

Dairy Products

3/1/63

404.5 221.0

2

as

15 15 15 15

%

of 1962

Percent 111

Fruits, Vegetables,

14 14 14

107 107

431.0 236.0

and Oils

Ceylon's Exports of Coconut Products Up Greek Olive Oil Production Down Sharply Good Moisture in China's Surplus Soybean Belt Canadians Plan To Plant More Oilseeds

and Nuts

Australia Sets Canning Fruit Price Level Record Large Australian Canned Fruit Pack Spain's Table Olive Pack Small

Grains, Feeds, Pulses, and Seeds 1

Prairie Provinces only. not available.

Dominion Bureau

2

Ontario only; estimate for Manitoba

13 13

of Statistics, Ottawa. 1

3

14

Prospective flaxseed acreage indicates an

from 1962, but

crease

a

38-percent

1957-61 average of 2.5 million flaxseed

The

is

sown

less

from the

The bulk

of the

grown in the Prairie 7 percent from 1962 but will be

than the 1957-61 average of 586,100 acres,

intentions are confirmed.

Soybean acreage

in

Canada, virtually

all

in

Ontario,

is

expected to be up 7 percent from last year. Canada’s production in 1962 of the above three oilseeds

was

15.7 million bu.;

Page

— 318 million pounds; and soybeans— million

as follows: rapeseed

1

6

6.6

bu.

May

Require Rice Imports

percent inLivestock and 1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

to rapeseed, also

Provinces, will increase

if

1

in the Prairie Provinces.

acreage

one-fourth

acres.

1

decrease

Philippines

Canada Plans Slightly More Grain Acreage Mexico To Grow More Rice Belgium-Luxembourg Imports More Rice

flaxseed



Meat Products

Northern Ireland Searches for Pork Outlets Australian Meat Shipments to the U.S. Ecuador Plans a Better Livestock Economy New Zealand Meat Shipments to the U.S.

Sugar, Fibers, and Tropical Products

12 12 12 12 12

Costa Rica's Kenaf Problems in Cloves Drops in 1962 Malagasy Republic's Vanilla Exports Up Brazil's Coffee Exports Drop Sugar Price Support Announced by Canada

World Trade

Tobacco 1

1

12 12 12

Frost Reduces Taiwan's

West German Cigarette

1963 Tobacco Harvest Sales Greater

Greek Cigarette Output Continues To Rise Flue-Cured Auction Sales Open in Rhodesia Foreign Agriculture