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Historic,

Do

not

Archive Document

assume content

scientific

knowledge,

reflects current

policies, or practices.

1 & Fo

FOREIGN AGRICULTURE

vesting grain in the

January

19,

1976

USSR

S0iJ003# iviyas

lfp^m

'New Soviet Plan EgypitCooks West rt mu99 MI ’id30 Tfi

, JMwn "wv u vh 3HIU

Foreign Agricultural

Service U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

— FOREIGN AGRICULTURE VOL. XIV • No. 3 • Jan.

19,

1976

In this issue:

New

2

Soviet

Stresses

Plan

Trade

indicated

shift

New

Soviet Plan Stresses

Slower Livestock Gains

Slower Livestock Gains By David M. Schoonover

Mexican Grain Crops Recover from 1974/75 Lows

5

Egypt Looks to Western World More Farm Products

6

SCHOONOVER

By DAVID M. Foreign

Demand and

Competition Division

Economic Research Service

for

By John

B. Parker, Jr.

EC's Use of Vegetable Oils Gaining Over Animal Fats By William C. Tinklepaugh

8

10

13

T —

he soviet union may boost

its

live-

stock product imports in the future

more normal

while returning to

of grain trade



goals of

if

levels

draft 5-

its

75 average. However, the

average

year plan for 1976-80 are realized.

Crops and Markets

published on the heels of the biggest

in

USSR

normal

weather

during

1971-75 would have averaged

(FYP)

This Tenth Five-Year Plan



1

grain shortfall in recent history

indicates that the

Harvesting grain in the northern Kazakhstan region of the USSR. Grain production is to be stressed in the USSR’s new 5-year plan, discussed in article begininng on this page.

planned rate of expansion output

so

USSR

its

livestock

in

production

grain

that

has lowered

the plan be met,

USSR

dependence on

grain imports might decline,

sibly oilseeds

and

while

their products,

its

might

increase.

During the 4 years prior Lari

Butz,

L.

Secretary

of

Agri

culture

1975/76,

to

Soviet imports of grain from

sources

all

averaged about 12 million tons per year. Richard

E. Bell, Assistant Secretary for International Affairs and

Commodity Programs David

L.

Hume, Administrator,

For-

eign Agricultural Service Editorial

The new plan aims

Kay Owsley Patterson, Editor MacPherson, Beverly Horsley, G. H. Baker, Marcel-

Murphy, Isabel John C. Roney. lus P.

A.

Smith,

The Secretary of Agriculture has determined that publication of this periodical is necessary in the transaction of public business required by law of this Department. Use of funds for printing Foreign Agriculture has been approved by the



the worst relative shortfall

the post-World

have

improved technology. This is not an ungoal, and there is a good chance that production could average 215 million tons, provided that weather next 5 years

in the

USSR

for

ter

considerably bet-

is

than

crops

was

it

in

1970-75.

An

extrapolation of the 1955-74 yield

imports of the end products of livestock

would permit attainment of the midpoint of the grain goal. Area has slightly

feeding

instead

of

grain

the

these goals can be

Soviet

itself.

achieved, to

which

consumer demand can be

strained and on

much

better grain

ing weather than has occurred

in

the

The

is

distinguished

southern

(Russian

again

austerity

— appears

the

programmed

much

less

am-

commodity provisions

of the

T

duction of roughage feeds to cover

the

livestock

private

curement

Detailed

Government pro-

on most crops indicate that, except for cotton, average 1976-80 goals do not vary greatly from the original 1975 targets. targets

Pravda,

December

14,

is

holdings.

Each

expected to establish a feed

Expansion of

Despite

is

the

irrigated

re-

pastures

planned. future

attention

slated

growth of livestock output is weak. The 1976-80 average goals for meat and rmlk are only slightly above original 1971-75 for feed productioa, planned

Service.

in

Ukraine,

needs of both the socialized sector and

Order from Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office. Washington, D.C. 20402. Contents of this magazine may be reprinted freely. Use of commercial and trade names does not imply approval or constitute endorsement by USDA or Foreign Agri-

Published 1975.

RSFSR

the

the

he plan recommends enlarged pro-

and meadows

1

of

Moldavia, and Transcaucasus.

for most areas, in-

bitious than those planned in the past.

roughages.

part

Federation),

theme, with increases

cluding agriculture, but

Specific

peas,

and other high-protein

also calls for the organization

It

in

some ways even

feed

of

of soybean production on irrigated lands

by a lowering of sights from the USSR’s

to be the general

seedings

of

lupines, alfalfa,

usual lofty goals. Restrained progress in

since

maximum

draft plan encourages

expansion crops.

Otherwise, the plan

hectares

million

1972.

re-

grow-

125

exceeded

grains but also high protein crops and

cultural

will

reasonable

Budget through June 30, 1979. Yearly subscription rate: domestic. $34.35 $42.95 foreign; single copies 70 cents.

and

1976-80

be derived from increased inputs and

to

serve.

Management

With

production

Consequently, only about 20-25 mil-

duction of feed, including not only the

of

period.

II

1975,

lion tons of output in

farm

Office

War in

about 195 million tons.

plan focus strongly on expanding pro-

Director,

drought-affected

the

trend on an area of 125 million hectares

it

past 5 years.

Advisory Board: Richard A. Smith, Chairman; Gordon 0. Fraser, William Horbaly, Richard M. Kennedy, J. Don Looper, Larry B. Marton, Arthur Mead, Brice K. Meeker, Jimmy D. Minyard, George S. Shanklin.

by

requires

if

however, hinges on the extent

Patricia 0.

reduced

1975 crop

reducing these

at

imports, apparently even

Whether

Staff:

was

can

catch up with demand. Should goals of

imports of livestock products, and pos-

Page 2

latter

Peru’s Agricultural Reform Program Picks Up Headway By Paul J. Ferree

This week’s cover:

J.

Grain production during 1976-80 is average 215-220 million tons, or 35-40 million tons more than the 1971-

to

goals.

Meat and milk procurement same as those

gets are about the

tarfirst

Foreign Agriculture

established for 1975.

of livestock or poultry.

Even compared with actual accomplishments during the past 5 years, meat

Based on assumptions about distribution of meat by type and on availability

planned to rise only 6 to 11 percent and milk only 7 to 10 perWith an expected population cent.

projections

production

is

feeds

and

roughages

for

(largely

linear extrapolations

erally are consistent. If the Soviets hold

1

to 6 percent for

and

to the livestock targets

In the livestock areas, targeted growth is

nary conclusion can be made: The

some

strongest in egg production, but

slowdown apparently is planned there also. The low milk growth target may represent a more realistic assessment of

permits

attainment

production, the

expected

of

USSR

A

first

how

and

well the live-

match up with prospective feed production. Only a tentative conclusion can be drawn from the informa-

now

available.

Attainment of the grain production target could leave an average of about 115 million tons for feed use annually

and

still

1966-70

permit a moderate rebuilding

Crops: Grain Cotton Sugarbeets Sunflowerseeds

The pace

able for each type of feed, nor are they

meat production by type

Plan

Million

Million

Million

Million

met. tons 72.0

met. tons 87.0

met. tons 81.0

met. tons

Flax

7.6

7.2

6.8

8.5

74.1

69.4 4.7

87.0

82.5

89.5

5.9

5.6

6.0

4.7

fiber

.42

Potatoes Vegetables

Wool

2

Eggs

3

16.0

14.4

9.4

12.9

16.0

13.5

5.5

4.2

5.4

4.6

5.4

17.4 60.5

11.6

15.0

17.7

15.4

51.1

60.1

53.8

.47

pieces

.52

pieces

8/7.

14.4

8/7.

Collective farms Agricultural machinery:

Accounting weight.

Tractors

Trucks Grain combines

Livestock equipment Other equipment

Billion

Billion

rubles 82.2 48.6 33.6

rubles 131.5 ‘83.7 ‘47.8

rubles 128.6 45.5

rubles 171.7 115.7 56.0

Thous.

Thous.

Thous.

717 469

2

1,700 1,100 4

83.1

1,700 1,100

1,900 1,350

450

543

Billion

Billion

Billion

Billion

rubles

rubles

rubles

rubles 10.3

6.3

538

6.5

2.8

5

1976-80

1971-75

Billion

1,467

1

1

5.8

12.7

9.0

Million

Million

Million

Million

hectares

hectares

hectares

hectares

Irrigation

1.8

4.5

3.2

4.0

Drainage

3.9

4.4

5.0

4.7

Chemical inputs: Fertilizers (end year)

6

Pesticides (end year) 6 Mixed feed production (end year)

8 .

.

.

Million

Million

Million

tons 45.6

tons 75.6

tons

.29

.44

.42

O

23.7 2

8/7.

23.9

pieces

34.3

Not available.

Actual

Billion

2

3

.51

pieces

5-YEAR TOTALS,

Plan

Thous.

8/7.

28.7

26.1 2

.48

pieces

Increase over previous 5 years

Actual

Government

n

3.6 3.2

.41

1971-75

H 17.0

2.4

43.2

.

.51

3.1

Original Five-Year Plan goals.

1966-70

.50

12.3

Bit.

1

.54

.42

10.9

Fruit and berries Grapes

Livestock products: Livestock (liveweight) Milk

90.0

6.1

Quantity or value

Capital investments:

1976-80

Million

IN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION, 1966-75, AND PLANS, 1971-80

Item

1971-75

met. tons

USSR INVESTMENTS AND INPUTS

Land improvement:

grain

of livestock herd rebuild-

1975'

1971-74

66.0

of stocks. Specific targets are not avail-

available for

USSR

in

stock goals

tion

concerning

USSR GOVERNMENT PROCUREMENTS OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS, AVERAGES, 1966-74 AND PLANS 1971-80

Item

in 1975. is

weather

year-to-year

reserve stockpiling; •

part of the

as a result of distress slaughter

key question

commit-

target un-

doubtedly assumes a substantial drop

reduced breedings

of

Actual

production during the

grain

on grain output;

• Decisions

feed

could approach

dairy herd potential.

FYP

• Effects

variability

self-sufficiency in feeds.

output opportunities given the current

The low meat production

Soviet

• Present and long-term ments to import grain;

live-

weather

if

of prospects for grain trade

USSR. Future

the

imports seem likely to be affected most strongly by:

past performance), however, a prelimi-

meat and

is

2 to 5 percent for milk.

with

of

stock and feed production plans gen-

down

ing

other

growth of about 5 percent, the planned per capita gain in production over the 5 years

One immediate consequence of these low livestock goals could be a hold-

1

tons 20 .63

53

34.9

Percent 69 75 62

1971-75

Percent 60 ‘72 ‘42 3

1971-75

1975-80

Percent 56

Percent

71

38 17

31

35

16 53

16

3

53

3

21

-4

16

[36

{74

132 43

24 38

150

34 71

3

13

1

12 23 20

46

78 28

-11

64 45 47

59 43 50

7

Million 1

75

1966-70

Plan

69 48 53

66 51

O

3

‘Calculated from 1971-75 data and 1975 estimated. Because data were rounded, calculated percentage inRounded data. 7 4 5 Includcreases may be substantially in error. Gross additions to area. 6 Standard gross units. Includes estimates for 1975. 9 8 ing 5 million tons of chemical feed additives. Not available. State industrial enterprises only.

January 19, 1976

Page 3

— ing and the degree to which goals

may

be exceeded.

The

U.S.-USSR

recent signing of the

grain agreement

to the

USSR

—providing

during 1976-80

United States

—puts the

USSR

USSR.

new plan

addition, the





products” elect

The

likelihood

be considered

to

USSR

of the

tive

on

for

more

the

high-protein

in

Much no

seen

E

livestock

plan

around the

for

may

and feed pro-

still

1976-80.

exist

This

in

in

the

be

centers

is

to

attributed

tons

million

production

lizer

tives)

1971-

January

In

Corresponding to the planned growth

1975,

the

including

tons,

off-farm

1976-80

during

storage

an-

Soviets

increase

to

34

40

by

million

capacity goal to 30 million tons.

agricultural output, labor productiv-

in

ever, this

How-

far exceeds the construcContinued on page 12

still

OUTPUT OF USSR AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS, 5-YEAR AVERAGES, 1966-75, AND PLANS, 1971-80 Increase over previous 5 years

Quantity or value

Gross output: 1973 prices 1965 prices

2 (

2

98.0

(

)

Met. tons 180.0

Met. tons 195.0

Met. tons

81.1

9.0 million tons.

Percent

rubles

‘129-132

Met. tons 167.6 6.1

is

)

n

5

5

7.7

6.8

76.0

87.4 14.3 92.3 46.7

11.6

14.1

80.6 35.8

87.5 5 51.0

1966-70

1971-75

1971-75

1976-80

Billion

Million

Calculated from information on 1976 plan.

Page 4

rubles

Million

Eggs’

target for 1980

Billion

Million

Milk

1

Billion

rubles '113.0

1976-80

Million

Sugarbeets Meat 6

nounced

Billion

rubles ‘100.0 80.5

Grain 3 Cotton (unginned)

1971-75

Plan

Actual

Plan

1971-75

215-220 4

1 ;

I

*

addi-

The current draft plan apparently reduces the new elevator

planned for 1976-80.

1966-70

I

levels. Ferti-

(including feed

nounced a plan

14-17 percent growth

1

.

tons.

a major restraint on livestock

Actual

i

planned to reach 143 million

is

grain elevators.

Item

a |

of



1975

three-fifths over the

to

ances, and only

in

115

reach

and 5 million tons of related chemical feed additives alltold, about fertilizer

million

is

fertilizer deliv-

planned to grow

terms of gross standard units are ex-

grain

percent

If

nearly the

pected

of the lessened growth fore-

can

B l

same rapid rates evident during 1971-75. By 1980, supplies in at

75 was well below previous perform-

growth of

relatively strong

eries to agriculture are

subsequent years.

doubt

pj

to the greatly decelerating

investment increases,

expansion during 1976-80. The 13 percent growth actually achieved in 1971-

planned for wages, as opposed to much more modest planned 16-18

n contrast I

whether the

gross agricultural output during

duction plans are consistent, a ma-

draft

foretell

to

investments

all

likely alterna-

The poor 1975 crop sharply lowered 75 and

jor inconsistency

more

is

Announced

slightly.

percent during the early 1960’s.

1975’s disastrous agricultural results.

the

livestock industry.

ven though

USSR

continue as a major meat

will

importer

ingredients

feed

difficult

USSR

USSR

needed to improve feed efficiency

A

investments

total

during the 5 years, compared with 26 percent during 1971-75 and only 19-20

one possibility

is

in agriculture, the sec-

of

ceive 27-28 percent of

Large meat imports are especially likely in 1976 as production slumps in the USSR owing to reduced herds. It is

seems unlikely to mount a major expansion in production of oilseeds in the next few years, it may well have to turn to the world market

use. Since the

products

I

targets suggest that agriculture will re-

repressed

this

ucts.

resource

efficient

satisfy

It

in-

C

scheduled to gain

a substantial boost in Soviet im-

is

compared with 60 percent 1971-75 and 69 percent during

share

tor’s

al-

ports of meat and other livestock prod-

new USSR

as a result of the

to

P’

be about

will

Despite the sharp deceleration of

increase in retail prices of

on major foods.

meal to the Soviet Union, other hand, have brightened

emphasis

An

invest-

1966-70.

this

consider other

in

percent,

during

policy of maintaining stable retail prices

or oilseed

somewhat

may

but a tentative one, given the

is

resuming

Prospects for U.S. sales of oilseeds

plan’s

increases

ply

moderate grain exports to traditional in Eastern Europe.

the

31

sub-

remainder of

1976-80

increase during

livestock

for

planned

is

investment goals are met, the

If

vestment growth

demand.

re-

customers

on

ments.

per-

USSR may grow

the

in

Soviets

livestock

Another factor

demand

is

fl

sharp slowdown also

the growth rate of agricultural

the principal dairy prod-

ternatives besides livestock product sup-

serves.

the

for

decade.

and

grain

(still

employment

agricultural

in

A

meat in the about 7 percent and that

stantially during the

suggests Soviet

bolster

to

demand

repressed

products

I

planned for the period.

per

in

consumed) increases about 6

the

“creation of the necessary reserves of

may

increase

cent. Results of this study suggest that

in calling for

capacity

storage

grain

percent

10

rises

for butter

uct

cent

research study has suggested that

each

and State farms. This sug-

gests that a decline of roughly 10 per-

capita incomes,

continue

in a position to

1-6 percent for

One

beyond the 6-8 million ton range when poor weather affects Soviet crops. In

policy

collective

for

While possibly restrained on the one hand by the reduced USSR livestock herd, these exports could be boosted

agricultural

is

on

for yearly

sizable exports of grain to the

increased

ity

meat and 2-5 per-



cent for milk.

exports of 6-8 million tons of U.S. grain

targeted to rise 27 to 30 percent

increases in per capita livestock production

8.5

95-98 15.0-15.6

94-96 58-61

o

Percent 13

Percent

n

22

21

29 22 37 24 24 25

5

O

Percent 14-17 2 (

)

—6

8

19-22 10 5 25-29

22

23

6-11

9

15

42

30

5

7

16

26

11

2 3 Not available. Gross weight, including excess moisture and weight. 6 Calculated from 1971-74 data and 1975 estimates. Including slaughter fats.

7-10 14-20

5

4 7

The anBillions.

Foreign Agriculture

I.

Mexican Grain Crops Recover From 1974/75 Lows RODUCTION

ALL

OF

Mexico’s

of

wheat, — — and —dry beans—

P

major grains sorghum, and rice

import requirements (all

ghum

will

the

through

same period. sur-

most of Mexico’s imports of corn, grain sorghum, and all of its wheat, ply

and oat imports. increases are the result of

higher support prices that led to larger

more

price

of

and could have a small volume of dry beans for export, depending on the final crop outcome. The United States will probably sup-

plantings,

retail

corn

total

in

million tons.

1.5

The corn support price was increased May to US$3.56 per bushel, which

helped boost the 1975/76 output.

Sorghum estimated

production

than usual.

The

Government-fixed

ceiling for beans

6,000

its

previous

the

retail

commodity

from 5-6

to the consumer.

—Based on

report from

U.S. Agricultural Attache,

season's.

were for a much larger outturn but hopes were dashed by drought conditions in the dryland

across

outlets

pesos per kilo, thus in effect subsidizing this staple

currently

is

6.5 pesos per kilo.

is

the Republic at prices ranging

2 million tons, 8 percent

at

than

greater

Mexico City

Earlier expectations

area in the State of Tamaulipas, where

GRAIN QUALIFICATIONS REQUIRED BY ECUADOR

harvested in June and July, was reduced by some 300,000 metric tons. This makes 3 consecutive years in which yields have been below average in Tamaulipas owing to a number of

national grain suppliers to

weather problems.

eligible

the crop,

Sorghum production has been shiftsomewhat during recent years from

readily available credit,

and a return of more nearly normal calendar conditions after weather 1974's excessive harvest-time rains and

at

rising

million tons

plus of 75,000-80,000 tons of rice

The crop

better

However, CONASUPO recently announced it would begin selling beans

Mexico might have an exportable

barley,

much

food

Mexican

at 1.5

in

yields are expected to be

incomes probably mean that Mexico will have a deficit for some years to come, hence the corn imports

1975/76 and 700,000 tons of grain sorbe needed to meet the

needs

country’s

has re-

Nonetheless, increasing population and

tons are metric) for

believes that

This

some farmers to plant beans on prime irrigated land that formerly had been in cotton and sorghum. As a result of this transfer,

is

estimates Mexico’s

agency,

pound.

per

cents

portedly encouraged

1975/76 from

grain

the low levels of the previous year.

the

U.S.

the particularly

expected to increase in

CONASUPO,

tentatively esti-

is

new crop

price for the

9 million metric tons 17 percent above 1974’s frost-damaged crop.

corn,

food staple

important

Total production

mated

The support

has been set at the equivalent of 22

ing

Ecuador now requires foreign and qualification

ing to

ment

file

file

such statements

for

participation

in

fail-

be

will

in-

Govern-

on wheat.

invitations to bid

Based on

financial

statements. Suppliers

policy of accepting the

its

Government

Tamaulipas to areas in Bajio and where the harvest takes place in the fall. The support price was increased in June to the equivalent of

lowest price offered, the

2.65 million metric tons,

US$3.35 per bushel. This is an attractive price

from

to

was such that the firm could profit by consummating the contract. Although suppliers defaulting on contracts forfeit their bonds usually $50,000 the Government emphasizes that it is more interested in assuring

in some The wheat

frost

already

in

grain areas.

most of which

crop,

the

bin,

is

estimated

is

at

Sinaloa,

has on

at

least

one occasion found

that planned to deliver grain only

on the average, sorghum as corn

was raised prior to the current harvest (May-June 1975) to a level of about

tempting to maximize grain production

adequate supplies of grain than

by preventing the shift from corn to sorghum on irrigated lands through restrictive policies governing irrigation

lecting the guarantees tors

water and crop insurance.

furnish

$3.81 per bushel.

Consumption of wheat diet

is

increasing

percent

per

year,

at

a

in the

rate

however.

Mexican of

9-10

This

is

One

500,000-600,000 tons to meet domestic

an

requirements and hold stocks to a de-

deficit

Corn production also is expected to show a tremendous volume jump in 1975/76, compared with that of a year earlier-— 1.3 million tons. The area devoted to corn was increased by at least 100,000 hectares and yields should show a marked improvement provided the good weather held until the harvest ended in November. Although there have been a few scattered drought reports, the in

corn crop

good condition.

January 19, 1976

is

considered to be

as

much

irrigated

lands.

times

on

But the Government of Mexico

expected to result in import needs of

sirable level.

relative

corn because farmers can produce, 1.5

is

of these restrictions

result

approximate

at-

was

700,000-metric-ton

sorghum. As of midAugust, 460,000 metric tons of this shortfall had been purchased: 300,000 from Argentina and 160,000 from the United States. A total of about 400,000 grain

in

tons of grain

come from

sorghum

is

expected to

who might

Foreign responsible

officers;

crop. Thus, for

be minimal.

the

it

is

likely

1975/76 season

references;

audited balance sheets for the past 3 years; government from country of origin

fiscal

certification

as

to

firm’s

export experience in the past 3 years; information on firm’s storage facilities, shipments,

owned transport membership in

facilities,

associa-

and other pertinent documents. The information is to be filed with

and Integration

imports

bank

to

of

evidence of financial status, including

crease over the previous season’s frost-

dry

required

are

company bylaws and names

laboratories,

the United States.

in col-

from the contrac-

default.

suppliers

tions,

damaged

the





bean production is expected to rebound to a level of 1.1 million metric tons, an 11 percent inEdible

if

price trend

up 20 percent 1974/75 level because of increased plantings and an improvement in yield. The support price for wheat the

it-

attempting to contract with firms

self

the

Ministry of Industry,

Commerce,

in Quito.

bean

— Based on report from

will

Office of U.S. Agricultural Attache,

Quito

Page 5

— J

Egypt Looks to Western World For More Farm Products JOHN

By

B. PARKER, JR. Demand and Competition

Foreign

• Division

Economic Research Service

new wave

iding a

R

prosperity, Egypt

of peace

For 1975, Egypt’s Government

and

re-

portedly

budgeted

ward, particularly to the United States,

billion for

importing farm commodities.

and technology to improve the diets and lifestyles of its 40 million people. As evidence: Egypt’s imports of U.S. farm products in 1975

This

estimate

and

distribution

were headed for the $500-million mark up from $343 million in 1974 and

though U.S. farm exports to Egypt will be at an alltime high perhaps $500 million the U.S. share might edge

is

turning west-

for imports of food



-

$123 million

just

now

products of

represent a third or

Egypt’s

all

above

sharply

1973. U.S. farm

in

just

tenth

a

more

are

factors

the

the floodgates of tural

ucts

and to



products in



Egypt?

demand

especially

its

to

owing

slightly,

to strong imports

climb, possibly

prod-

U.S.

Egypt’s food buying

power,

purchasing

Al-





down

range.

billion

$1 billion

A

moving up

is

which

roots in the tremendous inflows

of foreign exchange from oil-rich

Arab

and With these higher

to as high as

by 1978.

multitude of other factors

now

un-

rampant demand for farm products. For one, Egypt is becoming the

derlie

a nation of urbanites

One key has

$1.5-1. 6

agricul-

potential?

higher

the

in

years, U.S. exports should continue to

so,

its

be

opened

what can U.S. exporters do capitalize on the growing market if

so

that actual import value will probably

trend permanent,

Is this

however,

costs,

and livestock products from Europe and Australia. But for the next few

that

for

transportation

includes

between

1968 and 1972.

What

$2

of sugar from India and Latin America

imports

agricultural

substantial

a

now

— over 40

percent

where incomes and purchasing power are rising rapidly. So are consumer expectations as people move from farms to cities, they usually live

in

cities,



neighbors for investments, loans,

adopt diets containing processed foods

development

or other foods

projects.

Egypt has hastened to fill unmet needs for basic food items, propelling total farm imports to over $1 billion in 1974 from only $310 million in 1973. Long-pent demand remains strong for many other imported food items, however. Political forces have played an important role in the ups and downs of earnings,

U.S. agricultural trade with Egypt.

The

new

Cairo, for instance, of 8.6 million

tion

Los Angeles

— and

to

them. Greater

now

has a popula-

— about

the size of

growing

is

at the rate

of over 350,000 annually.

The exodus from

rural areas

is

linked

pay and higher living standards be found in cities. Almost half of Egyptians still depend on agriculture

to better

to all

for

their livelihoods,

less

than a

fifth

but they receive

of the national income.

diplomatic break in 1967 caused U.S. farm exports to thud to an all-time low

cropland to

of $7.2 million in

slim, millions of rural residents are seek-

By

1974,

1968.

however,

diplomatic

ties

had been renewed, U.S. supplies were more abundant, and favorable credit available, so that Egypt once again turned to the United States for large imports of wheat, wheat flour, corn, and other needed farm products. Consequently,

in

fiscal

1975

(July-June),

Egypt moved into 15th place as a market for U.S. farm exports, ranking just under the USSR and ahead of the People’s Republic of China.

Page 6

Since

prospects

for

make

a

owning enough good living are

Urban

ing their fortunes in urban areas.

per capita income in

$450

—double

the rural average.

improvement

Diet

1974 was about is

evident

from

uptrending caloric intake. The average urban Egyptian will probably consume

2,680 calories a day this year, in conabout 2,350 in 1970. Diets in

trast to

rural areas, however, contain about 10

percent centers

wide

less calories

— apparently

divergence

than those in urban

in

because incomes.

of

the

Lately,

High-quality Egyptian cotton, right, is

spun

Below, tractor provides power into fine yarn.

for irrigating grain.

Bottom, agricultural experts watch as new rice varieties are

transplanted

experiment Nile Valley.

in

a field

in the

•'

%

development projects and conhave fattened the pay-

rural

struction jobs

many

checks of

are

policies

being aimed at providing more calories

and proteins goals

are

average

in

reflected

in

diets.

These

recent

trade

policies, characterized chiefly

Imports

exports.

rice

and

sugar

of

have

items

moved

also

ahead rapidly in the past year. In the few years, Egypt has even allowed imports of cotton and rice its two top farm export items. Imports of meat and pulses are soaring. last



The

more

policy

trade

flexible

contributing

is

economic

Egypt’s

to

growth. Egypt’s gross national product

was expected to approximate $11 billion in 1975 about a 7 percent rise. In-



creased

was

trade

Of

only

part

of

the

economic stimuli are also being provided by rising foreign investments, expanding industrialization, and new services and picture.

related

activities

strong

course,

to

the

reopening of

the Suez Canal. But the huge

spurt for imports

goods

and



products

—has

pushed Egypt’s trade balance far deficit,

with imports

in

now running about

three times higher than exports.

The majority of Egypt’s

agricultural

imports are purchased by the Ministry

which handles almost

Supply,

of

imported wheat, oils,

tallow,

chases

by

public

rants, hotels,

on the

flour,

sugar,

rise,

and

all

corn, vegetable

and tea. Yet purcompanies restau-

institutions

— —are

also

primarily for the thriving

at

Domestic food policies are also aimed improving diets. The Ministry of for

despite

high

providing extra

years,

2

relatively

have boomed

prices,

in the past

revenues to

subsidize sales of cereal products.

domestic and foreign food

Egypt’s that

it

on the recognition

are based

policies

cannot be

production,

self-sufficient in

food

numerous

im-

although

provements in the agricultural sector are planned or underway. Egypt’s cropland is limited by vast desert arteas, which can be made to bloom only by extensive

acres in

the

1968

New

1972.

The area under up from 5.9 million

irrigation.

cultivation edged

desert

to

about 6.1 million

cropland

reclaimed

in

from

near Alexandria, the Suez

Khargo Oasis may have pushed cultivated area to 6.4 million and

Canal,

acres in 1975.

P

opulation growth is also outpacing farm output. Population, grow-

ing by about

800,000 annually, could by the year 2000, say some sources. By the same token, agricultural output increased at an average annual double

of

rate

2

percent

during

1968-72,

below the population growth rate. Because of the rise in people to be fed, Egypt has just a sixth of an slightly

acre of cropland per person,

compared

with two-thirds of an acre 60 years ago. Yet record wheat and corn crops in

1974 enabled Egypt to increase grain

tourist trade.

Supply,

But

cigarette sales

demand

consumer

especially

industrial

and revenues from customs on tobacco imports. The import duty on leaf tobacco has risen progressively from $9.20 per kilogram in 1959 to $18.63 in 1967 to $23.29 in 1973. duties

by marked

gains in grain imports and diminishing

semiluxury

account for

output,

rural residents.

Government

Egyptian

companies, which

public

over 70 percent of Egypt’s industrial

instance,

of wheat flour,

rice,

subsidizes

vegetable

oils,

sales

and

other basic commodities to shopkeepers,

who must

then sell to consumers at low fixed prices. As a result, Egyptian consumers now buy bread for about half the price of a U.S. loaf.

relatively

output by 4 percent to about 7.1 million

Most of the increase in grain came from higher yields in older established farm areas with alluvial soils. Yields of wheat have tons.

production

improved through the use of Mexican varieties and crosses between Mexican and native varieties. Average yields for wheat and rice in Egypt are been

now et subsidized food distribution is costing Egypt dearly. Losses on basic food items distributed by the Ministry of Supply were expected to reach $800 million in 1975. Subsidies on wheat alone increased from $300 million in 1973 to about $500 million

Y

triple those for India.

Increased use of hybrid varieties and earlier planting allowed ers

to

Egyptian farm-

improve corn yields

the recent decade.

slightly

Corn production

in in-

creased from 2.1 million tons in 1965 to about 2.64 million in

1974. Corn-

bread and several native dishes

made

in 1974.

from corn

To cover the staggering costs of food subsidization, two main sources of funds are employed: profits from

and corn meal mixed with wheat flour is used to make “balady bread” in some areas, both of which add to the rising

are popular in rural areas,

Continued on page 12

Page 7



— the world’s largest market for soybean

EC’s Use of Vegetable Oils Gaining Over Animal Fats

From 1970

oil.

1974 they took, on

to

average, 40 percent of world soybean

comparison,

In

trade.

oil

individual

largest

soybean

oil



C.

TINKLEPAUGH

On

Foreign Commodity Analysis, Oilseeds and Products Foreign Agricultural Service

T

increas-

ing consumption 1 of vegetable oils

primarily

a

outpacing gains in animal fat con-

production

sumption at a significant rate. Even though 1974 vegetable oil consumption in the EC dropped below the

Growing

is

trend of the past 10 years, the total was still a near record, and soybean oil consumption as a percent of total EC fats and oils consumption more than dou-

EC

vegetable

oil

consumption

to 4.44 million metric tons in

down

from the record total of 4.51 million tons in 1972 but a substantial 44 percent above the 3.06 1974,

2 percent

consumed in 1965. Consumption of vegetable oil

EC

during

1974

tons

1975

is

—about

and about

estimated the

150,000

same tons

in the at

as

4.5 in

addition

vegetable

consumption

oil

in-

all



fats

6.29 million tons consumed

the

1965.

in

EC

cent of

all

during

this 10-year

annual variations

world anchovy catch.

EC

fish

the oil,

commodity.

EC

accounted for 42 perworld soybean oil exports

achievement for an area that grows almost no soybeans. a singular

Historically,

EC

ments have been

soybean

require-

almost entirely

filled

by U.S. beans, but in recent years Brazilian soybeans have been making insoybeans

soybean

supplied oil

1965, U.S.

percent

83

import needs,

supplied about 2 percent of

of

and

EC

EC

Brazil

require-

ments.

Although -exports of U.S. soybeans EC have more than doubled from 505,000 tons (oil basis) in 1965 to 1.14 to the

consumption fluctuated dra-

reflecting

as

second only to the United

is

roads into this market. In

consumption of

oil

EC

the

In 1974, the

and oils including fish oil increased by 2.9 percent annually during the same period and reached 8.13 million tons in 1974 an increase of 29 percent over the Fish

position

its

an annual rate of 4.2 per-

in oil

million tons in 1974, Brazil’s exports to this

market have increased even more from a mere 12,000 tons

dramatically



consumpton dropped markedly in 1974 to 431,000 tons from 514,000 tons in

in

1973, mainly because of the relatively

market

small 1973 Peruvian anchovy catch.

while the Brazilian share increased to

EC

countries

EUROPEAN COMMUNITY: APPARENT CONSUMPTION OF FATS AND OILS, 1965-1974 Mil.

world

to

world’s leading importer of soybean

at

matically in the

imported



States as an exporter of this

below

Apparent consumption, calculated as production plus imports minus exports. Vegetable oils include soybean, sunflower, cottonseed, peanut, rapeseed, coconut, palm kernel, olive, and palm. Fish oil, lard, butter, tallow, and grease have been included to present a complete fat consumption picture.

reduced

rate of 1.6 percent.



EC

2 million tons of soybeans

1975.

between 1965 and 1974, while animal fat consumption in the same period increased by 42,000 tons annually from 2.84 million tons in 1965 to 3.27 million tons in 1974 an annual growth

EC

oil trade.

the

in

creased by about 145,000 tons annually

period, 1

of

is



million tons

million

EC

result

off



bled between 1965 and 1974.

amounted

cent,

the

and soybean oil in 1974 almost 46 percent of all world soybean oil imports.

1965-74 trend. This leveling

the

basis,

oil

more than

In

he European Community’s

an



took, on average, 17 per-

cent of world soybean

By WILLIAM

Japan

country importer of

in

aggregate constitute

1965

to

398,000 tons

The U.S. share of in

in

the

1974 dropped

to

1974.

EC

soybean

57 percent,

24 percent. This trend could continue

EUROPEAN COMMUNITY: APPARENT CONSUMPTION OF FATS AND OILS

metric tons

BY COUNTRY, 1974 Thou, metric tons

Page 8

Foreign Agriculture





a

EC

>ver the next several years as

cus-

omers diversify their sources of supply. Not only are U.S. soybeans facing competition from Brazil, but itiffer ower priced palm oil especially from



Malaysia

EC

oil

EC.

the

in

1974,

In

likely to increase

rate



— although

in the next

slower

at a

few years. The most

important

factor

determining

in

the

market share for any one oil probably will be the price of an oil in relation to competing oils a relationship that will determine how U.S. soybeans will fare



competition

in

with

and Malaysian palm

beans

Brazilian oil.

imported 674,000 tons of palm the 386,000 tons

—more than double

ail 1

competing

increasingly

is

soybean

vith

he



pounds per person in 1972, dropped off to 66.7 pounds in 1973, and picked up again in 1974 to 69.7 pounds. Per capita consumption of fats and oils in the EC is already high, and is

af 1965.

EC

palm oil imports are expected to continue expanding as Malaysia’s palm oil plantations gear up for new producrecords.

tion

The

preference

vegetable oils over animal fats

1960 to a 58-42 ratio

in

large variations

oil-animal

ratio

among EC

had the high-

est

proportion of vegetable

fat

consumption

— 80-20,

to animal

oil

with olive

oil

predominating.

oil

Ireland had the lowest percentage of

vegetable

28-72

ratio.

Netherlands,

animal

to

oil

usage

fat



Between these two are the 72-28; West Germany,

57-43; France, 47-53; the United Kingdom, 46-54; Belgium-Luxembourg, 4258; and Denmark, 42-58.

oybean

both

consumption,

oil

as

S shown

volume and as a percentage, has the most dramatic growth among vegetable oils consumed in the EC. In 1974, soybean oil consumption in to

EC

the

surpassed

1

million tons for the

time, reaching 1.41 million tons, or

first

pounds of soybean

12

and child

adult

level

cent

increase

consumed

represents a

that

tion

in

oil

EC — a

in the

every

for

consump185

per-

from the 494,000 tons 1965.

Per capita consumption of soybean

was approximately 4.5 pounds

oil

1965

— about

capita

in

16 percent of the total per

consumption of

all

vegetable

oils

in

consumed

From 1965 sumption

in the

to

in the

of

all

vegetable oils

pounds an increase of about 10 pounds per person. During the same period, animal fat consumption increased by only 2.2 pounds per person from 25.8 to 28 rose

from 27.8 pounds

to 38



pounds.

Per capita consumption in the all

fats

and

6ils

January 19, 1976

about

meat supplies from regular drives of cattle from Niger and Chad. However, the livestock herds of these countries were decimated during the recent Sahelian drought, and in desperate circumstances, both Chad and Niger ordered a stop to the drives some months ago in order to build up herds. of

its

Nigeria also as

a

before that

time,

scarce

relatively

EC

of

reached a record 71.9

of the poultry industry

many

production

madic or

production

such

inputs

improved

and supplementary feeds are

nutrition,

not widely used. Calving rates are low

—40-50 percent—and growth maturity

to

market

slow, ranging generally be-

is

tween 4 and 5 years. The Nigerian Government has given

animal meat was a

priority to buildup of the livestock sec-

of

drought.

its

cattle

item in the Nigerian

tor in the

1975-80 Development Plan. million has been allocated

shortage of trained

was some 59 grams per person, estimated is

fencing,

as

veterinary hygiene methods,

the national average daily supply of pro-

requirement

the

The cattle owned by noseminomadic grazers. Modern

Some $550

the

of

restricted

mainly zebu-type,

are

The Federal Department of Agriculture has estimated that in 1968/69

while

is

to Nigeria’s northern states.

diet.

tein

being retarded

is

by the high cost of feeds. Because of the prevalence

But even

lost

of the

result

poultry industry serving the main

urban centers. However, the expansion

tsetse fly, cattle

minimum

protein

some 70 grams per

day.

Only 7 grams of the daily intake of 59 came from animal sources, while the

recommended minimum requirement

for this

However, there

activity.

plement the plan. quate

personnel,

from

traditional

manpower

is

a

im-

to

And

even with ade-

the

transformation

to

modern

livestock

practices will be a slow, arduous pro-

cedure for

many

The demand

is

producers.

for meat in Nigeria has

35 grams. The Nigerian Federal Commissioner

increased greatly since 1968/69 because

and Rural Development, in making the import announcement, said that monthly consignments of 500 metric tons of chilled meat would be airlifted into the country from Europe, Brazil, and Argentina from November

come

for Agriculture

through February. Thereafter, supplies

come by

with

shipments

possibly being increased to

1,000 tons

sea

The Nigerian Livestock and Meat

EC.

1974 per capita con-

EC

own

its

In the past Nigeria obtained one-third

a month.

oils

The

spend the

the next 5 years to develop

was about 32 percent of

vegetable

Build Cattle Sector

cial

first

livestock industry.

would

all

for the

also planning to

is

EC. In 1974, per capita consumption had risen to 12 pounds, and the

in

is

equivalent of about half a billion dollars

How-

the vegetable

countries. In 1974, Italy

and soybean

for

clearly

1974.

in

in

exist

ratio

fat

is

from a 50-50

reflected in the shift

ever,

Nigeria

to import large quantities of meat.

country

growing

EC’s

To Import Meat, time — going —

Nigeria

Authority

has

been commissioned to it by re-

import the meat and distribute

frigerated trucks to local butcher shops.

These

in turn will sell the

meat

to the

the

Nigeria’s need to import meat will be

long-term.

Since the beginning of the

century,

livestock sector has



sharp

jump

in

disposable

in-

a byproduct of the country’s ex-

panding petroleum revenues. Meat prices have risen steadily, especially since Niger and

ban on

Meat

cattle

Chad announced

their

migrations into Nigeria.

prices in local Lagos markets have

nearly

Local

doubled

since

— mostly

October

1974.

low quality sold in October 1975 at around $1.75 per pound, placing it out of the reach of most Nigerians. beef

of

Live cattle prices have doubled, encouraging herd sell

also

nearly

owners to

their animals, reportedly, including

pregnant cows. The current animal

off-

estimated at 9 percent, compared with a growth rate of less than 2 pertake

public at subsidized prices.

little

of

is

cent per year.

changed

— Based on report from

except for better animal disease

Office of U.S. Agricultural Attache,

commer-

Lagos

its

control and development of a

Page 9

throughout the country. in terms of family numbers

estates

Peru’s Agricultural Reform

Next,

and

Program Picks Up Headway

area,

total

a

are

of Social

Societies

model unique

the

Agricultural



(SAIS)

Interest

An SAIS may

to Peru.

include several cooperatives and campe-

managed by a council of delegates that directs a portion of sino communities

By PAUL J. FERREE Former U.S. Agricultural Attache Lima

cooperative profits into community im-

provements

and

employment

opportunities.

Associative

P

expansion

of

rural

may combine

groups

a

eru’s military leaders are taking

latifundio-minifundio imbalance. (Lati-

number

apart

fundio-minifundio refers to the owner-

for better planning and marketing, but without centralized management.

country’s

the

agricultural

and rebuilding

structure

it

from the

ship of most land in huge tracts

by

a

of holdings as a precooperative

October 1968. Several widesweeping laws concerning land owner-

that

ship have been enacted, basic organiza-

76

while

Campesino communities are formed where existing but loosely organized tribal mountain settlements accept some aspects of the agrarian reform program as a first step toward fuller economic participation. (A campesino is an Indian farmer or farm laborer.)

have been established to handle their administration, and farmers in the lower income strata are being given a

another 83 percent included only 5.5 percent of the land.

sing these enterprises with the idea of

bottom up

as

part of a revolution of

social, industrial,

been

has

that

country’s

power

and economic change underway since the

Government

Military

tions

their

political

voice

encourage

to

Additionally,

participation.

the

Government’s land distribution program is

getting into high gear.

(President Valasco, former Chief of State

the Military

in

re-

is

expected to continue.)

A

to

1967,

about

1.7

million

had been expropriated by the Peruvian Government and distributed acres

From 1967

to

about 60,000 families.

to

1974, the Government expropriated

million

in

percent

Good of Peru

of

cropland is

land

the

is

mountainous terrain, or humid With only about 7.4 million acres in cropland, Peru has about onehalf acre per capita one of the lowest land coefficients anywhere in the world. and

jungle.



The

military leaders believed that the

system

capitalistic

strengthened

the

social

or economic

status

grarian reform Law No. 17716 was enacted on June 24, 1969, putting into motion one of South America’s most uncompromising land reform programs. This was only the first of several

A

decrees intended to eliminate the

tion

where

significant labor exploitation

and a feudal-like system continued to side by side with problems of

exist

Mr. Ferree is now Attache at Tehran.

Page 10

associative

enterprises.

worker-managed,

assistance in

These

cooperative-type

management

Government

training, plan-

and marketing. Although the reform recognizes the

ning,

of

family operations

certain acreage

limits,

within

land ownership

by associative enterprises will be Peru’s predominant system of tenure in the future.

The Production Cooperative

is

the

late

1976.

Following

Law, tion

Law

as

a

worker-managed

enterprise,

of

Reform

the

Irriga-

eliminated

all

decreeing that this

previous water

privileges

and

resource

was henceforth under

control.

Other

sion

rights,

of farmland

ments, granted

set

regulated

up

an

conver-

into

urban develop-

titles to

renters of small

and extended reform measures communities and settlements

plots,

to

which

Tribunal,

State

reform

land

related

followed

tribal

in the

jungle regions.

A

National

System

make

help

initiated

to

aware of

their

social

An

sponsibilities.

for

Assisting

(SINAMOS) was

Mobilization

Social

and

campesinos political

Agricultural

re-

Reform

Center for Training and Investigation

(CENCIRA) was pare

farm

established

workers

for

positions in cooperatives

to

pre-

management

and

to analyze

the progress of the reform program.

In addition,

a

special

office

for the

promotion of campesino organizations has been added to the reorganized Ministry of Agriculture.

mental

has been done with former sugar

passage

companion Water and

a

serve the

as

It

terned after the Yugoslav “kombinat.” Three such livestock, dairy, and poultry complexes should be operating by

maintain intact the original production

Agricultural

some of them.

developing another model pat-

also

form of organization most preferred and most common under the Agrarian Reform Law. Cooperatives usually unit

U.S.

lati-

fundio structure and to build up agri-

existence

inherited a situa-

is

currently asses-

is

possibly restructuring

Agrarian

of 1974.

Government

the

The Government

decrees

organizations that receive

Military

of

population.

and adjudication has been completed on 12.6 million acres— 51 percent of the total. About 216,000 families had received land by the end 1974 for land, livestock, and improvements has amounted to about $275 million. Although nominal reforms were undertaken under previous regimes, the

production

country’s

are

through

neither

base nor provided for improvement in

cultural

Indemnification

much

limited since

65 percent of the present 24.7-milliongoal,

area,

either arid sand, high plateau

another 16 million acres, equivalent to acre

the

small

up

rural

little

of

in

acres

to currently landless farmers.

Prior

some 44.4

of

the

lies that would otherwise have chance of becoming landowners.

families

farms, 0.4 percent of the units took

existing

This will an estimated 450,000 farm fami-

ownership

many

land tenure study in 1961 showed

The goal of Peru’s land reform program is to transfer by the end of 1976 ownership of some 24.7 million acres affect

by

tracts.)

summer, but the land reform

tired last

program

Government,

with

families,

balance

took

in

stronger

few

Institutional

agricultural

The (BFA)

changes were made

universities

stations,

new

so

they

and

could better

social structure.

Agricultural Development

was

in

experi-

reorganized

to

Bank

provide

Foreign Agriculture

a

more financing

at

preferential

interest

a

into

Departmental Federation, with

of well-established cooperatives receive

form the Na-

(

rates to associative enterprises.

the latter combining to

i

Another decree dissolved the existing National Agrarian Society, the National Livestock Association, and affiliated organizations of large landowners, and

tional Confederation.

forth the pattern for the National

set



(CNA)

Confederation

Agrarian

sponsibility, as well as the fruits of pro-

who work

duction, to those

1

The economic and

on which Peru bases

tions

organiza-

new

its

put has continued to increase slightly

themselves in agriculture in neigh-

since the program’s inception, although

Following the military revolution in

most

Peru,

have

landowners

large

accepted the reforms as irreversible and

many have abandoned

lish

rural

number

the

But workers who took over the expropriated farms found that mere pos-

parently has caused per capita produc-

lems.

Some

down and

structure are designed to reach every-

livestock.

one associated with agriculture, even in the most remote parts of the country,

existing

all

of their prob-

of the properties were run

deficient in equipment and Because of the uncertainty

increased

tion to

of workers ap-

fall.

some observers

Also,

are

uncertain

whether the country’s private farming sector made up of small- and medium-



sized landholders



will

survive as the

Government

although

months prior to expropriation, the original owners sold off much of their movable property and

far

postponed planned improvements.

operative will bring forth the increased

land reform itself has thus had only nominal application in the

during

the

form program

Reform Zones.

13 Agrarian

It

is

from

these zonal offices that extension services

and credit are made available, and

planning instructions are disseminated.

Some 56

Central Cooperatives have

been

already

created

coordinate

to

product sales and supply procurement. Projects for

Integral

— another type of

signed

to



are de-

interrelate

diverse

agrarian

specific

valleys

or Prov-

in

and

inces

unit

production,

coordinate

processing, and marketing.

Over 100 PIARs are functioning and under study. The next others are stratum for economic integration at the Departmental level is the Integral Development Project (PID), two of which are

now being formed.

The

Government

is

trying

most

of

the

campesino

F managers were not trained

to

make

the necessary operational decisions and

there

was a general shortage of

credit

and supplies. Extension specialists found themselves too occupied with land transfer problems to provide much guidance to the neophyte managers.

Rural Settlement

(PIAR)

structures

urther,

administered through

is

continues

social enterprises.

There

emphasize

to is

also serious

doubt whether the Peruvian-style coagricultural production so necessary to

jungle regions. Geographically, the re-

I;

the passage of time. Agricultural out-

boring countries.

session did not solve

the land.

social

Some, because of a basic commitment to farming, chose to reestab-

to their

tirely.

body made up of campesinos and remaining private landowners. All of these steps were taken to break up the landowning oligarchy and turn over the re-

V

agriculture en-

yearend in addition normal salaries. In general, however, Peru’s agrarian reform program has proceeded without violence and apparently presents few problems that cannot be ironed out with sizable dividends at

Some own

cooperative

own

members preferred

and began to question the validity of the program when cooperatives were being formed and income was low. Other workers on poorer cooperative farms, and those to

their

plots

without land, questioned the justice of the

program when they saw members

feed the country and to provide for future exports.

On the other hand, Government spokesmen are confident that associative enterprises provide the best production

base to enable Peru to grow sufficient food, and that active campesino partici-

pation in land ownership and political activity will provide incentive for to enthusiastically

them

support the Govern-

ment’s program. Authorities

also

believe

Peru’s

social structure will provide efficient

grams

application

and

of

technology

for

planning to

solve

new more prothe

country’s problems.

—with

SINAMOS help— to make CNA

a

force representing rural Peru.

political

Rather than serving only a few thousand large landowners, the

CNA

now

incorporates around 1,400 basic enter-

and claims to speak for over

prises

million

3

cooperative

shareholders,

campesino communities, small- and medium-sized farmers, and even landless

workers.

The

CNA

incorporating

is

a

pyramidal structure,

several

cooperatives

independent farmers into a Zonal

or

Com-

mittee, a

number

Regional

Agrarian League, and these

of committees into a

Upland villages such as this will undergo great changes as Peru’s agricultural reform program reaches

more

of the population.

January 19, 1976

Page 11

Egypt’s Agricultural Imports

New

Continued from page 7

Soviet Plan

Continued from page

way

need for importing corn.

These reasons then have created the

demand

climate of high

for agricultural

now sweeping Egypt. Although measure of the import growth has resulted from skyrocketing commodity prices, volumes have chalked up astounding advances. For example: ® Recorded wheat imports doubled from 1.5 million tons for $140 million in 1973 to some 3 million valued at $595 million in 1974. At the same time, wheat flour imports increased by about 500,000 tons, going from $27 million to $75 million. •

Corn imports scored more than

tenfold

value increase in

1974



a

soar-

ing to a record $68.2 million. Quantity

vaulted to 500,000 tons in 1974 against 1

973’s 67,000 tons. •

Vegetable

oil

from $28.5 million million in 1974,

imports

zoomed

1973

to $96.4

in

when

quantity doubled

the 78,000 tons of 1973.

Egypt’s

demand

for imported

farm

products showed no sign of slackening in

1975.

For

U.S.

steady

exports,

and

dairy

Plans to commercialize

poultry

an

20 percent above the 96,400 tons shipped in 1974 for $45.8 million. Imported tallow is needed for Egypt’s rapidly expanding factories

where soap and cosmetics are produced. Egypt’s exports

have reached 8,000 tons in 1975 for about $22 million up from 5,586 tons







many U.S.

1974 and only 1,068 tons in 1973. In lune 1974, the United States signed a Title I, P.L. 480 agreement with Egypt for about 4,200 tons of tobacco valued at $10 million, thus opening P.L. 480 deliveries, which had ended in 1967. A new P.L. 480 agreement was signed in recent months, providing for exports of 4,200 tons of U.S. tobacco worth $15.8 million,

be delivered during

to

of

cottonseed

to

The United

States sent 20,000 bales Egypt in mid-1975 for $4.4 million under CCC credits. Plans

cotton

U.S. corn exports to Egypt increased

from 180,000 tons for $15.9 million in 1973 to 465,500 tons for $60.6 1974. Further growth, per-

haps to over 500,000 tons, was under-

Page 12

to

importing short-staple U.S.

for

cotton for use in domestic textiles to

more of

release

the valuable Egyptian for export.

some

backfired to

The plan

extent, however, since

1975 were much higher than those for Sudanese

Egyptian cotton prices

in

long-staple cotton.

Some

items

other

shopping

list

new on

Egypt’s

included walnuts,

grape-

soup, and certain canned

fruit,

New

tables.

supermarkets rising

vege-

in duty-

free zones are likely to spur imports of

new U.S. processed foods

E

in the future.

Some

reach

to

other

programs are

lunch

school

for

likely

million

$1

new products



year.

this

like

soybean

products and wafers for school feeding

programs

—could

be

included

in

the

future.

On

few

draft plan gives

insights into

prices, except to state the contin-

uation of the policy of fixed-price con-

on

tracts

planned

a base-level of

sales

of agricultural commodities, with pre-

mium

prices for sales above

The plan

level.

major

on

base

the

also states that policies

be continued to ensure, stable

prices

retail

nonfood

and

food

goods.

Among

broad provisions of the plan in the economic growth

slowdown

a

is

rate.

USSR

national income (net mate-

is scheduled to grow 2428 percent by 1980, compared with a planned 39 percent and attained 28 percent during 1971-75. Gross industrial output is slated to

product)

rial





35-39 percent, compared with 47

rise

percent planned and 43 percent attained

during 1971-75.

Much

of the

slowdown

occur during 1976 with industrial expansion targeted at only 4.3 percent



hand,

products, but U.S. frozen turkeys should to

make

their

mark.

U.S. firms

show strong purchasing corn syrup from owing to a new process for

using

in

Egypt has also begun interest in

it

products.

soft

to

drinks

and

other

World War

the slowest pace since

Assuming attainment of however, annual rates

II.

the 1976 goal,

have to pick meet the FYP goals. These rates are comparable to the 7.4-percent yearly industrial growth of

up

will

to 6. 6-7.4 percent to

1971-75. is much more consumer goods than those for producer goods. By 1980, industrial output of consumer goods is

Deceleration of growth

apparent

targeted

in

to

goals for

rise

30-32 percent

—down

from the 37 percent attained between 1970 and 1975. The goal for that earlier period was set at 49 percent higher than for producer goods. All in all, the draft 1976-80 plan seems relatively realistic in the agricul-



tural

sector in terms of matching out-

The plan, however, seems to call for considerable restraint on the part of the Soviet consumer and may result in an aggravation of reputs with resources.

pressed

Europe and Australia are supplying most of Egypt’s booming imports of meat and dairy other

the

soon begin

table oils.

by con-

will

will

gypt’s imports of U.S. dry milk oil

Egypt jumped from 92,500 tons for $30.5 million in 1973 to 127,000 tons for $75.2 million in 1974, and shipments in 1975 are estimated at 190.000 tons for about $100 million. Egypt accounts for about 40 percent of U.S. exports of cottonseed oil and these shipments, in turn, make up almost 90 percent of Egypt’s imports of vege-

million in

fiscal

1976.

southeastern states. exports

The farm

in

extra-long-staple

$165 million up from only 425.000 tons in 1973 for $43 million. And Egypt is second largest U.S. market for wheat flour, following Saudi Arabia. Wheat flour exports may have exceeded 120.000 tons in 1975 triple the 1974 volume. A market could exist for U.S. wheat flour containing small quantities of wild onion seed for use in the popular garlic bread, which would enhance prices for this wheat from farmers in

to

million

Output

1971-75.

tinue at past expansion rates.

will

reached some for about

products

U.S. tobacco exports to Egypt might

called

1975

these

during

mixed-feed enterprises

State

1974.

in

purchases to include many new items, even including cotton. U.S. wheat exports, for example, in

of

Union reached $20

the Soviet

4

tion of about 17 million tons of elevator

capacity

estimated

of

million tons

for imported corn.

U.S. tallow exports to Egypt in 1975 rose

growth occurred in basic commodities, with Egypt tending to diversify its

1

have

operations

demand

boosted the

products

a

1975.

in

inflation.

The sum

effect

on

Soviet agricultural trade, assuming better

weather than

likely to be

in the past 5 years, is

a less strong

demand

for

grain imports, with perhaps a strength-

ened demand for the USSR’s livestock product imports. But then weather Actual trade

is

is

likely to

rarely

affected by weather, during the next several years.

greatly

normal.

continue to be at

least

Foreign Agriculture

— GET SPOT NEWS MORE PROMPTLY

To

you

bring

production

and

trade

USSR

Plans Increased Milk Output. The USSR’s 10th 5-year plan, to be offered for adoption in February, will call for an average annual milk production of 94-96 million metric tons cline



compared with 92 million estimated for 1975. A defrom the 1975 level is expected for 1976, reflecting tight

Soviet feed supplies.

more

news

now included in the Crops Markets section of Foreign Agriculture will be discontinued in early February as a section of the magazine and will be carried instead in the Weekly Roundup of Production and Trade, published each promptly, the information

Iran

and

contracts for broiler imports with poultry suppliers in

Tuesday.

which

is

you wish

If

to receive the

Weekly Roundup,

-GRAINS

FEEDS



PULSES





SEEDS-

Thailand Increases Rice Export Effort. Thailand, in a move aimed at stimulating rice exports by making prices more competitive with those of other Asian suppliers, will abolish

premiums

and has already halted the setaside program under which exporters were obliged to sell rice to the Government at below-market prices. Both programs provided much-needed revenue, but have been blamed for the high offering prices of Thai rice and inactivity of rice export trade over the past few months. export

Germany and tons.

Early

Broilers. Iran has signed additional

West

the Netherlands, with each to supply about 2,000

1975, Iran contracted for delivery of 3,000

in

from West Germany and 2,000 tons from were completed by August.

tons of broilers

the Netherlands. These deliveries

free of charge (to U.S. residents only), please

out and mail in the coupon on the back page.

fill

To Import More

levied on exporters of rice

Large Dairy Projects Planned for India. Financial commitments for dairy development projects in India are prompting an interest in supplying cattle for the projected herds. Six

by the World Bank. Of these, the advanced involve $74 million in

projects are to be financed

three

that

are

furthest

Bank commitments, while

the amount of support for the remaining three has not yet been determined. In addition,

Government

the Swiss

financing dairy projects in Kerala

is

and Punjab.

Austria Adopts Cheese Export Policy. Austria in remonths has been reducing subsidies for export of cheese to the United States in order to forestall U.S. countervailing cent

duty actions against those exports. Complete elimination

Rotterdam Grain Prices and Levies. Current

offer prices

compared

for imported grain at Rotterdam, the Netherlands,

with a

week

earlier

and a year ago:

in

Change from Jan. 9

Item

Dot.

per bu.

Wheat: Canadian No.

CWRS-13.5

1

.

.

.

USSR SKS-14 French Feed Milling 2 U.S. No. 2 Dark Northern Spring: 14 percent U.S. No. 2 Hard Winter: 13.5 percent No. 3 Hard Amber Durum .... Argentine U.S. No. 2 Soft Red Winter .... Feedgrains: U.S. No. 3 Yellow corn

French Maize 2 Argentine Plate corn U.S. No. 2 sorghum Argentine-Granifero sorghum U.S. No. 3 Feed barley

.

.

previous

A year

week

ago

Cents per bu.

Dot.

per bu. 5.96

ery.

NOTE:

dairy proposals include replacement of the

5.02

+ 13

5.88

of 2 percent in animal feed; granting of subsidies of 15 units of account per 100 kilograms for production of

4.44 5.55 4.33 3.86

+ 3 + 8 + 14 + 19

5.72 7.59

whole milk powder; donation of 200,000 tons of for food aid; and payment of direct subsidies to producers

3.00

+

3

3.35

+

1

3.71

+ 16 + 5 + 10 + 2

3.00 3.08 2.89

1.09 1.05

n n 3.86

nonfat dry milk price, effective

4

(')

8

7.50

+ + +

2

0

3 3

.07 .13 3

May

deliv-

(NFDM)

September

16,

intervention

price

by a guide

1976; obligatory incorporation

NFDM

NFDM

for withholding of milk.

For in

beef,

the

Commission has proposed

certain

changes

the operation of the intervention price system, including

a slight

4.49 3.87 3.99 3.82

+ +

Basis c.i.f. west coast, England. Price basis 30- to 60-day delivery.

January 19, 1976

The

+ 12

1.24

2

beef sectors.

3.63

levies:

Not quoted.

which includes provision for an average 7.5 percent increase in EC farm support prices. The Commission also recommended a number of significant measures for the dairy and

n n

4.92

1

Price Package. The EC Comits 1976/77 price package,

proposed

(')

U.S. No. 2 Yellow

Sorghum

11

(')

5.20

Corn

December

n

3

EC import Wheat

EC Proposes 1976/77 mission on

(')

Soybeans: Brazilian

is

1976 of the remaining subsidies on Austrian cheese exports to the United States. U.S. imports (mostly Emmenthaler) from Austria in January-November 1975 were 6,402 metric tons, 91 percent of the year-earlier quantity.

expected

widening of the spread between the intervention and

the guide price and the phasing out of slaughter premiums.

Switzerland To Import U.S. Beef. The Swiss Government has notified all Swiss meat importers that the import quota for 300 tons of U.S. beef has been reinstated on an annual

basis, effective

January

1,

1976.

United States, Canada End Beef Trade Curbs. The United States and Canada agreed to remove quota restrictions on beef and

veal trade, effective

January

1.

Page 13

in

November

U.S. restrictions on imports of Canadian beef were imposed

1974.

November 1974

times the previous year’s volume of 45 million.

imposed on

in retaliation for restrictions

imported beef by Canada 3 months

——OILSEEDS

Up

Oilseeds, Meals Imports

The combined import volume during October-November

earlier.

PRODUCTS-™™



Six Major Markets. Combined imports of oilseeds and meals into six major in

markets during January-October 1975 totaled (soybean meal equivalent)

metric tons

— up

11.9

in all of the six

countries except Spain.

is

respectively, in the

FRUIT

NUTS





comparable

VEGETABLES—

Deciduous Markets in Europe Good. Export prospects are improved for U.S. fresh pears and grapes because of the lower 1975 production in most European countries relative to that of a year earlier. In contast, the European supply of apples

abundance, causing depressed

in

is

prices.

Production of pears and grapes in the Netherlands during 1975 was down substantially (56 percent) from that of 1974.

Current pear prices of 21

at the

wholesale level are the equivalent

U.S. cents per pound.

Prospects for imported pears

are considered moderately good.

grapes

The winter market

for fresh

the Netherlands appears

good because Spain, the main supplier and primary U.S. competitor, reportedly had a sharp drop in 1975 grape production. in

expected

Furthermore, soybean meal

is

the

in

coming months.

expected to account

larger proportion of the total because of sharply

1

Norway’s 1975 crops of apples and pears declined by 23 and 31 percent respectively, from those of a year ago, to 41,300 and 8,000 metric tons. Indications are that the opening date of apple imports

compared with

or 20,

this situation,

may

be early

—around January

the normal date of February

U.S. prospects for apples are

nil

1.

,

15

Despite

because of the

for

a

increased

On

the other hand, U.S.

considered

somewhat

pear prices, duty paid,

attractive

relative

to

other European

suppliers.

The 1975 pear crops of Sweden and Denmark were down by 42 and 12 percent from those a year earlier, respectively,

NET IMPORTS OF SOYBEANS AND MEAL AND TOTAL OILSEEDS AND MEALS INTO' SELECTED MAJOR MARKETS 1

export prospects are good, but volume

amounting

1,000 metric tons)

,

are

c.i.f.,

availabilities at competitive prices.

(In

,

transportation disadvantage and the large European supply.

continued strong gain in meal imports into the major countries

million bushels and 20 million, months of 1974 and 1973.

fraction of

oil

compared with only 21

is

and reflects increased feeding rates resulting from relatively low meal prices in relation to grain, although livestock and poultry numbers in some countries have declined. The increase largely reflects expanded movements to West Germany, Spain, and Denmark, partly offset by smaller imports into Japan and France. Imports in September-October at nearly 3 million tons were 41 percent above those in the comparable months of 1974. In October, imports totaled 1.4 million tons, 22 percent above those of October 1974. Imports of soybeans and meal into the same six countries through October 1975 totaled 8.4 million tons (meal basis), 27.000 tons above those of the same 10 months in 1974. Imports of soybeans and meal during the 1975 period accounted for a slightly reduced proportion (70 percent) from the 72 percent of the total during the 1974 period. The reduced proportion reflected increased imports of fish, cottonseed, and

importing

nearly 50 million bushels of soybeans,

million

equal to the protein fraction of 15 million bushels of soybeans

copra meals. The U.S. market share declined

1975, at 524 million pounds, represents the

percent or

2.8

327.000 tons from the same 10 months of 1974. The gain

A

imports, at 178 million pounds, were four

to

12,000 and

8,100 tons. Consequently,

moved

is

U.S.

likely to be

only slightly larger than in the year earlier. Prespects for U.S. exports of grapes to the Danish market appear better

Soybeans and

Total oilseeds

meal

and meals

than those for pears, as chances of a boycott at the

retail

I

level declined. Country

Period

Japan West Germany France Spain United Kingdom

Denmark

....

January-October January-October January-October January-October January-October January-October

1974

1975

1974

1975

2,236

2,051

2,835

2,632

Japan Sets Orange Juice Import Quota.

2,052

2,327

3,167

3,642

a global

1,977

1,587

1,465

2,106

1,170

1,323

1,361

1,504

of orange juice for the current Japanese fiscal year

768

665

1,232

1,224

1975-March 1976).

542

551

886

928

8,355

8,382

11,580

11,907

The quota

Total

Change from previous period 1

Expressed

in

+ 27

+

327

44 percent soybean meal equivalent.

U.S. Imports of Palm and Coconut Oil Up. During October-November 1975, combined imports of coconut and palm oil increased to 524 million pounds more than double the 228 million imported in the same 2 months of 1974. Palm oil imports, largely from Malaysia, increased to 244 million pounds, 143 million of which moved in November. This represents a new record monthly volume. Cumulative imports of palm oil in the 2 months increased by 139 million pounds. Coconut oil imports rose to 280 million pounds, 155 million above those in October-November



Page 14

Japan has

set

quota of 650 metric tons (5-to-l concentrate basis) (April

;

was 1,000 metric tons, Kyodo Kaju (Joint Juice Co.) to be blended with domestic satsuma (mikan) juice. However, the Kyodo Kaju blending plant has not been constructed and the 350 tons is being held in bonded storage. for the previous year

including a 350-ton

As

in

special

quota for

the past, the 650-ton quota will be divided

among

four domestic organizations. Specific amounts to be allocated

have not yet been decided.

A

decision for the continuance of

the 350-ton special quota for the current fiscal year has not yet been reached.

Spain’s Processed Tomato Output Up. Spanish productomatoes in 1975 was recorded at 800,000

tion of processing

metric tons, 23 percent above the 1974 level because of ex-

panded

area.

The

large

1975 crop and the reluctance of proc-

Foreign Agriculture

>

I



— pack all of this large crop resulted in conflicts beween growers and processors. The Government intervened md provided loans to processors so they could pay minimum >rices ranging from $39.30 to $44.40 per ton. However, preiminary reports indicate that grower prices aveaged $59.15 1974 average of $64.30 >e ton, compared with the revised :ssors to

)er ton.

Roughly half of 1975 processing tomato crop was procinto paste, yielding 75,000 tons 36 percent ahead of he year-ago level. The output of canned whole tomatoes vas estimated at 185,000 tons, up from last year’s level by



eed

i

percent.

appears dim for the 1975 pack >ecause both the export and domestic markets are depressed: The U.S. pack

at

is

major export

a record level,

resulting

from

final

inflationary pressures.

down

outlets in

product prices

Tomato

paste ex-

about 25,000 tons, a drop of 18 percent compared to a year ago. Carryover into the 1976 ;eason is likely to be larger than normal. be

ports are likely to

to

Record

Reports

Spanish

Ministry of Agriculture

flive

crop

at a

Table-Olive places

current

table-

record high 180,000 metric tons, 93 percent

The new-crop

ibove last year’s crop of 93,000 tons.

eportedly

The

Harvest.

the

are

of good

quality

but

many

olives

undersized

are

because of dry weather during the growing season. Exports

1974/75 season dropped nearly 30 percent

n the

56,000

to

ons from the 80,000-ton level achieved the previous year.

\bout 56 percent of Spanish olive exports are shipped to he U.S. market. Exports in the 1975/76 year are projected it

70,000 tons. According to

sources, domestic consumption of 1975/76 year is expected to increase by 70 percent to more than 100,000 tons, compared with

50,000

tons

larvest.

in

1974/75,

absorbing

much

of

ieason are estimated at about variety,”

record

the

1975/76

1,000 tons of “other export

compared with about 23,500 tons a year

New

ago.

:rop prices are not available, but because of the record crop,

iharp increases are not likely.

It

is

Council has approved the Commission’s proposal renewing and increasing the preferential EC import quota for unmanufactured tobacco. The quota, increased for 1976 by about one-fourth to 38,000 metric tons, applies to flue-cured tobacco valued at less than 280 units of account for 100 kilogram.

Imports within the quota are subject to a duty less than half the most-favored-nation rate.



Imports under the quota are allocated by share to each

Member State. The U.K. share is about 61 percent of the total, and West Germany’s is 1 1 percent. India is the major beneficiary, supplying most of the U.K. share. Other key tobacco exporting

countries

'or

oranges and tangerines destined for fresh export and for

Under

the program, the

Government

pay to

will

growers the difference between the Government-set guaranteed price

and the price actually received from buyers. Buyers

mist pay orange growers a Government-set

minimum

price,

which depends on the variety and whether the oranges will

exported or processed. The support measures will cost the Greek Government an estimated $13.5 million for oranges and $270,000 for tangerines. 3e

TOBACCO EC Proposes Higher Tobacco Support Prices. The EC Commission has proposed average increases of 5 percent target

in

premiums tobaccos. for 6

and intervention prices and 8 percent (price

rebates

The proposed

to

purchasers)

price increases range

dark Italian varieties

—which

are

in

for

from

in

buyers’

1976-crop 1

percent

weak demand



to

percent for French varieties. Proposed increases in buyers’

January 19, 1976

eligible

preference

for

include

Brazil,

South Korea, the Philippines, and Mexico.

U.K.

To End Some Cigar Import Quotas. On Kingdom

will

lift

January

1,

import quotas on cigars

from the United States, Canada, and countries of Central and South America. Effective that date, cigars imported from the so-called

area no

dollar

be subject to annual

longer will

value limitations.

The quotas, imposed following World War II to conserve U.K. dollar reserves and continued in later years ostensibly to foster trade with Caribbean Commonwealth countries,

many

more than £30,000 The quota was increased to £50,000 in 1964, to £100,000 in 1972, and to £200,000 in 1974. U.S. cigar exports to the United Kingdom which have for

years restricted imports to not

annually.

risen in line with quota liberalization,

1974 and again

in

exceeded $500,000 in

1975. With the quota

year are likely to expand further

lifted,

exports next

heavy tobacco taxation, restricted incomes, and U.K. adoption of the EC’s high import duty on cigars.





in spite of

CQTTQ N





believed that a schedule

Greek Citrus Support Payments Upped. The Greek Government recently announced a price support program Drocessing.

for

EC’s Boosts Preferential Tobacco Import Quota. The

trade

Stocks on hand at the beginning of the



EC

able olives in the learly

orientals

to 15 percent for flue-cured.

1976, the United

Spain

for Italian

which market prices currently are well above target prices

situation

Western Europe are slow, and higher ire

premiums range from no change

of 10.5 percent

The marketing



1974/75 World Cotton Exports Fall. Depressed world demand reduced 1974/75 world cotton trade to the

textile

lowest level in 6 years as supplies built up to a post-World II high. World cotton exports in 1974/75 declined to

War

about 17 million bales, 18 percent below record shipments in 1972/73. A reduction in shipments from non-Communist countries of 2.7 million bales was only slightly offset by an increase

in

Communist country exports

of

225,000

bales.

U.S. cotton exports of 3.9 million bales, down 2.2 million from those of 1973/74, were severely retarded by contract

some deliveries into the 1975/76 season. Gradual economic recovery in most international markets should improve cotton demand in 1975/76. Improved demand is already evident in some Far Eastern countries. However, broader offtake is not expected until mid-1976 in Japan and late 1976 in Western Europe. Consequently, world cotton exports in 1975/76 are forecast to rise only modestly above disputes that delayed

the

1974/75

level

to 17.7 million bales. Foreign

non-Com-

munist exports, predicted to increase 1 .2 million bales, should account for all the upswing, while Communist shipments remain relatively unchanged. U.S. trade, however, is expected to decrease by from 400,000 to 900,000 bales from 1974/75.

Page 15

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DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

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TYPE

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the new address, including ZIP and return the whole sheet to:

Foreign Agricultural Service, Rm. 5918 U.S. Department of Agriculture Washington, D.C. 20250

FOREIGN AGRICULTURE

animal and vegetable

fats and oils. While no alleviation of the situation

Yugoslav Food Import Needs Lowered

may make upwards

in the livestock sector can be counted upon, the Yugoslavs remain optimistic

3,000-4,000 tons, as well as the virtual

for the long term. Their plans presup-

of oriental

The sugarbeet crop reached a record level

of 300,000

in

or

tons,

is

of

than

tons

should

yield

about

in

—Miles Lambert, ERS.

ports

Other Yugoslav crops were especially in 1975. A record tobacco crop

favored

oil

AID Grant Helps Nigeria Expand Cereals Crops

1974. Together with increased

domestic production of soybeans,

months.

ris-

improved Yugoslav sunflower crop

340,000

18,500 tons more domestic edible

with which Yugoslavia has been

reflected in slowing

ing livestock numbers.

1974.

An

experiencing a deteriorating trade balin past

million

532,000 tons of sugar on a refined basis tons than were produced

Most of Yugoslavia’s corn exports traditionally go to West European coun-

ance

about

of

4.4

this position

—70,000 more

tons of corn available for export.

tries,

pose recovery and business as usual, and

elimination of large leaf imports.

hand, a record corn crop of about 9 million tons

tobacco exports by up to

of 70,000 tons should enable an increase

Yugoslavia’s prospects for increased

1976 exports and decreased imports of farm products have been boosted tremendously by 1975 crop outturns. While the 1975 wheat harvest was 30 percent below that of 1974, no imports of wheat are foreseen. On the other

may

im-

be cut by more than 20,000

tons in

what has been Yugoslavia’s most

costly

agricultural

import

category

Nigeria, with the assistance of a $5.9

from the U.S. Agency for Development, is working self-sufficiency in millet and

million grant International

toward

sorghum by

1980.

Harvests

of

grains are projected to reach

SEND ME THE WEEKLY ROUNDUP OF PRODUCTION/TRADE:

these

200,000

tons above the annual national production

average of

1.1

million

tons over

the next 5 years.

Program components include

Name

tech-

nical assistance in research, seed multiplication, cooperatives

credit,

and

About 20 Nigerians are to go to the! United States during the next 3 years! for advanced university studies in agri-

Address

cultural sciences.

City

State

trained

Zip

in

Another 20 are

Foreign Agricultural Service, Information Division, Room So. 5918, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C.

the job.

20250

eals

Nigeria

to be

Africa and third countries,

and more than 400 are

MAIL TO:

and

agricultural extension services.

Firm, or organization

is

to

be trained on

creating a National Cer-

Office to

coordinate the develop-!

ment program. Page 16

*U.S.

GOVERNMENT PRINTING

OFFICE:1976

211-407/27

1-3

Foreign Agriculture

1976
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