policies, or practices.
Foreign agriculture June
JUH 22 CCMEUI
Farm Output Markets
Malaysia and Singapore Foreign Agricultural Service U.S. DEPARTMENT
foreign agriculture •
High Farm Outpu:
Foreign Regional Analysis Division
Economic Research Service In this issue:
High Farm Output
Western Europe To By Reed E. Friend
Sharp Decline in Australia’s 1969 Sugar Production
Slaughter of 290,460 Milk By William Roenigk
Agricultural production in Western Europe a high level during 1969, although
Trade Figures Show Yugoslavia’s Baby Beef Supply Short
cate continued high production in 1970, with
Loans Aid World Production,
Production of wheat
a major surplus item in
duction of potatoes and sugarbeets. slightly,
significant decrease in 1969; so did pro-
Production of milk
reported to have decreased
along with that of pork. Production of beef and veal
But feedgrain production reached a record
Singapore: Mini Island
U.S. Frozen Foods on
Display at Tokyo Trade Center 15
held stable, and a moderate increase occurred for poultry
U.S. agricultural exports to the area.
other persistent area surplus 9
the record achieved the previous year. Current prospects indi-
includes 17 countries Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, West Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United
Crops and Markets Shorts
This week’s cover:
These Austrian cows are oblivious of the dairy surpluses that continue to plague Western Europe’s farmers. Although the EC countries have the largest overproduction, surpluses are also a problem in Austria, Ireland, Sweden, and Finland. For a report on agricultural production in Western Europe see article beginning this page.
M. Hardin, Secretary of Agriculture
Clarence D. Palmby, Assistant Secretary for International Affairs
and Commodity Programs
cultural Service Editorial Staff:
Janet F. Beal; Assistant Editors:
L. Barr, Margaret A. Weekes, Marcellus P. Murphy, Jane V. Foster, Katherine Janka.
Kenneth F. McDaniel, Chairman; Horace J. Davis, Anthony R. DeFelice, James A. Hutchins, Jr., Kenneth K. Krogh, Robert O. Link, J. Donald Looper, Donald M. Rubel, Dorothy R. Rush, Raymond E. Vickery, Quentin
M. West, Joseph W.
Use of funds for printing Foreign Agriculture has been approved by the Director of the Bureau of the Budget (May 1, 1969). Yearly subscription rate, $10.00 domestic, $13.00 foreign; single copies 20 cents. Order from Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. Contents of this magazine may be reprinted freely. Use of commercial and trade names does not imply approval or constitute endorsement by USDA or Foreign Agricultural Service.
Western Europe To Continue
dairy surpluses persist
Although Western Europe as a whole is a grain deficit area, many countries in the region produce a surplus of soft wheat. The problem is most serious in the European Community (EC), which accounts for two-thirds of Western Europe’s wheat production and which had soft wheat stocks estimated about 10 million tons as of August 1, 1969, compared with about 7 million tons a year earlier. Other countries with soft at
wheat surpluses include Austria, Finland, Greece, and Spain. Wheat surpluses have resulted in large part from favorable government price policies without production restrictions.
in livestock feed
Western Europe, milk production employs
who are able to use family labor to achieve relatively high income per acre of land. This situation makes politically unpalatable any decision to curb surpluses small
by lowering milk being taken to surpluses.
although some other measures are
to dispose of these measures include subsidies to enslaughtering and the nonmarketing of milk; to
dampen milk production and
increase the consumption of cold storage butter; and to stimuuse of nonfat dry milk and butter in calf, pig, and
or exFeedgrain prices are presently being increased in an attempt to encourage farmers to plant more feedgrain and less wheat. As with wheat, the EC has the largest dairy surplus in Western Europe. On January 1, 1970, EC stocks of butter totaled 345,000 tons; and nonfat dry milk stocks had climbed
Declines in agricultural production in 1969 were more pronounced in Sweden and Norway than in other Western European countries. The reduced output centered primarily in grain and potato production in both countries and in sugarbeet production in Sweden. Some of the other countries ex-
to 340,000 tons. Dairy surpluses also exist in Austria, Ireland, Sweden, and Finland. An extremely important source of agri-
periencing much lesser declines in agricultural output were Belgium-Luxembourg, France, West Germany, Denmark, and
of the surplus wheat
—both requiring heavy
Production vories by country
Portugal. All of these countries evidenced
The most notable increases in farm production occurred in Greece and the Netherlands, for grain and meat, including poultry (and for milk in the Netherlands only). Farm production in Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom experienced little change from the 1968 levels. Grain and meat production
Western Europe’s mated at 120 million
grain production for 1969
Western Europe's growing farm production. Far harvesting corn in northern France. Above left, Italian
tomato processing plant. Lower
livestock facilities in
transplant seedlings in a tobacco
the record 121 mil-
Denmark. Below, Greek field.
for 1969 are not yet available). Agricultural exports totaled
reflected both reduced about 5 percent from 1968 acreage and less favorable weather, but was largely offset by
increased feedgrain crops.
The output of
dominant feedgrain, increased
crease was achieved in corn production, which reached a rec-
ord of 14 million tons.
Between 1968 and 1969 the Western European production little while pork production declined. Increased beef and veal output in most Western European notably West Germany, Portugal, Finland, and countries Italy was offset by decreases in France, the United Kingdom, and Denmark. Pork production declined slightly, largely owing to decreases in the French, West German, and Danish output. Poultry meat production in Western Europe has steadily of beef and veal changed
many Western European
countries accounted for the
WESTERN EUROPE: PRODUCTION OF SELECTED AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES
instability in the
tion of the
EC in 1969 (including devaluaFrench franc and revaluation of the German mark) led to emergency trade measures which set back its Monetary
towards greater use of
Imports of fruit and vegetables in 1968 were below both 1966 and 1967 levels; while the value of coffee, tea, cocoa, and spice imports continued to rise. Meat and meat preparations imported in 1968 were slightly below the level of a year earlier, but slightly above their 1966 level. Major agricultural products exported by Western Europe include fruit and vegetables, meat and meat products, grain
Setbacks and progress
decrease in natural fiber imports.
has expanded rapidly in the
Netherlands, Spain, the United Kingdom,
well as the stagnation or even deterioration of the textile indus-
increased in recent years, climbing to a record 2.7 million tons in
and meat preparations; natural fibers (including cotton); and coffee, tea, cocoa, and spices are among the major agricultural products imported by Western Europe. Between 1966 and 1968, imports of grain and grain preparations declined by onetenth of $318 million, while imports of all natural fibers decreased by one-sixth or nearly $400 million. Increased domestic production was largely responsible for the decline in grain
barley, the area’s
to nearly 39 million tons, with
several countries producing record crops.
— almost 6 percent above the
Fruit and vegetables; cereals and cereal preparations; meat
a result of the devalu-
ation of the franc, import subsidies and export taxes are being
August 1971 to equalize French and Community prices. The EC has been unable to agree on a large-scale program for restructuring its agriculture. Although agreement has been reached on the future financing of the CAP, no limit has been placed on its burgeoning costs. However, the EC is expected to be completely self-financed (independent of direct state contributions) at
Beef and veal
Mutton and lamb Poultry meat
Mil. Mil. metric metric tons tons 120.6 120.1 47.6 45.3 37.8 38.9
1978. Negotiations aimed
Mil. metric tons
membership to include the United Kingdom, Norway, and Denmark are scheduled to start in late
Mil. Mil. metric metric tons tons 102.6 105.5 45.3 39.9
114.2 114.0 4.16 4.23
imports stabilize; exports advance 1
Western Europe’s agricultural imports totaled nearly $22 billion in 1968, about equal to the 1967 level (aggregate data
The Agricultural Situation in Western Europe Review of 1969 and Outlook for 1970, Economic Research Service, USDA, 1970.
SELECTED AGRICULTURAL EXPORTS AND IMPORTS OF WESTERN EUROPE 1966
302.9 331.9 390.6 138.4 389.3 44.7 637.4
371.4 390.9 413.1 164.6 349.7 40.6 562.2
427.8 404.8 448.5
Meat and meat preparations Dairy products and eggs Cereal and cereal preparations Fruit and vegetables Coffee, tea, cocoa, spices, etc
Animal feed Wine Tobacco, unmanufactured Hides and skins Oilseeds, oilnuts, and oil kernels Natural fibers Others Total
Imports from U.S.
613.6 2,413.6 1,212.5 3,063.8 3,714.8 1,950.4 1,286.6
496.8 737.4 880.8 1,217.8
1,239.0 2,746.2 3,682.7 2,175.3 1,265.6 437.9 766.8 768.9
3,766.8 2,033.0 1,240.2 422.1 781.1
97.2 15.0 1,228.9 223.8
352.4 71.6 500.1
370.4 51.6 517.8
372.1 59.5 511.4 130.4 101.5
728.6 1,151.0 2,399.6
and Outlook for 1970, Economic Research
and grain products, and dairy products. France and the Neth-
the type of cotton required by
erlands are the leading exporters of agricultural products, followed by Denmark and Italy. Much of the recent increase in
expected to increase modestly during 1970.
Western Europe’s agricultural exports is attributable to larger exports of grain, livestock, and livestock products. Wheat accounts for about half of Western Europe’s grain exports, and
many Western European
Owing to the continual expansion of livestock and poultry production in and meal
countries, exports of oilseeds, cake,
especially soybean products
to the region appear
U.S. variety meats and specialty products
should also continue to be in strong
the leading grain exporter.
millers; but they are
Europe during 1970. Implications for the United States
Imports of U.S. farm products by Western Europe peaked at $3.1 billion in 1966 but declined to approximately $2.5 billion in 1967 and 1968. A further decline occurred in 1969, when U.S. agricultural exports to Western Europe decreased
by $265 million. Wheat, feedgrains, fruit and vegetables, and cotton from the United States have experienced major declines, while U.S. exports of tobacco and oilseeds have re-
at a high level. Prospects for Western European feedgrain imports in 1970 are not bright for the United States. The record feedgrain
crop in 1969 and the increased use of soft wheat for feed have reduced the import requirements of the region. U.S. exprimarily corn to Western Europe may ports of feedgrains
also face increased competition
other, substantial sup-
U.S. cotton exports to Western Europe dropped sharply in 1969, owing to increased competition and limited supplies of
Sharp Decline Australia, the
most extensively mechanized sugar-producing
output during 1969. Unfavorable growing conditions, marked in
areas, resulted in the country’s
experience some decline in small grain production in
wet spring have curtailed where the area sown to wheat is reported at about 10 percent below the 1969 total. Any decrease in the wheat and barley output of France^ however, will be partly offset by increased plantings of corn. Grain production in Western Europe as a whole will largely depend on weather conditions for the remaining part 1970.
the planting of small grains
particularly in France,
of the season.
Production of beef, veal, and pork may expand moderately Egg output is expected to remain stable, but broiler production should continue to expand. Milk production in 1970 may remain near the 1 14 million tons produced in recent years, with surplus production of butter and nonfat dry milk
continuing to persist.
world price movements
cane harvest in 1969 was 15.53 million
levels of exports in
Through preferential arrangements for Commonwealth Canada and New Zealand have become important mar-
kets for Australian sugar producers. In
lowest sugarcane harvest since 1965.
Based on the limited data
1969 Sugar Production
country in the world, suffered a sharp decline in raw sugar
by severe drought
1970 production outlook
1969, 159,000 tons
Canada and 101,000 tons went
Hong Kong purchased
long tons, 16 percent below the record crop of 18.41 million
1968. South Queensland, the area most by drought, produced only 1.96 million tons of cane, compared to 3.40 million tons in 1968. A cane crop of 835,224 tons in 1969 was reported for New South Wales which harvested a record crop of 1.17 million tons in 1966. With the exception of the Burdekin area in eastern Australia, the sugar content of the cane crop was generally low, and in some areas extremely low. In Queensland, the average commercial sugar content was the lowest in the past 10 years except for 1964. Low sugar content, together with reduced cane production, brought about an Australian production of raw sugar totaling only 2.12 million tons in 1969 20 percent below the 1968 level.
416,000, 150,000, 69,000, and 10,000 tons respectively.
tons harvested in
The Australian production of molasses during
season was 433,000 tons, slightly below the 1968-69 level of
454,000 tons. Rains late in the season helped offset the earlier drought and increased the molasses output. The United States was the main destination of Australian
molasses exports in 1969, purchasing 101,095 tons 63 percent of the total 160,232 tons exported. Other significant cus-
Kingdom and Japan. About 85,000 tons of molasses were used
tomers were the United
as stockfeed in
1969, a substantial increase over 1968. This use
to increase as the facilities available in Australia for the dis-
Domestic consumption and exports Australia’s domestic sugar
tribution of molasses
consumption has remained
tons annually. This varies
crops are good and the
for sugar for canning
International Sugar Agreement which came into force 1969 restricted Australia’s sugar exports somewhat by limiting the exports to free markets at 90 percent of the basic export tonnage. Australia exported 1.40 million tons of sugar in 1969, a considerable decline from the 1968 export level of 2.05 million tons. However, the sugar industry is hopeful that
and the manufacture of molasses mixture
The Australian sugar industry expects 1970 production of raw sugar to total about 2.2 million tons, slightly above the production level of 1969. However, the 1970 crop still faces several months of unpredictable weather before harvest begins. Recent reports show that growing conditions have been favorable in most of Queensland, although dry weather has slowed cane development somewhat in South Queensland. Based on dispatch from
the Office of the Agricultural Attache, Canberra
effort to curb dairy surplys
EC Subsidizing Slaughter of 290,500 Milk Cows By
Foreign Regional Analysis Division
Economic Research Service The European Community Commission
announced 1970 of 290,460 dairy cows and the retirement from milk production of an that the
will subsidize the slaughter in
The subsidization plan is part December 1969, to reduce the
of a prodairy sur-
plus by encouraging farmers to slaughter their entire dairy 1
from milk to beef production. The initial goal was 250,000 dairy cows under each of the two measures. The number of cows subsidized for slaughter in 1970 exceeds the initial goal by 16 percent, but the number of cows subsidized for “nonmarketing of milk” dropped under the herds, or to switch
planned number by 48 percent. The more than 290,000 cows to be slaughtered during the first half of 1970 amount only to about 1.3 percent of the EC’s total dairy herd. Under the nonmarketing of milk scheme, about 0.6 percent of the EC dairy herd will be withdrawn from milk production. Thus, the two measures together account for less than 2 percent of the Community’s dairy herd.
Commission views the
as “disappointing,” since
results of the pro-
will lead to
reduction in the milk surplus.
About 65,000 farmers will receive slaughter subsidies; only an average of 4.5 cows will be moved to slaughter by each of these farmers. Under the milk nonmarketing measure, about 7,000 dairymen will receive subsidy payments; each will re-
move an average
of 19.2 cows from milk production.
under the EC’s subsidized program, 54 percent are from herds ranging from two to five cows. About 40 percent are from herds of from six to 10 cows; the rest of the cows are from herds numbering more than 10 cows, although subsidies under this measure are limited to $2,000 per farm (10 cows at $200 per cow). Small dairy
to be slaughtered
fourths of the farmers their cows.
(The average number of cows per farm throughout
Data on the subsidy for nonmarketing of milk the measare only ure complementary to the EC slaughter subsidy fragmentary. Dairy producers with more than 10 cows could receive a subsidy of up to $2,000 if they agreed to cease delivery or marketing of milk and milk products and maintain
from about 7,000 farmers and
The slaughter subsidy will have its greatest impact in West Germany, where a total of 168,200 cows, or almost 3 percent of German dairy herds, will be slaughtered. Although West Germany accounts for only slightly more than 25 percent of
number of cows
of the small producers to leave the
Commission believes that about West German subsidies were granted to producers who had already planned to stop milking production soon, and dairying business.
half of the
COWS SUBSIDIZED FOR SLAUGHTER, SPRING BY HERD SIZE
10 or more
1 See “EC Takes Further Measures to Diminish Milk Surplus,” Foreign Agriculture, Nov. 17, 1969.
West Germany’s cows are in herds of from two to five cows, but almost 60 percent of the cows subsidized for slaughter will come from herds of this size. The subsidy program
cover only about 130,000 cows.
Impact by country
of the cows in their dairy herd. One-fourth of
their herds at least at their original sizes for beef output. Appli-
cations have been received
More than 40,000 West German farmers have slaughter
share of the total
subsidized for slaughter
will, in effect,
agreed to slaughter
estimated to be less than five.)
A herd of French Friesian cattle (Francaise Frisonne pie noir), in Petit Verly, Aisne Department, 1968. French farmers use these cattle both for meat and milk.
“Europe,” Agence Internationale d’Information pour Apr. 27, 1970.
only hasten the process of retirement by
tranquil pasture scene in the dairy region of
Schleswig-Holstein in North Germany.
About 17 percent of the cows to be slaughtered under the EC subsidy program are in France. Although this country has
herds like these that will be affected by the
EC dairy herd 44 percent a stipulaby the French Government that farmers must be at least 55 years of age to qualify for the subsidy probably restricted participation. Although only one-eighth of the cows in France
fourths of the subsidies were granted to farms in the northern
the largest share of the
cows or less, more than half the cows subslaughter are from herds of this size.
Provinces of the country. Farms there are generally smaller
sidized for slaughter are
one-half of the cows sub-
from herds of
these farmers are converting from
are in herds of 5
dications are that
dairying to calf-fattening operations, or to pig or poultry
Most of the Italian applications for the slaughter subsidy came from low-income farmers in south central Italy and the islands who want to abandon dairying on their farms. These
areas account for roughly one-fifth of the total dairy herd in
dairy belt of northern Italy, where herds are of cows selected for slaughter totaled only about
Italy. In the
larger size, [1
about 6 months.
3,000. Less than
percent of the country’s dairy herd will be
four-fifths of the
Dutch dairy farms have more
than 10 cows. Thus, the cows subsidized for slaughter
0.8 percent of the herd
compared with the rest of the EC. Numerous number of Dutch farmers leaving
factors will tend to limit the
dairying or converting their operation to beef production.
slaughtered under the subsidized program. Italy accounts for
roughly 8 percent of the cows subsidized for slaughter though 16 percent of the EC’s dairy herd is located there.
quality roughage, favorable milk prices, high milk yields per
cow, and high calf prices (for veal or herd replacement). Luxembourg accounts for only a small fraction of dairying
In Belgium, where
more than 2 percent of
approved for slaughter under the subsidy program, three-
these are the availability of large
amounts of good
EC. However, more than 35 percent of this country’s income comes from dairying. The slaughter subsidies tended to hasten the exit from milk production of older farmers since 60 percent of the applicants had planned to retire from dairying within 2 years anyhow. This measure also encouraged some part-time producers to abandon milk proin the
TOTAL MILK COW NUMBERS, AND NUMBER
SUBSIDIZED FOR SLAUGHTER, SPRING Number
subsidized for slaughter
9,700.0 5,848.3 3,560.0 1,903.0 1,075.0 61.4
attache reports, Foreign Agricultural Service, USDA. Rounded to nearest hundred. “Europe,” Agence Internationale d’Information pour la Presse. Apr. 27, 1970. Latest census figures 2
The two measures being implemented by the EC Community to
porarily reduce the dairy herd in the level.
expected that improved breeding of dairy
along with expected expansions herds,
French and Dutch dairy
would cause any decline in milk production to be To some extent, applicants were older farmers or
who were merely
taking advantage of the subsiplanned retirement. In fact, annual the weather is likely to have more of an impact
dies to hasten an already
on milk output than
Pact with EC calls for annual shipment of approximately 52,000 tons of baby beef , but 1969 shipments to EC were only 45,347 tons. Will first year of agreement bring problems in meeting demand?
Trade Figures Show Yugoslavia's Baby Beef Supply Short Yugoslavia’s
3-year trade pact with the European
munity (EC) went into
and already there are indications that the country may experience difficulty in 1970 1 in taking full advantage of its benefits. The pact, which reduces import levies on certain quantities of Yugoslav baby
beef exported into
ing the required quantities. (Yugoslav baby beef
Agreement reduces import
be possible for Yugoslavia to reach the 60,000-ton by making some adjustments in its planning. In the
slaughter weights of Yugoslav heifers and bull calves have tended to average near the minimum weights acceptable for baby beef (800-875 lb.). A longer feeding period could bring export baby beef animals to slaughter weights averaging 1,000 pounds for heifers and 1,100 pounds for bull calves. There is plenty of com on hand; it is only necessary to add 175 pounds per head to baby beef animals destined for the EC to bring total exports to 55,000-60,000 metric tons on a carcass past,
may have problems
But the industry
try in particular.
expected to benefit Yugo-
balance of payments in general and
The agreement reduces as
25 percent for
on Yugoslav baby beef by The amount of
levy reduction varies according to the time of the year, the
EC, and whether the exports are sent to an EC-member nation during
relationship of several categories of prices within the
2 years of the pact or in
levy reductions apply to baby beef shipments to the in the
period 1970-72, but the annual total of such
shipments (to which these duty concessions apply) is not allowed to exceed by more than 15 percent the average of
shipments recorded between 1967-69. Complete data to estab-
lish the levels for the
3-year base period have not yet been
statistics that are
currently available indicate
that this base will be approximately 52,000 metric tons.
creasing this figure by the trade pact
15 percent allowable under the
that Yugoslavia will receive a reduced levy
on annual exports to EC countries of 60,000 metric tons of baby beef. (The pact does not limit Yugoslavia’s yearly exports into the EC to that figure; it merely means that shipments exceeding that weight will be subject to the full duty.)
Baby beef exports dropped
The problem facing Yugoslavia
a rapid selloff of lightweight
purchasers the following year.
Yugoslav herds are
be able to divert some of
a result of these
tomers in 1969, Yugoslav trade data show that 45,347 tons were sold to EC countries in that year. This amount repre-
one country, Italy. The amount exported to all EC countries in 1969 was 6,770 tons less than the average for 1967-69 and 14,587 tons less than the 59,934 ceiling that can be approximated by using the trade statistics available. Thus, at first glance it would seem that Yugoslavia will have trouble meet-
demands of non-EC countries while at the same time shipping into the Community the approximately 60,000 tons of baby beef allowed by the agreement.
Yugoslavia’s baby beef
of Simenthal stock.
gories of this breed qualify as
baby beef under the terms of
the agreement: heifers and bull calves in the age range 12-18
months (not yet having
second teeth). They must dress
out at not less than 58 percent of live weight. For male animals (bull calves), the slaughter weight must be 875-1,125
pounds; for females, 800-1,050 pounds. Carcasses must weigh as follows: Whole, 450-675 pounds; halves, 225-337.5 pounds;
and hindquarters, 99.2-149.9 pounds, or 83.7-134.4 pounds, depending of the method of forequarters, 112.5-170 pounds;
Yugoslavia’s baby beef large
government farms and
a specialty product of several is
raised expressly for export.
Only 12-15 percent is consumed in the country, mostly in expensive hotels and restaurants catering to the tourist trade. It is estimated that about 400,000 head of young Simenthal stock are produced annually, 350,000 for export. The beef resembles U.S. yearling beef in that the feeding practices and
months of age or less. Yugoslav baby beef is pink in hue and shows less fat than American yearling beef. Based on a dispatch from Frank W. Ehman
U.S. Agricultural Attache, Belgrade
sented about 56 percent of Yugoslavia’s total baby beef exports to all destinations; 95.8 percent of these exports went to
slaughter weights are similar to those for U.S. animals 12
the 80,000 metric tons of baby beef exported to
1969 its exports of baby beef were down. Exports to all markets dropped from approximately 97,600 tons in 1967 and 1968, to 80,000 tons in 1969, a decline of 17 percent. This drop in exports grew out of two factors: Adverse market conditions in 1968, and is
baby beef from Over the 1967-69 period, 44 percent of its baby beef exports went to countries other than the EC. Switching only a few percent could easily add considerable quantities to the lucrative EC market. Yugoslav agricultural planners may also develop other plans in order to ship 60,000 tons of baby beef to EC markets and will not deprive any other market of too great Yugoslavia
other world markets for shipment into
in Foreign Agriculture’s issue of presents additional data subsequently
The agreement was reviewed
received. 2 The 1967-69 base given above is calculated on annual average shipments to the EC of about 42,800 metric tons of chilled carexports. cass meat, plus the meat equivalent of the live-animal These averaged 9,300 metric tons during the 3-year base period. of 3 Totals given are based on actual chilled carcass weights of exported live heifer and bull calves, plus the meat equivalent
Agricultural Loans The
Aid World Production, Marketing
largest tile drainage operation ever undertaken, road-
rearranging of rice paddies
the projects for
which countries around the world are
receiving agricultural development loans this year.
rural areas are the goals of an
agreement between the Agency Development (AID) and the Government
of Colombia for the release of local currency funds.
With $26 million in credit assistance from the International Development Association (IDA), an affiliate of the World Bank, the United Arab Republic (UAR) will be able to install
agreement provides for agricultural programs which will use about one-fourth of the more than $75 million in Colombian pesos generated by current U.S. aid programs and sales of U.S. agricultural commodities for local currency. The major agricultural programs will be undertaken by Colombia’s Agricultural Reform Agency in the fields of super-
million acres of irrigated land in the
vised credit, technical assistance, irrigation, and land distribu-
drainage for nearly
Nile Delta, making possible an increase of about 20 percent in
crop production in the area. This will lead to substantially
ects to develop agricultural education, extension,
higher incomes for about 250,000 farm families and improve
payments by increasing earnings from and reducing the need for food imports. Agricultural production, concentrated in the Nile Valley and only 4 percent of the country’s land area its Delta employs more than half the population and provides about 80 percent the country’s balance of agricultural exports
of exports. But, despite increases in production in the past
few years, the UAR still imports over $200 million worth of food products annually. Two major constraints to increased production in irrigated lands are waterlogging and salinity. The most effective way to solve these problems has been found to be tile drainage, which removes excess soil moisture through concrete or clay pipes buried horizontally below the crop root zone, does not require permanent removal of land from crop production, and needs only minor maintenance. On the 373,000 acres in the Nile Delta where tile drainage has already been installed, yields of the principal crops rice, cotton, wheat, and maize have increased substantially.
project will be carried out over a period of
6 V2 years at a total cost of $147 million.
be for 50 years, including 10 years of grace, and will cover the foreign exchange costs; local currency expenditures will be
met by the
UAR government. Mexico
works benefiting 30,500 farm families on 99,000 acres in seven States of northeast Mexico. The project will also promote agricultural and livestock development and will provide facilities for supplying water for household use and the water-
total cost is
and research, and the Livestock Bank will promote slaughterhouse development and make loans to livestock and dairy producers. Development of Colombia’s natural resources as well as tourism potential will be assisted by projects in forest utilization and conservation, fish production, and national parks. Rural development is also the objective of another AID loan $23 million to the Government of Guatemala for a
joint 5-year Alliance for Progress
program. This $ 143-million development program is designed to improve the economic and social well-being of the small farmers of the agricultural
Guatemalan highlands. Much of Guatemala’s rural population will receive some form of assistance and, as more vegetables, fruits, and handicrafts become available, industry and foreign trade will benefit indirectly from the loan. Guatemala will contribute more than $20 million to the program, and contributions are also expected from the InterAmerican Development Bank and the Central American Bank for Economic Integration. Two major areas of the program are a $ 12.3-million basic grains project and a diversification project. The grains project, of which AID will finance approximately two-thirds, is designed to modernize production and marketing of com, beans, rice, wheat, and sorghum through improved seed, use of fertilizer, and efficient storage and price stabilization systems.
The Inter-American Development Bank is lending $26 million to the Government of Mexico to build small irrigation
ing of cattle.
Agricultural Institute will conduct proj-
In the diversification project, $22.5 million will be invested to provide credit
tables, plantain, citrus, sesame,
project should enable farmers to increase their pro-
improve their farming techniques, and increase their incomes. Average farm income in the region, only 76.2 percent of the national average, ranges from $400 per year in the largest city, Monterrey, to an average of $20 per year in 40 percent of the region.
Maximum utilization of the region’s natural resources will be achieved through comprehensive water-use studies and the rehabilitation or construction of 665 additional small-scale irrigation facilities.
and economically, with the rest of the nation. for 25 years at 3 percent interest and will be guaranteed by the Government of Mexico.
significance, these crops appear to
as well as elsewhere in Central
in other areas of the world.
AID’s share of the financing
of this activity comes to $8.5 million.
be provided through the
community leaders, cooperative directors, and other technical personnel trained to assume leadership roles in the highland areas. During the training of extension
stages of this program, AID will provide $5.5 million and the Guatemalan Government $3.3 million. initial
The loan interest,
In addition, the project should help to integrate the north-
Not now of major
have production potential and good marketing prospects cally in
and technical assistance to encourage
creased production of seven previously low-yield crops
to be repaid over a 40-year period at 3 percent
10-year grace period at the rate of
Rural development in Latin America
Greater farm output and a higher standard of living
credit in Iran
$6.5 million 16-year loan (4 years of grace) at 7 percent interest from the World Bank will assist the Iranian Government’s efforts to increase agricultural production by providing additional credit for
exchange for a
3-year lending program
credits will be extended to operators of large
primarily for the production of oilseeds, dairy products, and
meat, which Iran
deciduous and citrus
imports in large quantities, and for
consolidating small separated parcels of paddy land. AID’s assistance to Korea in this area is expected to help meet food needs and moderate price increases, earn and conserve foreign exchange, and increase farmers’ income.
which are important exports. Some
be repayable in dollars over 40 years, includ-
be available for crop preparation, packaging, and cold storage enterprises. As a result of the program, farm-
ing a 10-year grace period, with annual interest at 2 percent during the grace period and 3 percent for the remaining 30
ers will substantially increase their incomes.
be relatively small, the program will
on agricultural lending
should appear rapidly; and,
contribution to Iran’s total agricultural
an area where
can serve as
model for wider application.
also the recipient of a
million and an
World Bank loan of $40
$15 million, both to
assist in the
development program of the Korean National Railroad by covering the foreign exchange costs. Railroads handle nearly three-fourths of the freight traffic and nearly half the passen-
ger traffic of the country. Rice paddies, roads in
Korea has been authorized by AID to help finance the rearrangement of more than a million acres of paddy land to boost production of rice and other food
Textiles, farmers in Ethiopia
Also planned under the AID loan is the reclamation of approximately 665,000 acres of upland area by 1976. The Government of Korea will buy U.S. earthmoving machinery as well as maintenance and repair equipment for
share subscription of $168,000 equivalent to the Cotton
$ 10-million loan to
The of the
a loan of $450,000 and a
Government of Ethiopia
credit to the
finance a project aimed at assisting farmers in the in
a successful current pro-
gram. Usable farmland and farmer productivity are increased
by reshaping and enlarging paddy
providing better access, improving irrigation
pany of Ethiopia, the country’s largest integrated cotton spinning and weaving mill, to increase production, largely of higher quality fabrics. Ethiopian and Japanese investors will
charged by the Ministry of Agriculture with carrying out rural
improvement projects. Paddy rearrangement
International Finance Corporation (IFC), an affiliate
World Bank, has made both
by providing an all-season road to the market at Asmara, building a water supply system to serve 30,000 people, and establishing a demonstration farm. The credit is region
for $3.1 million.
Malaysia and Singapore Increase Cotton Imports Recent expansion of the textile industries in Malaysia and Singapore indicates favorable prospects for U.S. cotton exports to those small, but growing, hard currency markets. Cotton imports into the two countries have increased from 8,904
1969 Malaysian cotton fabric production totaled 30 million square yards, and Singapore’s production amounted to a quantity only
1964-65 (year beginning July 1) to is expected
500 looms. Another 63,000 spindles Singapore’s expansion
1968-69, and continued growth
during the 1970’s. The upward trend in the region’s cotton imports continued during the first half of the current fiscal
when they reached almost 19,000 bales compared with 11,000 bales in the same period a year earlier.
Mills in Malaysia
be added under
estimated that in
and Singapore usually buy raw cotton
who operate in that area, in Japan, who may have a financial interest Some Hong Kong representatives of U.S.
through Japanese associates
or in the United States, and in
cotton to these two countries. Transactions
are conducted through letters of credit or transit receipts at
Growing cotton market improving investment climate in Malaysia and Singapore has been a primary factor in spurring the establishment of a growing
on a 180-day basis. West Malaysia, cotton is being imported through the ports of Butterworth and Swettenham. The mills of Johore 8 to 10 percent interest rate
number of modem,
fully integrated mills, devel-
between foreign and
the area’s textile industry
State, in southern Malaysia, will
probably continue to import
cotton through Singapore. In order to maintain efficient mill operations, between 2
months’ supply of raw cotton
Not long ago,
the growing nationalism of nearby countries and by
considered necessary. At current consumption rates, this would
the restrictiveness of local labor. In recent years, however, the
about to about 6,000 to 8,000 bales needed as operating stocks. Staple lengths of the cotton used in Malaysia range from 15/16 inch to 1-1/16 inches, and grade ranges from strict low
industry has begun to develop; and as the mills
efficient, their growth rate is expected to increase through the development of new markets and the expansion of traditional ones. Industrial consumption of raw cotton has grown from about 8,000 bales in 1964-65 to an estimated 34,000 bales in
middling to good middling. The fineness (micronaire) is from 3.2 to 4.5 (which is considered in the generally desirable fineness range), and strength (pressley) is from 75,000 to 85,000
pounds per square
Currently there are 1 1 textile mills in West Malaysia which operate a total of 65,000 spindles and 2,500 looms. Plans for expansion call for an additional 75,000 spindles and 1,000
the coarser count of 10 to the finer count of 42. In Singapore
looms, although no timetable has been specified. Singapore has six textile mills which together operate 47,000 spindles and
Yarn counts produced range from
from 15/16 inch to 1-1/8 inches staple and micronaire identical to that of the cotton used in Malaysia. Pressley is from 80,000 to 85,000 in Singapore, and the yarn counts produced are from 30 to 45.
the cotton used
length, with grade
Because of Singapore’s limited land area and a tropical is not conducive to the cultivation of cotton, it is not likely that cotton will be grown on a commercial scale in climate that
the region. Malaysia
depend on imported
While total U.S. cotton exports during the marketing year 1968-69 dropped to the low level of 2.8 million bales compared with an annual average of 4.4 million bales during the preceding 5 years, exports to Malaysia and Singapore in-
During 1968-69 the United States was the largest raw cotton to the region, accounting for 7,873 bales. Imports from the United States during the first half of the current fiscal year declined moderately from those of the same period last year. This reflects the increased supply/ price competition U.S. cotton is facing in most export markets this
of raw cotton at
competitive prices should help insure the increased purchase of U.S. cotton by Malaysia and Singapore.
ports of cotton textiles in Singapore indicate that re-exports to
Indonesia and possibly other countries must be substantial.
cotton to support the expansion of their mills.
Adequate supplies of various
and colored fabrics imported mainly from Hong Kong, Japan, the Soviet Union, Mainland China, and Pakistan. The main destinations of Singapore’s fabric exports were the United Kingdom and the United States. The larger net imprinted,
Outlook for U.S. cotton exports
consumption of manmade fibers in Malaysia and modest at present, but steadily growing. This is attributed to the use of manmade fibers in the manufacture of spun rayon yarn for export and the use of polyester fabrics blended with cotton for making shirts for both domestic and Industrial
Japanese viscose staple fibers and polyester fibers are the most popular manmade material in Malaysia and Singapore. Of the 1.7 million pounds of various manmade fibers imported by West Malaysia in 1968, Japanese fibers accounted for 1.3 million pounds. Singapore imported 6.9 million pounds of
parison, for example, Thailand has recently increased cotton
production sharply, and may have surplus supplies for export which could compete with U.S. cotton sales in Southeast Asia.
alternative sources. Also, U.S. export capabilities are affected
with Japanese fibers accounting for
fibers in 1968,
have to meet the increased competition
somewhat by the long haul across the
Malaysia and Singapore, the local industries expect to meet more of the domestic fabric requirements in future years.
to low local wages, the recent installation of modern and machinery, and the help of international expertise, Malaysia and Singapore have reasonable hopes of competing effectively in the world market. Textile imports will probably
decrease more rapidly than exports increase. Malaysia’s net imports of cotton fabrics averaged 86.5 million
square yards annually from
bulk of the cotton fabric imports were woven, dyed, printed,
COTTON IMPORTS OF MALAYSIA AND SINGAPORE
and colored. Japan, Hong Kong, the Soviet Union, and Main-
Year beginning July
land China have been the main sources of fabrics for Malaysia. Australia,
Zealand, Canada, and the United States are
the primary destinations of Malaysia’s
essed fabrics. Also, Singapore
be a transit port for some Brazil
Net imports of cotton
fabrics into Singapore averaged 124.2
million square yards annually
from 1964 through 1968. The
bulk of these fabrics were woven bleached,
MALAYSIA AND SINGAPORE: NET IMPORTS OF COTTON FABRICS 1964
Kenya Mexico South Africa
Tanzania United States
164,076 184,134 179,499 260,083 368,076 118,366 121,905 102,708 90,251 101,794
Bales are 480
One 111,153 116,269 100,175 18,706 6,468 13,104
— — — 79 — 4,032 — 453
— — 42 —
— — —
External Trade of Malaysia.
of the chief obstacles to the future expansion of the
textile industries in the
their competition with
as well as the competition they experience
well-established industries in other textile exporting countries.
Also, Indonesia, a principal textile outlet for these countries, is
Departments of Statistics, Singapore, Kuala Lumpur, Kota Kinabalu, and Kuching.
— 84 —
exports of proc-
— Based on dispatch from Dale K. Vining Agricultural Attache, Kuala
nations visit the busy port of Singapore.
Mini Island— Maxi Market Southeast
Singapore, the lion”
developing a king-size appe-
for food imports
burgeoning population and quality-
shipment to other countries in the region. Ever since Sir Stamford Raffles established a trading post
mile island located at
on the 224-squarethe tip of the Malay
Peninsula 151 years ago, Singapore has
probably have a bearish effect on the
active bid to
industries to the
Singapore’s attractions for invirtually free port, tax-free
on bank deposits, an immigration plan which allows those with special technical and managerial skills to reside permanently in Singapore, and a large workinterest
population of 2
(predominantly Chinese) enjoys
the highest per capita
standard of any country in Asia except
processing, or packaging.
volume of trade, Singapore, located on one of the world’s great shipping lanes and blessed with a
growth rate of 6 percent from 1956 to 1965 and in 1968 leaped ahead by 7.7 percent. New industries are mushrooming and the southern end of the island has been
largest in the
terms of cargo
1968, 41.8 million freight
tons passed through the bustling port.
gross domestic product
corporation. Shipbuilding, ship-repair and Diversification of
Although Singapore’s role as middleman, processor, packer, and marketer for neighboring countries’ raw materials continues to be an important one, the government is preparing for the time when growing nationalism and subsequent development of industry in these countries
of major maritime nations.
The Port Authority, which
improving and extending port is
terminal with the
phase scheduled 1970.
container-handling crane should be ready for operation by 1971.
through Singapore in 1969 was received in
the next 3 years as
about 25 percent during
Japan-Europe run. There are also plans for a new customsfree warehouse complex where small firms which do not wish to build their vessels
lease space for regional
trade zone within a free port.
There are special transshipment handling
curred on certain cargoes
conversion, and the manufacture of elec-
within 4 weeks from the date of unload-
tronic equipment (particularly miniature
ing in Singapore.
products) are ing
becoming an important center and a regional base for
scheduled for completion in 1971, will
serve as a regional base for the fishing fleets
for completion by the end of
major transshiping point. Singapore merchants have been the middlemen funneling raw materials such as rubber, tin, and spices from neighboring countries through Singapore’s godowns or warehouses and out to Western markets and, on the other hand, acting as wholesalers for food products and manufactured goods from Europe and America. To bit
an up-and-coming industrial
Singapore adds a
in the process of diversify-
also establishing a
ern deep-sea fishing port and hopes to
Singapore from a purely commercial city
operated as an entrepot, Southeast Asia’s
eventualities in mind, the
economy. With these government is
Indonesia and offshore from IndoMalaysia,
turned the island into a mecca for foreign
an influx of newcomers with sophisticated food preferences. The U.S. bringing
recently pointed out that 10
years ago there were only 500 Americans in
Singapore, today there are 4,000.
other quality-food-conscious people
are visiting Singapore as
the tourist trail in the Far
venience foods. Carving demonstrations
Mainland China, and Denmark are making their bids for the Singapore
and seminars on food preparation atfrom every important institutional food outlet in Singapore and gave chefs and restaurant owners their first opportunity to see food prepared and carved in the way more and more of their customers are accustomed
In fact, tourism
turning into a major
industry in Singapore. In 1968 there were
25 percent more than in 1967. About 350,000 visited last year and over half a million are expected in 1972. The runway at Singapore airport
being extended to accommodate the
and new luxury hotels are springing up. There are presently 32 new hotels under construction which will provide 17,000 additional rooms by 1972.
Domestic agricultural production
Although coffee, pepper, copra, pineand other agricultural products are transshipped through Singapore in apples,
massive quantities, Singapore’s cultural production
land area. Agriculture
limited by is
devoted primarily to livestock, vegetable,
6,600 acres was planted in coconut, 5,400 in
normally must import one-half of
6,700 in food crops
becoming an even larger market
such as Australia,
few years. Poultry imports jumped from 7.0 million pounds in 1966 to 10.6 million in 1969. Although Danish subsidized broilers have a definite edge in the broiler market, U.S. poultry parts are very popular. In 1968 U.S. soared during the
2,253,000 pounds, making the island the 14th largest market for U.S. poultry exports. (See Foreign Agriculture,
1969. Leading exports included unmanufactured tobacco (the largest item), fiscal
other fruits and nuts, and
vegetables), and 1,020 acres to miscella-
neous crops. Singapore’s table meat production for 1969 was estimated at 1,105 long tons of beef, 1,538 tons of mutton,
20,625 tons of pork, and 10,896 tons of
ucts Division in the Ministry of National
development food exhibit sponsored by USDA and top U.S. food firms was staged last fall in one of
The establishment of has
a Primary Prod-
production via a number of development projects.
Swine and poultry production
are being improved through the selection
saw and sampled a
the local food trade
ranging from beef and poultry to con-
of superior breeds, increasing acceptance
modem methods of animal husbandry, and the adoption of more effective animal disease and pest controls. An abattoir complex has been established to insure that meat production conforms with international standards of hygiene and quality. of
Efforts are also
Singapore, an entrepot,
Southeast Asia’s major transshipping point.
located on one of the
world’s great shipping lanes
the island’s vegetable production through
a natural harbor. Right,
a section of the port’s 3-mile long wharves. Below,
the adoption of improved seeds, cultivation methods, fertilizer.
greater use of
hydroponic system for crop cultivation is also under study, and a Colombo Plan team is working on an intensive farm improvement scheme for the island. Two commercial wheat flour mills have been constructed recently and together they produce about 150,000 long tons of flour a year.
However, even with stepped-up domestic
In addition to the seminars, the hotel’s
room was converted
American dishes. The impact of being
a view of
into a highly
complete and favorite
by U.S. firms as orders for the
items exhibited in Singapore continue to
U.S. exporters are realizing the of the Singapore market and
recognizing that they must bid for their share of
Singapore were valued at $9,908,000 in
Worm Welcome On
for U.S. Frozen Foods
Display of Tokyo Trade Center frozen
recently captured the attention of Japa-
of the features of the exhibit was
sponsored by FAS, fea-
demonstration kitchen where Betty Sawyers, U.S. home economist, utilized
tured a large variety of products of 24
the displayed products to prepare tempt-
top U.S. food companies, as well as dis-
ing dishes and explained
plays by the Institute of try
The opening reception was attended by 222 Japanese industry executives and government officials, plus over 50 members of the press. During the week-long show, a
2,278 visitors thronged
the blue, orange, and silver display booths set
among huge carved
blocks of poly-
—clockwise from above:
menus. Many demonstrated are entirely new to the Japanese market. Another important aspect of the exhibit was the seminars presented by USDA frozen and convenience food experts. Lewis Norwood, Jr., of the Federal Extension
Techniques for Expanding Sales of Frozen Foods”; Robert Guilfoy, Jr., of the Agricultural Research Service,
spoke on highlights of the
and varied of the products which she
projected sales of $1,330,000 over the
sented exhibit and seminar held at the U.S. Trade Center in Tokyo.
U.S. Frozen and Convenience Foods in
Time and Dora Esposito
the Right Place at the Right
Kojiro Kumara, President,
the Right Condition”;
Japan Frozen Food Assoc., and Richard Sneider, Dep-
uty Chief of Mission, U.S.
Embassy, examine cuts of U.S. prime beef; Edwin Williams,
rapt audience at his seminar; visitors flock to
one of the many booths displaying U.S. frozen
and convenience food items; Betty Sawyers offers samples of fried chicken.
Consumer and Marketing
cussed “Frozen and Convenience Foods,
Today and Tomorrow”; Edwin Williams of the Consumer and Marketing Service talked about “Regulations and Controls
That Guarantee Quality Frozen Foods”; and Kenneth Nuernberg of the Foreign Agricultural
“Proper Freezing and Thawing of Beef.” An overflow audience of nearly 1,000
and questioned them on technical aspects of frozen and
listened to the speakers
convenience food production, preservation, transportation, and merchandising.
CROPS AND MARKETS SHORTS Trade sources believe, however, that the government’s expanding almond production is related to EC
Weekly Rotterdam Grain Price Report
Current prices for imported grain
compared with a week
Rotterdam, the Nether-
and a year ago, are
Cents per bu. 0
Dol. per bu.
Australian Northern Hard U.S. No. 2 Dark Northern Spring: 14 percent 15 percent U.S. No. 2 Hard Winter: 13.5 percent Argentine U.S. No. 2 Soft Red Winter Feedgrains: U.S. No. 3 Yellow corn Argentine Plate corn U.S. No. 2 sorghum Argentine-Granifero
Dol. per bu. Wheat: Canadian No. 2 Manitoba 2.00
a major outlet
government on a
Sugar Exports Government of India expects
to reports, the
the sugar to the
no-loss, no-profit basis.
In addition to the above exports, 95,000 tons of sugar have
Kingdom and 50,300 Any losses on exports to the United States United Kingdom will be absorbed by the industry,
of the United States and the United tons to Canada.
Note: All quoted
Rotterdam for 30-
while any losses on exports to
West Germany has announced 1970
be borne by the
State Trading Corporation.
German Canned Asparagus Tender 5,
already been designated for exports to the preferential markets
U.S. No. 2 Yellow
subsidize the export of 80,000 metric tons of sugar during
calendar year 1.66
During the last 20 years, the average acreage planted to almonds has increased about 25 percent. Under the 4-year Economic Development Plan (1964-67) almond area increased by about 84,000 acres. Major emphasis is given to the production of the hard-shell almonds “Marconas” and “Larguetas.” Most other varieties are marketed under the general denomination “Unselected Valencias.”
Spain hopes to be able to get a larger share of the EC market even though competition from Italian almonds is great.
concessions to Spain.
This export plan
Bundesanzeiger No. 82, a tender allowing imports of canned asparagus in
an effort by the Indian Government and
the sugar industry to reduce the burden of unusually large
stocks of unsold sugar.
spears from the United States, Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Israel,
Thailand, and Uruguay. Applications for licenses for each
country of origin are ted through
being accepted and can be submit-
The 1969 exports of unmanufactured tobacco from Philippines
Licenses will be issued only to applicants
ceived licenses under the three previous tenders. Further, each individual’s license application cannot exceed
the total value of licenses granted to
50 percent of
the last three
Tobacco Exports Drop
72.7 million pounds, nearly one-fourth be-
low the record 94.0 million pounds in 1968 but 57 percent above the 1960-64 average. The average export price of unmanufactured tobacco was 22 cents per pound in 1969 compared with 16 cents in 1968. Nearly all of the exports con-
sisted of scrap cigar-filler type tobacco.
The first day of customs clearance will be June 16, 1970. Import licenses issued will be valid until December 31, 1970.
of the tobacco exported went to the United States, Spain,
Indonesia, and the Netherlands.
UNMANUFACTURED TOBACCO EXPORTS
Spanish Almond Subsidy Possible Quantity
In a recent press conference, the Spanish Minister of Agriculture indicated that the Spanish
expanding the country’s almond output and will do so by subsidizing production and making loans available to growers. Early in March the European Community (EC) and the Spanish Delegation in Brussels agreed upon the draft of a preferential trade agreement which is expected to be signed in early summer. The agreement calls for tariff reductions on various agricultural commodities and industrial products. Although several farm commodities were designated, no specific mention has yet been made of reductions granted on Spanish almonds and/or filberts.
value per pound, 1969
United States Spain Indonesia Netherlands
West Germany South Vietnam
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WASHINGTON,
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The Peruvian Government initiated a Ministry of Fisheries 1, 1970. The objectives of the Ministry are to
reduced availability of
exportable tobacco even though the domestic tobacco industry
from large stocks of low-quality tobacco.
study marine resources, and develop the
Latest estimates place the 1970 tobacco crop at 205 million
necessary infrastructure for an edible
reported to be of better than average quality.
This compares with 172 million pounds in 1969 and 194 million in 1968.
be a reflection of the uncertainty surround-
beyond the government’s arbitrary September 30. Furthermore, stocks on March 31, at 440,000 tons, although nearly equal to the 450,000 tons of the previous year, are substantially below the large volumes of 1967 and 1968. Late reports indicate that fishing since March 31 has been good and that the anchovy fishing season was closed as of mid-May. Stocks as of that date probably exceeded last year’s reduced volume. At the present rate of market uptake, supplies will dwindle sharply before the beginning of the 1970-71 ing forward sales for export
Peru's Fishmeal Output Fishmeal output by Peru exporter
—made a sharp recovery
world’s largest producerin the
quarter to a volume of 755,000 metric tons compared with
only 583,000 tons for the same quarter a year ago. This largest quarterly output ever
exceeds the 734,000-
ton record output of October-December 1967 and represents a 39-percent increase over the previous quarter.
took place despite a 4-week closed season in the latter half of
February and the first half of March. Peruvian exports of fishmeal in the 3-month period ending March 31 of this year amounted to 611,600 tons, compared with 514,400 tons for the same period last year and only 385,600 tons in the October-December 1969 period. Of the total exports in this last quarter, 7 1 percent moved to Europe, 1 8 percent to the Western Hemisphere, and 1 1 percent to Asia. Exports to other than Western Hemisphere countries thus continue to account for about 82 percent of the total as they did in calendar 1969. This is considerably above the 67 percent of 1968 when the United States was the major single country market. The chief factor in the reduction of U.S.
the relatively high price ratio of fishmeal to soybean
cutoff date of
fishing season in September.
Crops and Markets Index Fats, Oils, and Oilseeds 16
Peru’s Fishmeal Output and Exports
Fruits, Nuts, and Vegetables
German Canned Asparagus Tender Spanish Almond Subsidy Possible
Grains, Feeds, Pulses, and Seeds 15
Weekly Rotterdam Grain Price Report
Sugar, Fibers, and Tropical Products 15 India Subsidizes Sugar Exports
Philippine Tobacco Exports Drop