Courses of Study at Cambridge University, England, in 1802

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COURSES OF STUDY AT CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY, ENGLAND,

IN 1802.

(From the Cambridge University Calendar by BENJAMIN CLARKE A. B., Trinity Hall, Cambridge University.) RAWORTII,

[For A. B.] STUDIES

AND

EXERCISES.

The ordinary course of study preparatory to the degree of A. B. is very judicious, and calculated to form the mind both for science and taste. It may be considered under the three heads of Natural Philosophy, Moral Philosophy, and the Belles Lettres. A superficial knowledge of Natural Philosophy, the smattering obtained by skimming over a variety of books, or attending a vast variety of lectures, are here held in no estimation. The Platonic maxim is no where so carefully observed. n>7?ZOf (Xzelol?T/)Y^TOa E-!5! t.};

and though a five years silence is not prescribed, two years and a quarter which must precede the appearance of a young man in a public exercise before the University, are well employed in laying down the foundation of science. In his first year, the lectures under this head are from Euclid, of whose six first books every young man of future eminence makes himself completely master-the principles of Algebra, plain Trigonometry, and Conic Sections. In the second year he enters upon the Branches, and the parts pursued vary in different colleges; but Mechanics, Hydrostatics, and Optics, with Fluxions, a little of Newton's Principia, the method of Increments, Differential Method, and other miscellanea of this kind occupy his time well during this period. The third year is dedicated to Astronomy, the Principia of Newton, Spherical Trigonometry, the higher parts of Fluxions, Algebra, and Geometry; and in this year commence the exercises in the schools. His last term, or the first

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term of the fourth year, requires all the energies of his mind; he is now more deeply engaged in the arduous conflict of the Schools with all his Rivals, and preparing himself for the Senate-House examination. The course of Moral Philosophy is no less judicious. In the first year lectures are given on Locke and Logic. In the second and third years, Paley, Hartley, Burlamaqui, Rutherford, Clarke on the Attributes, Butler's Analogy, Law's Theory of Religion, and similar works, are the subjects of lectures in various orders in the different colleges. Under this head may be ranked also the lectures on Scriptural knowledge, derived from Beausobre and other authors, treating on the manners, customs, laws, religious rites, geography, and chronology of the nations mentioned in the Old and New Testaments. But of these lectures it may be in general be observed, that the attention paid to them in every college is not the same; for while in some, a due stress is laid upon them, and the Tutors employ great talents and industry in forming the minds of their Pupils, in other colleges these lectures are strangely neglected, and the course is either very meagre, or very irregular. Under the third head of Academical Studies come the Belles Lettres or Classics, which in most colleges are cultivated with great diligence and success; each term having some part of the best Classics appropriated to the lecture-room. An Oration of Demosthenes, Lysias, Isocrates, a Greek Play, Longinus, Cicero, Quintilian, select portions of Herodotus, Tacitus, Thucydides, &c., &c., afford Exercises for the Pupils, and ample room for the Tutor to display his taste on the best writings of antiquity, and to compare them with parallel works in the modern languages. Compositions, Latin or English, are weekly delivered by the Pupils, either in writing or vica voce in their respective chapels. In this manner a young man may employ his time, not only profitably to himself, but, we may add, from the variety of his studies, in the most amusing manner, during the period in general allotted to his academical life. Emulation of an honourable knd is excited by prizes and rewards in most of the colleges, and this emulation is not of the dangerous nature too often

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perceptible in inferior seminaries, as the first man in each year feels his inferiority to those a few years older than himself, and the pre-eminence over his own year in his own college may receive a most violent check in the collision with the rival heads of his own standing in fifteen other colleges. In the beginning of the month of January, one of the Proctors' servants goes around to every college in the University, (King's College excepted) and requires of the Tutors a list of the Students (denominated Sophs) who in the subsequent January intend to offer themselves candidates for the degree of Bachelor of Arts. The names, being thus collected, are delivered to one of the two Moderators, who transcribes them into a book, with appropriate marks given him by the several Tutors, such as reading, non-reading, hard-reading Men, &c. Upon the second Monday of Lent Term, the Moderator, whose turn it is to preside, gives a written notice to one of the Students in his list to appear in the schools as a Disputant, to keep an Act on that day fortnight. The notice (delivered by a person styled the Moderator's Man) is in the following form: Respondent, A. B. Coll. Martii 5, I1802.. X . Modr. This person, who is now called the Respondent or Act, in a few hours after he has received the summons, waits upon the Moderator with three Propositions or Questions; the truth of which he is to maintain against the objection of any three Students of the same year, whom the Moderator shall think (from the reports prefixed to their names in his book) proper to nominate, and who on this occasion are called Opponents. The questions, proposed by the Respondent, are written upon four separate papers, according to a form, of which the followQ. S. ing is a specimen. Recte statuit Newtonus in septima sua sectionc Libri primi. Iridis primnariac ct secundariac Phocnomena solvi possunt ex Principiis Opticis. Recte statuit Lockius de Qualitatibus Corporum.

...................................................................................R esp. Feb. I. Co ll................................ ........................... ...............

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The first question is in general taken from the Principia of Newton, the second question from some other Writer on Mathematics and Natural Philosophy; the third question is called the Moral question, and in this question, Locke, Hume, Butler, Clarke, Hartley, Paley, &c., &c., are alternately attacked or defended. At the bottom of three of these papers, the Moderator writes the name of a Student, whom he thinks capable of opposing the questions of the Respondent, with the words, Opponentium, primus, secundus or tertius, denoting the order in which the three Opponents are to appear. One of these papers is sent to each Opponent; and from that which remains, the Moderator, at his leisure, transcribes the questions, together with the names of the Respondent and Opponents into his book. When oneiMIoderator has thus given out the Exercises for a week, or five Acts, (Exercises being held for five days in the week during term) he sends the book to the other, who proceeds according to the same method for the following week, and then returns the book to his Colleague. The fortnight of preparation being expired, the Respondent enters the schools at three o'clock, the Moderator, attended by one of the Proctor's servants, appearing at the same time, and ascending the chair says, "Ascendat Dominus Respondens." The Respondent mounts the rostrum, and reads a Latin Dissertation, called a Thesis, upon any one of the three questions he thinks proper; generally upon the third or Moral question. As soon as the Respondent has finished his Thesis, (which takes ten or fifteen minutes in the reading) the Moderator calls upon the first Opponent to appear. (Ascendat Opponentium primus.) He immediately ascends a rostrum opposite to the Respondent, and opposes his arguments against the question in Syllogistical form.

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Eight 1 arguments, each consisting of three or four syllogisms, are brought up by the first, five by the second, and three by the third Opponent. When the Exercise has for some time been carried on according to the strict rules of Logic, the Disputation insensibly slides into free and unconfined debate, in which considerable warmth is frequently exhibited on both sides: the Moderator in the mean time explaining the argument of the Opponent, when necessary; restraining both parties from wandering; sifting the depth of their knowledge upon any subject that may casually arise; and adding at the close of each argument his own determination upon the point in dispute. The Opponent having exhausted his whole stock of arguments, is dismissed by the Moderator, with such a compliment as he deserves; and after the other two Opponents have performed their parts, the Exercise closes (about five o'clock) with the dismission of the Respondent in a similar manner. The Moderator records the merits of the Disputants in his Book, by marks set opposite to their respective names. The distinguished men of the year appear eight time in this manner in the schools, twice as Acts, and six times as Opponents, that is twice in each character of Opponents. One act, and three opponencies are kept before the Commencement; and one act and three opponencies are kept before the October term. The ; 7r,,,,,,i generally non-reading men, have less to do, some of them not appearing more than once or twice, and on some of them occasionally a Descendas is inflicted, or an order to quit the box, for ignorance of the subject. This however is not very frequent; whenever it does happen, the stigma is indelibly fixed upon the unfortunate object. 1 We should have been happy could we have given a Specimen of But any one the least conArguments against the preceding Questions. versant with the subject must be aware of the absurdity of exhibiting the bare Arguments, without the full Scholastic method of Defence.This would exceed our limits, if not our ingenuity.

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From these disputations, the merits of the men are pretty well ascertained, and the Moderators' book determines the Classes with a tolerable degree of precision. These books are admirably kept; for there are two Moderators for the two first terms, and two other Moderators for the last term; so that the merit of each man, with regard to Scholastic Disputation, is determined by the marks assigned to his name by four persons respectable for their talents and impartiality. The Vice-Chancellor appoints the first Monday of Lent Term, and the three following days, for the examination of the Questionists: this being the appellation of the Students, during the last six weeks of their preparation. The Moderators having formed the Questionists into Classes (the persons in each class being ranged alphabetically) according to their performance in the school; the first five or six are exhibited in some public part of the University (usually at Deighton's) on the Thursday preceding the Examination Monday. On the Monday morning, a little before eight o'clock, the Students, generally about a Hundred, enter the Senate-House, preceded by a Master of Arts, who on this occasion is styled the Father of the College to which he belongs. On two pillars at the entrance of the Senate-House are hung the Classes; and a Paper denoting the hours of examination of those who are thought most competent to contend for Honors; of which the * * * * following is a copy. Immediately after the University clock has struck eight, the names are called over, and the Absentees being marked, are subject to certain fines. The classes to be examined are called out and proceed to their appointed tables, when they find pens, ink, and paper provided in great abundance. In this manner, with the utmost order and regularity, more than two-thirds of the young men are set to work within less than five minutes after the clock has struck eight. There are three chief tables, at which six examiners preside.-At the first, the Senior Moderator of the present year, and the Junior Moderator of the preceding year. At the second, the Junior Moderator of the present, and the Senior Moderator of the preceding year. At the third the Two

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Moderators of the year previous to the two last, or Two Examiners appointed by the Senate. The two first tables are chiefly allotted to the six first classes; the third or largest to the O' r7,Ao,

The young men hear the Propositions

or Questions

de-

livered by the Examiners; they instantly apply themselves; demonstrate, prove, work out, and write down, fairly and legibly, (otherwise their labour is of little avail) the answers required. All is silence; nothing heard save the voice of the Examiners; or the gentle request of some one, who may wish a repetition of the enunciation. It requires every person to use the utmost dispatch; for as soon as ever the Examiners perceive any one to have finished his paper, and subscribed his name to it, another Question is immediately given. A smattering demonstration will weigh little in the scale of merit; every thing must be fully, clearly, and scientifically brought to a true conclusion. And though a person may compose his papers amidst hurry and embarrassment, he ought ever to recollect, that his papers are all inspected, by the united abilities of six examiners with coolness, impartiality, and circumspection. The Examiners are not seated, but keep moving around the tables, both to judge how matters proceed, and to deliver their Questions at proper intervals. The examination, which embraces Arithmetic, Algebra, Fluxions, the doctrine of Infinitesimals and Increments, Geometry, Trigonometry, Mechanics, Hydrostatics, Optics, and Astronomy, in all their various gradations, is varied according to circumstances: no one can anticipate a question; for in the course of five minutes he may be dragged from Euclid to Newton; from the humble arithmetic of Bonnycastle, to the abstruse analytics of Waring. While this examination is proceeding at the three tables, between the hours of eight and nine, printed Problems (as may be seen by the preceding paper) are delivered to each person of the first and second classes; these he takes with him to any window he pleases, where there are pens, ink, and paper prepared for his operations. It is needless to add that every person now uses his utmost exertion, and solves as many Problems as his abilities and time will allow. Examination-Monday, I802. At nine o'clock the doors of the Senate-House are opened. Each man bundles up his papers,

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writes his name on the outside sheet, delivers them to the Examiners, and retires (only half an hour being allowed) to breakfast. At half past nine all return again to the Senate-House; the roll is called over; particular classes are summoned up to the tables, and examined, as before, 'till eleven, when the SenateHouse is again cleared. To give a further idea of the business, we here annex a few miscellaneous Questions, such as the Examiners deliver viva voce, to be fully and regularly written and demonstrated. Some of the lowest classes are mostly employed in dlemonstrating Euclid, or solving Arithmetical and Algebraical Questions.

(Miscellaneous

Questions

omitted.)

The examinations being thus continued 'till eleven, an adjournment of two hours takes places. At one o'clock the whole return.

Problems are then given to the 3d, the Table Examinations proceed while classes, At the three o'clock the Senate-House is half an hour; during which time the Proctors

4th, 5th, and 6th nearly as before. again cleared for treat the Fathers

and Compounders with tea and coffee. On the return, the examinations are resumed, and continue 'till five o'clock, when the Senate-House

Examinations

break up for the day. At seven o'clock in the evening the four first classes (as may be seen by the Paper, page 19,) go to the Senior Moderator's

rooms, where they continue 'till nine, to solve Problems; and are treated with wine and fruit. At eight o'clock the examinations Examination-Tuesday. in the same manner, observing the same begin again. Nearly hour as on the preceding day. The hours of attendance are Examination-Wednesday. the same this day as the former. The examinations are confined solely to Logic, Moral Philosophy, and points relative to Natural and Revealed Religion. The authors chiefly respected are Locke, Paley, Clarke, Butler, &c. Wednesday, comparatively speaking, is considered as a day of leisure, though all are fully employed Answers to the respective Quesat stated periods, as usual.

tions are seldom given viva voce, but are required to be written down fully and legibly. It is expected in the examinations of this day, all persons, whether they be candidates

for Honors or

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not, acquit themselves with respectability in the solution of the several Questions which the Examiners may think proper to propose. The few subsequent Questions will give an idea of this day's examination. (Questions omitted.) The examinations of this day conclude, as usual, at five o'clock; but the fatigue of the Examiner's is by no means diminished; for during the whole of this, as on the preceding night, they have a multitude of Papers to inspect, and to affix to each its degree of merit; according to which a new arrangement of the classes is made out, called the Brackets. On Thursday the examinations are Examination-Thursday. resumed, and continued nearly as usual, as on the Monday and Tuesday. At eight o'clock the new Classifications or Brackets, which are arranged according to the order of merit, each containing the names of the candidates placed alphabetically, are hung upon the pillars. Thus in the examinations of the preceding days, should any two or more have distinguished themselves above the rest, and are nearly equal, they are included in the first Bracket. The next two, three, four, &c., who prove nearly equal to each other, are included in the second Bracket. The next who are found to be nearly on a level with one another, are included in the third Bracket; and thus the whole number are bracketed. Upon the exhibition of the Brackets, disapointment or satisfaction is visible in the countenances of the Examiners; some think their merits are placed too low, while others rejoice in the Brackets assigned them. It seldom happens that a person either Rises or Falls from a Bracket; his ultimate station being fixed somewhere within its limits. Each Bracket is examined, and when any one evidently appears to have distinguished himself above the rest, his proper place is determined, and the Examiners give him no further trouble; and in this manner the rest are arranged. Should any one, however, be dissatisfied, as frequently happens, he has the power of challenging( often a dangerous experiment) any that he pleases to a fresh examination; in which case the Moderators call to their assistance the Proctors and some Masters of Arts; who, after the most im-

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partial, and sometimes laborious scrutiny, determine the. point at issue, and give judgment accordingly. At five o'clock the examinations are finished. The Proctors, Moderators, and Examiners retire to a room under the Public Library, to prepare the list of Honors, and determine the situation of every person that has been examined. Thousands of the papers are frequently again produced, and their real characters subjected to the keen criticism of an aggregate tribunal of eight learned men. The whole business is sometimes settled without much difficulty in a few hours; sometimes not before two or three o'clock the next morning. At this meeting it is determined whether all are to have their degrees passed; sometimes two or three are found deficient; in which case they are Plucked, i. e., turned over to Ash Wednesday (Dunce's Day) or 'till such time as they have qualified themselves for their degree. It is scarcely necessary to add, that so little is required of these low men, that all compassion on the defeat of their hopes, is totally out of the question. In consequence of the insufficiency of many of the Questionists in I799, Mr. Palmer, Senior Moderator, singified that for the future no degree should pass, unless the Candidate should have a competent knowledge of the first book of Euclid, Arithmetic, Vulgar and Decimal Fractions, Simple and Quadratic Equations, and Locke and Paley. This regulation was communicated to the Fathers in the Senate-House, January I8, I799, and agreed to. Such being the case, it is esteemed a reproach, both to the Father and the College, to send any Men without being qualified, at least, to bear an examination such as that above prescribed; for all Societies, some time previous to Examination Monday, try the merits of their own men, before they permit them to undergo the Senate-House Examinations. A select number (thirty at least, Stat. Acad.) of those, who have most distinguished themselves, are recommended to the Proctors for their approbation; and if no reason appears to the contrary, their names are set down according to merit, and classed in three divisions, viz.: Wranglers, Senior Optimes, and Junior Optimes;

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which constitute the three orders of Honor. The rest are arranged according to merit, but not having obtained any Honor are styled the 'rRrotAomultitude. The lowest honor, or last Junior Optime, obtains the appellation of the Wooden ' r2oRo who are Spoon. The last three, four &c., of the hard run for their degree, are arranged alphabetically, and usually obtain some distinctive title; such as the Alphabet, Elegant Extracts, Rear Guard, Invincibles, &c., or sometimes their titles are deduced from their number and concurring circumstances of the day, as The Twelve Judges or Apostles, The Consulate, The Executive Directory or Septemvirate, &c. In the list of Honors, four additional names used to be inserted, at the discretion of the Vice-Chancellor, the two Proctors, and the Senior Regent. Whether, from abuse in bestowing these Honors, or the insignificance attached to the characters of those who have accepted this Cobweb Plumage, none at present are hardy enough to offer, and none so ridiculuous as to accept them. The Vice-Chancellor and Proctors' Senior Optimes are to be found upon some of the original Tripos papers; but from deference to the most respectable and learned in this University and elsewhere, they are expunged from the Triposes. We should have been happy to have exhibited a few valuable characters interspersed amongst them, but it would be deviating from those principles which have induced us to adopt the present plan. It sometimes happened, that those who had raised to themselves a temporary fame, by their excellence in Scholastic disputation, were unfortunately compelled through sickness, to desist from further competition with their Rivals, at the final trial, such being inserted in the classes, after a private trifling examination, were allowed their degrees, and noticed in the list of Honors as aegroti. When sickness was really the case, they were truly to be pitied; and particularly so, as some of them have been known to be men of the highest merit. But an indulgence of this sort naturally introduced abuses; a Nervous Fever, the Scald of a Tea Kettle, or a Bruise of the Hand, frequently put a period to the expectation of their friends.

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Anxiety about future prospects, without doubt, like all other disorders of the mind, weakens the body. In a small College, where it is understood, that the test of a private Combination Room examination, a previous prejudice in favour of a person, or the rank of a Second Class Man, will insure advancement in the Society; the inducements for a person to stem the current of a competition, which might cast uupon him the shoals of the 0>7,root,

are by no means trivial.

Those who take the degree of Bachelor of Arts at any other than this time, are called Bye-Term Men; they are arranged alphabetically in classes according to their supposed acquirements, either as Baccalairei ad Baptistam, or ad Diem Cinerum; and inserted

in the list of seniority

among the Ot 7roAxoe.1

Friday morning-Admission of the Questionist. On this morning there is a Congregation, the Bell begins to ring at nine o'clock and at ten the whole appear in the Senate-House, along with the different Officers, Members of the University, and a large crowd of Spectators. Two Papers, exhibiting a list of the Questionists (of which the following are correct copies) arranged according to their merits, or seniority, are hung on the pillars, for public inspection. (Copies omitted.) FORM OF ADMISSION OF THE QUESTIONISTS.

The whole being assembled as above, one of the Bedells calls the Houses, and the Senior Moderator makes a Latin speech up concerning the result of the Examinations; the Vice-Chancellor sitting in the chair, and the Moderator standing on his left hand. The Junior Proctor delivers to the Vice-Chancellor his list of Honors and Seniority subscribed thus: Exalmiati et approbati a nobis. (viz. The Proctors, the Moderators, and the other Exam1 It is hoped that no freedom of observation, in the foregoing or following pages, will be construed into personality. Not the least disrespect being intended towards any individual whatever.

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iners.) The caput is then called for passing the supplicats of the Questionists.1 The name of each college is written on every supplicat, which is signed by the Praelector or Head Lecturer of the college. A certificate is also given to the Caput, signed and sealed by the Master of the college (or his Locum Tenens) shewing that each Questionist has kept his full number of terms; if not, the deficiency is mentioned in the supplicat, and a certificate explaining the cause is delivered to the Caput by the Father. The Registrar shews to the Caput that every candidate has subscribed that he is bona fide Member of the Church of England. The Vice-Chancellor reads the supplicat to the Caput, and on those that are adnited he writes Ad. One of the Bedells carries the supplicats into the Non-Regent House, to be read by the Scrutators; and if all are approved, the Scrutators walk, and the senior says, Omnes Placent. But if any are disapproved of, he says, A. B. &c. non placet, reliqui placent. Those sulpplicats are read separately, in which any cause is assigned for not keeping the whole number of terms; but those which are of the same kind, are read together in the usual manner. A Bedell carries the supplicats to the Regent House, where the Senior Proctor reads them in the same manner as the Scrutators have done in the Non-Regent House. If all are approved of, the Proctors walk, and the senior says, Placent Omnes, placent vobis Zit intrent. If any are disapproved of, he says as above. The supplicats are then delivered to the Registrar, who writes on them, Lect. et concess. die Jan. In the meantime, the Candidates, who during the whole proceedings of the Senate are usually in the saloon or gallery, put on their Hoods over their Undergraduates gowns, and the SchoolFor a King's man, who undergoes no examination for his Bachelor's degree, but claims it by a composition between the University and his college, no supplicat is offered. A grace is shown to the Caput, and read by the Senior Proctor in the Regent House only.

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keeper gives to each of them a printed copy of the oath he is to take at his admission. The Vice Chancellor takes the chair, and a Bedell having desired the respective Fathers to be in readiness with their Sons, he precedes the Father of the Senior Wrangler, (the rest of the Fathers following with their Sons) to the Vice-Chancellor. The Father taking the Senior Wrangler by the right hand, presents him in these words: Dignissime Domine, Domine Pro-Cancellarie, et tota Universitas; praesento vobis hunc juvenem, quem scio, tam moribus quam doctrino, esse idoneum ad respondendum questioni; idque tibi fide mea praesto, totique Academiae. The Father of King's next presents his sons in the same manner. The Fellow-Commoners are then presented, and after them the Questionists of Trinity and St. John's; and then those of the other colleges, according to the seniority of the Fathers. Four or five may be presented-at once, the Father saying, Praesento vobis hos juvenes quos, &c. As they are presented, they are directed by one of the Bedells to the south side of the Senate-House. When all are presented, the Senior Wrangler takes the oaths of allegiance and supremacy; and the Senior Proctor (with his colleague standing by him) reads to him the printed oath: Jurabis quod nihil ex is omnibus, sciens, volens, praetermisiti, quae per leges aut probatas consuetudines hujus Academiae, ad hunc gradurn, quem ambis adipiscendum, aut peragenda, aut persolvenda, requiruntur, nisi quatenus per gratiam ab Academia concessam tecum dispensatun fuerit. Jurabis etiam quod Cancellario, et Pro-cancellario nostro comiter obtemperabis, et quod statuta nostra, ordinationes, et consuetudines approbatas, observabis. Denique jurabis quod compositionem inter Acadenmiam et collegium Regale factam sciens, volens, non violabis. Ita te Deus adjuvet, et sancta Dei Evangelia. A Bedell then calls four of the Fellow-Commoners, who take the same oath; the Senior Proctor saying, Eadem Juramenta quae praestitit, &c., and so on with all the Questionists, as their names stand in the list signed by the Proctors and the Examiners.

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When all are sworn, the Vice-Chancellor goes to the front of the table, and the Proctors stand one on each side. The Senior Wrangler, and all the other Questionists, follow one of the Bedells round the chair, and, as they pass by the table, they bow to the Vice-Chancellor and the Proctors. The Vice-Chancellor returns to the chair, and the Senior Wrangler kneeling down, the Vice-Chancellor takes his hands between his own, and admits him in these words: Azithoritate mihi commissa, admitto te ad respondendume quaestioni; In nominiePatris et Filii et Spiritus Sancti. The King's men, Fellow Commoners, and all the other Questionists, are then called by a Bedell, and admitted in the same manner. As the Questionists are admitted, they go to the Sophs schools, to answer the Questions,' which are asked them by their respective Fathers. When there is an end of the admissions, the Vice-Chancellor dissolves the Congregation. First Tripos Day. On the after Ash Wednesday, at one o'clock, the bell rings for the first Tripos.2 At two the Vice-Chancellor, and the Proctors, &c., meet in the vestry of the University Church. The whole company then proceed to the Law Schools; the Vice-Chancellor, &c., preceded by a Bedell, goes into the gallery; the senior Proctor with a Bedell into the Respondent's seat; and the Junior Proctor into the Opponent's seat. Each of the Proctors makes a Latin speech, and the Tripos papers, which contain the names of the Wranglers and Senior 1These questions are merely matters ridiculous, to which a Nescio is given.

of

form,

usually

something

2 Some imagine Tripos to be denominated from the Tripod or stool, on which the orator mounted to declare the Honors. Others that it is derived from 7Ts' ,',OU, the three measures of gradations in the scale of Honors, viz.: WVranglers, Senior Optimes, and Junior Optimes. The tripos is now divided into two papers. On the first, appear the names of the Wranglers and Senior Optimes; on the second, the Junior Optimes.

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Optimes of the year, and two Copies of Verses, written by two Undergraduates, whom the Proctors chuse to honor on this occasion, are distributed amongst the Under-graduates and the company present. A Bedell reads from a Tripos paper; Baccalaurei quibus sua reservatur senioritas comitiis prioribus. He then pronounces the name and college of the first Bachelor in the list; to which the Junior Proctor answers, Nos reservamus ei senioritation suam. To the second the Junior Proctor answers et ei, and so on to all the names on the Tripos paper. When all the name are read, the Junior Proctor says, Nos continuanmushanlc disputationem in horaml primam diei Jovis, post quartalt dolmitnicamz hujus quadragesimae. Second Tripos Day is on the Thursday after Midlent Sunday. The bell begins to ring at one. The Moderators dressed in the Proctor's Congregation Habits, meet the Vice-Chancellor, &c., at the University Church, at two o'clock, and proceed to the Law Schools. The Vice-Chancellor, &c., preceded by a Bedell, goes into the gallery; the Senior Moderator, with a Bedell into the Respon(lent's seat, and the junior Moderator into the Opponent's seat. Each of the Moderators makes a Latin speech; and the Tripos papers, containing a list of the Junior Optimes of the year, and two copies of Verses, written by two Undergraduates at the re(uest of the Moderators, are then distributed amongst the Undergraduates and company present. A Bedell reads from a Tripos paper; Baccalaurei terioribus.

quibuts sua reservatur

senioritas

cowitiis

pos-

He then reads the name and college of the first Bachelor, and the Junior Moderator answers, Nos reservalmIts ei senioritatem suam. To the second the Junior Moderator answers, et ei, and so on, as in the first Tripos.

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27

When the last name has been read, he says, Et ei; reliqui (i. e., the &c.) petant senioritatem r,,),RA, ; suam e registro. And lastly, Authoritate qua fungirtur, decernizus, creamus, et pronunciamus, omnes hujus anni determinatores, finaliter determinasse, et actualiter esse in artibus baccalaureos. To the above proceedings we shall add a few observations on the Impartiality which directs, and the Science which prevails in the Public Examinations. There are, as we have already observed,' six Public Examiners, men of the highest rank as to talents, learning, and ability; generally such as have appeared conspicuous in the Triposes of their respective years. These Examiners being selected from different colleges, it is absurdity to suppose that any bias or partiality to a particular man can possibly exist, for the whole would be detected by the discerning eye of the Candidates, as well as by the watchfulness and jealousy of the Fathers and the Masters of Arts constantly attending the proceedings in the Senate-House. The office of the Examiners is extremely laborious, and there is no emolument or advantage, worthy of notice, resulting from the undertaking. The Honor therefore attached to these high and important offices, is such, as might naturally be expected from an University so prominent for liberality and erudition. On the extent of Science, which is the subject of the Examinations, we may again observe, that it comprehends the lowest questions in Euclid and of Arithmetic, and, according to the capacities of the Students, is extended through every part of the Mathematics, Logic, Natural and Moral Philosophy. The advantage of these Examinations is apparent in the habit of study which they produce. The young men instigated either 1 Cun Academin nmaxixmseintersit in examinationibus publicis sophiatarum acqui jttstique rationteEm tunz haberi diligentissimle turn habitam liqzido patcrc. I'laceat vobis ne cui unquamn qui hisce examinationibus pracfuerit post diemt primurn sequentis termini in tutelamn suam pravatan llumn qui proximis sit comitiis liceat ad doccndumn rccipcrc juvenemn gradum baccalaurci in artibus suscepturus. Quod si quis contra hoc decretum1peccaverit ab officio tuo prorsus amoveatur." Stat. Acad., p. 438.

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by the love of Honor to an industrious use of their time, or deterred by shame from a total waste of it, are, for the greater part, found busily employed, during their Undergraduateship, in Academical studies. Another advantage is seen in the filling up of the Fellowships and Public Offices of the University. A college is ashamed, in general, to elect into a Fellowship one who has not appeared in the first Tripos, which contains about thirty of the first men; and wherever they deviate from this rule, the interests of the college are sure to suffer. The following is an extract from a publication, which has afforded us some useful articles: "we remember a college, where from compassion or good neighborhood, a man totally deficient in ability, and disqualified for study, was elected a Fellow. The natural consequences was, that he had an aversion to the high Men, and his companions were the worst in the college. He procured one of his own stamp to be elected a Fellow, and thus stupidity was making a great progress. These two naturally joined together their efforts to introduce a third man without honors, application or talents; and if it had not been for the strenuous resistance made by the Master and a few Fellows addicted to study, the college must soon have sunk into the extreme of mental debility. So perilous is it to introduce a stupid fellow into a seminary of learning, and the list of Honors has a natural tendency to prevent such a misapplication of the public funds. They who have enjoyed the highest Honors will naturally vote for high men; the Fools will vote only for the Fools."