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Historic,

Do

not

Archive Document

assume content

scientific

knowledge,

reflects current

policies, or practices.

BETTER FRUIT APR^L,

Volume XIII

By

courtesy of the Oregon Nursery

Number

1919

10

Company.

THE BARTLETT PEAR. A

variety particularly adapted to the soil and climate of Western Oregon. Profitable returns from pears, covering a period of several years, are causing fruitmen to take renewed interest in this fruit, and heavier planting is expected in the near future.

BETTER FRUIT PUBLISHING COMPANY, PUBLISHERS, PORTLAND, OREGON Subscription $1.00 per Year in the United States; Canada $1.25; Foreign, Including Postage, $1.50.

Single

Copy 10 Cents



There's a Glidden Kind for

Every Spray You Need —

And a right kind too the kind that will "go straight home" for every pest at large. In Glidden you will find a true economy spray, made to do its work surely and swiftly.

Each kind

is

chemically correct,

meeting every requirement of the national and state laws governing insecticide production.

Favored by having the largest and most complete facilities in the country, the Glidden organization has applied its chemical and spraying experience to every vital problem of the grower. The result is an absolutely dependable line of spray material. Consider Glidden Arsenate of Lead as an example. This Glidden product has many advantages both in its application and its effectiveness. It has wonderful suspension

which assure uniformity and thoroughness of the spray. For strength and effective action it is unexcelled. It is a finely divided fluffy powder which can be used both for spraying or dusting. qualities

Other Glidden Products

in this line are:

Glidden

Dry Powdered Arsenate of Calcium, Glidden Dry Powdered Bordeaux Mixture, Glidden Dry Powdered Bordo-Arsenate and Glidden Pure Paris Green put up in convenient packages from i lb. cartons to 200 lb. drums. Glidden dealers will be found in most localities. Write for the name of the nearest dealer and let us send instructive spray literature. Remember that the name Glidden stands for Quality in Paints, Varnishes, Stains and Enamels as well as Insecticides and Fungicides.

— all

The Glidden Company,CIeveland,Ohio,U.S.A. The Glidden Company, Limited, Toronto, Ont., Canada Branches: San Francisco

New York— Chicago — Kansas

— London.

Stocks

City

in principal cities.

Glidden Dry Powdered Insecticides and Fungicides are not "ground" but are dried and disintegrated in their original "flufly" form. '

-

^

'^5*;^

INSECTICIDES -FUNGICIDES WHEN WRITING

ADVERTISERS MENTION BETTER FRUIT

BETTER FRUIT

Page

SIMONS, SHUTTLEWORTH

8c

CO.

LIVERPOOL AND MANCHESTER

SIMONS, JACOBS

GARCIA, JACOBS

CO.

6c

8c

CO.

LONDON

GLASGOW Agencies and Representatives

in

Every Important European Market

European Receivers of American Fruits FOR MARKET INFORMATION ADDRESS SIMONS FRUIT CO. SIMONS, SHUTTLEWORTH, WEBLING SIMONS, SHUTTLEWORTH & FRENCH CO. Toronto and Montreal 204 Franklin Street, New York Board of Trade Building, Boston.

CO.

OUR SPECIALTIES ARE APPLES AND PEARS

FREE-our Monthly Bulletin A newsy paper edited each month and sent to thousands of growers and packers throughout this country.

Bank Connection of the strong, adequate sort is

is

man who make a living out

needed by any trying to

of land.

Have you such connection and are you teaching your youngsters the value of

it?

bank offers the experience of fifty-nine years If not, this

Contains articles on the growing and marketing of fruits and other produce.

YourName and Address on

a Postal

sent to US will bring this monthly paper free to you. Get it. Learn of the progress and profit of other growers and shippers. Our close relations with shippers and growers throughout the country enable us to gather many ideas and hints which are presented in our bulletin and which have proved helpful to many. Send your name today.

to depositors.

LADD&TILTONBANK Washington and Third

A Universal Package Bushel ShippingBasket will be sent upon request users of 300 or more baskets each year.

A Sample Basket to all

PORTLAND, OREGON

Package Sales Corporation 106 East Jefferson

South Bend, Indiana

St.

Western Cement Coated Nails for Western Growers Our Cement Coated Nails are always

of

uniform length, gauge, head and count. Especially adapted to the manufacture of fruit boxes and crates. In brief, they are the Best on the Market. Write for Growers' testimonials.

Colorado Fuel

& Iron

Co.

DENVER, COLORADO BEFORE

using Cement Coated Nails

Pacific Coast Sales Offices Portland, Spokane, San Francisco

Los Angeles

WHEN WRITING

ADVERTISERS MENTION BETTER FRUIT

AFTER

use of C. F.

&

I.

Cement Coated NalU

Co.'

I

BETTER FRUIT

Page 2

Orchard Brand Dry Powdered Arsenate of Lead is the concentrated poison in easilyhandled form. You use less

Top

Dressing Talks

AMONG experienced "

The ans^'Jer

is

of

orcKardists tKere

TKe

is

no doubt

tKat

only question

is:

it

pays to

What is

fertilize

tKe best

Use

easy.

Ammonia

all

available, quick-acting, resists leaching,

and

is

easy to

spread by hand or machine.

Sulphate of Ammonia is the well-known standard article that has done you good service in your mixed fertilizers for years past. Espe-

and ground

make

to

Made For sale by Hawaiian Pacific

in

it

fine

U.

S.

and dry.

Ammonia 25/^%.

A.

Fertilizer Co., Limited,

For Information

Bone Coal & Fertilizing Co., San Francisco and Los Angeles Guano & Fertilizer Co., San Francisco and Los Angeles Western Meat Co., San Francisco Agricultural Chemical Work, Los Angeles Union Meat Co., Portland, Oregon as

The

510

(^^^ Company

First National

Bank

Agricultural

Department

Building, Berkeley, Cal.

Save Your Orchard grow a fine orchard. A colony of insects can destroy it in one season. Tree Tanglefoot will effectually protect fruit and shade trees from most of our destructive msect pests, i. e. Tussock moths Canker worms Climbing cut worms Brown-tail moths Woolly aphis Gypsy moths Ants One application stays sticky three months and longer, outlasting ten to twenty times any other substance. Easily applied with wooden paddle. One pound makes about It

takes years to

:

ten lineal feet of band.

or melt, yet

is

It will

always

not sof ten.run

elastic,

Dry Powdered Arsenate of Lead is perfect. It is the reyears of

effort,

exper-

iment and experience in chemical laboratories, and in the fruit orchards of America.

pounds to 100 gallons of water makes the spray to poison—to do the work effectively.

Orchard Brand Standard Arsenate of Lead (paste) has long been preferred by many orchardists. By chemical tests in the laboratory, and by many years' tests in the fruit orchards, this soft creamy paste has won iis way— by results.

Under the brands, Orchard and Universal, the tree sprays

known wherever fruit is grown in America, are making money for orchardists by saving the crops for market.

Your dealer has these two brands— or knows where he

expanding

with growth of tree. Effective rain or shine. Needs no mixing, used exactly as bought.

can get them.

Endorsed by prominent Horticulturists.

We

shall be glad to send full information concerning Universal and Orchard Brands —also directions how to use

For Tree Surgery Superior to anything on the market. It is the best application after pruning or trimming. It will waterproof crotch or cavity or wound when

nothing else will. Sold generally by Seedsmen. 10 lb. 3 lb. cans, $1.45 Price: 1 lb. cans, 50c cans, $4.50; 20 lb. cans, $8.75; 25 lb. wooden pails, ;

It

Two San Francisco

Pacific

to application, write

double strength.

so finely

sult of

ARCADIAN

cially kiln-dried

it's

powdered that it quickly dissolves and remains

is

Mechanically, Orchard Brand

The Great Jtmerican Jtmmoniate soluble,

to poison the bugs, be-

in suspension.

Arcadian Sulphate of It is all

it

cause

witK quickly -aA^ailable nitrogen.

material?

April

all

;

sprays.

$10.50.

Write for free illustrated booklet on

lecif-eating

insects.

THE

O.

General Chemical

& W. THUM COMPANY

Company

Dept. G 777 Royal Insurance Building

Manufacturers of Tanglefoot Fly Paper and Tree Tanglefoot 170 StraiRht Avenue, Grand Rapids, Michigan

SAN FRANCISCO

(121)

WHEN WRITING

.\BVERT1SERS

MENTION BETTER FRUIT

BETT ER An

STATE ASSOCIATE EDITORS

OBEGOX— C. WASHINGTON

I.

O.

HortlciJlturist. Corrallis —L«vrl8. Dr. A. L. .Melander. Entomologist

M. Morris. Horticulturist: W.

turiat.

S.

Illustrnted Magazine Devoted to the Interests

of Modern, Progressive Fruit

Thomber. Uorticul-





Volume XIII

Communications should be addressed and Remittances made payable

I-RUIT PUBLISHING

to

COMPANY

Subscription Prick: liY

Better Fruit Publishing Company 407

.\U

BETTER

PUBLISHED MONTHLY

MONTANA—

RUIT

Growing

and >larketing.

Pullman.

COLOR.VDO C. P. Gillette. Director and Entomoloelst E. B. Houst. Chief of Department of Civil and Irrigation Engineering. State Agricultural College. Fort Collins. ARIZON.\ E. P. Taylor. Horticulturist. Tucson. WISCONSIN— Dr. E. D. Ball. Director and Entomoloclrt, 3fadlson. O. B. Whipple. Horticulturist. Bozeman. CALIFORNIA— C. W. \VVodwonh. Entomologist. BerkeWatsonrille; Leon D. ley: W. H. Volck. Entomologist. Batchelor. Horticulturist, nirerslde. INDIANA— H. S. Jackson. Pathologist. Lafayette.

F

Lumber Exchange

PORTLAND, OREGON

Portland, Oregon, April

1,

In the United States, $1.00 per year in advance. Canada $1.25; Foreign, including postage, ?1.50.

.Vdvurtisino Rates on Application Entered as second-class matter April 22, 1918, at the Postotllce at Portland, Oregon, under the Act of Congress of March 3, 1879.

Number

1919

10

Apple Powdery Mildew a Serious Menace to Orchards By

D. F. Fisher, Assistant Plant Pathologrist, Fruit Disease Investigation, U. S. Department of Ag^riculture

powdery mildew APPLE commonly found in

now

is

of

the major apple-growing districts of the Pacific Northwest. In the hot interior irrigated districts, where it was believed fungous diseases could never thrive, powdery mildew has established all

itself It is

and hard

is

now

very

much

at

to estimate the loss

home.

which

is

powdery mildew,

since its most serious result is a general devitalization of the tree, spreading the loss over more In cases of severe than one season. infection, however, it frequently happens that more than 75 per cent of the the terminals is attacked, foliage stunted or killed, and the crop reduced more than 50 per cent. Thus far, however, its serious outbreaks have been sporadic and more or less localized. But careful observers have noted a steady spread of the disease, so that now few orchards can be found free

due

to

from mildew, and

it

appears

to

be only

a question of a short time before the

disease will be of universal occurrence all over the Northwest. Orchardists would do well to consider the danger of this situation, for even if they find a mildewed twig only here and there these innocent appearing infections only await favorable climatic or seasonal conditions to assume a serious Climatic conditions cannot be aspect. foreseen a serious outbreak of powdery mildew can never be exactly foretold hence it is the part of wisdom to take no chance, but to anticipate the outbreak and combat the disease when conditions are most favorable for success. Unfortunately, growers are prone to wait until it is plain that serious

the disease is spread. The natural controlling factor is seen to be the presence or absence of moisture, since spores reciuire moisture to germinate just the same as true seeds. Hence in rainy springs the disease is very liable to spread rapidly and assume serious proportions. In the interior irrigated districts, where natural rainfall occurs but seldom during the growing season, the dews which are of almost nightly occurrence suflice as a source of moisture supply. Because the fungus prefers very

damage has already been done before they become alarmed and try to "cure"

ever,





the disease. But to await this condition is to invite a hard fight. By this time not only has great damage been accompli.shed but the fungus has become established, and instead of a comparatively easy one-year fight, the grower will find it a battle of two or more seasons to again bring his orchard to a position where mildew will not worry him. In this connection the grower should realize that the most efficient

way

to

combat mildew

is to

tender growth, it is frequently found on watersprouts and terminals, and is

most serious early if

in the season.

unchecked,

it

How-

will persist

and

spread all summer. In badly-infected orchards the whitened appearance of the trees, due to the general presence of mildew on the terminals, is a characteristic manifestation of the disease. When the infection is very severe the termiOn the nals are frequently killed. foliage, infection usually takes place on the under side of the leaves, where early stages are exhibited as small, white, felty patches of mycelium. The

prevent in-

fection rather than attempt to "clean up" after it becomes established.

it

Before proceeding further it would be well to consider the nature of apple powdery mildew. While it has occasionally been found on pears in the Pacific Northwest, it is most important as a disease of the apple. The disease is caused by a fungus, technically known as Podosphaera leucotricha, which grows upon the surface of leaves, twigs, blossoms and fruit. At frequent (or intervals the fungus mycelium "spawn") sends "suckers" into the surface cells of the infected parts, whereby obtains its nourishment and deviit talizes its host. It reproduces itself by means of the whitish-colored spores which are produced in such abundance on infected parts, and which give these parts their characteristic powdery ap-

These spores are produced very rapidly. They are wafted about by the wind and when lodged on tender, uninfected leaves, and the necessary moisture is present, they will start a pearance.



Figure 1 A late stage of foliage infection on watersprouts. Note that many of the leaves have been shed and that those remaining are covered with spores, and are somewhat folded. The twigs are covered with mycelium, embedded in which may be seen the dark patches of "winter spores."

new

infection.

It is

in this

manner

that

I icirit 2

— Mildew

russeting of a Black Ben

Davis apple.



BETTER FRUIT

Page 4

April against mildew. It is in the hot interior irrigated districts, where fungicidal spraying is almost unknown, that most difficulty is experienced in controlling mildew and where lies its greatest menace. These districts arc the highly specialized and greatest prdoucing sections for apples in the West. They are the districts, therefore, in which the growers can afford to take the fewest chances, although the nature of the climate in these districts adds to the difficulty of controlling the disease. In the experimental work at Wenatchee, Washington, it was not found difficult to restrict the spread of the disease with any one of several sulphurspray materials, applied during the



growing season (dormant sprays being ineffective), and with lime-sulphur solution good control was established. However, it was found that the use of any of the sulphur sprays during the extremely hot weather which prevails in the

summer caused

serious injury of the apples exposed to the direct rays of the hot midday or earlyafternoon sun. This injury is doubtless brought about by the volatilization of the sulphur deposits on the fruit. It does not necessarily occur immediately after the spray is applied, but is dependent on the intensity of the sunlight. Sulphur burning of the fruit has

burning Figure 3- -Mildewed blossom clusters. Note the abundance of spores over the leaves and blossoms and the deformity of the blossoms.

fungus spreads very rapidly and soon the entire leaf becomes covered and the mycelium spreads down onto the twig or spur and onto other leaves or apples that may be attached. On the fruit the fungus produces a cliaracteristic russeting a disfigurement that lowers the grade of the apple, and hence lowers the return of the grower. This feature of the disease is most serious on such solid-color apples as Jonathan, Grimes, Spitzenberg, Newtown and Black Ben Davis, all of which appear to be very



susceptible to the disease. The russeting is not as evident on the striped varieties, of which the Stayman, Ben Davis and Rome are most suscpetible. No variety is immune, but the Winesap and White Pearmain appear to be least

early

in

About the middle of June tiny black bodies begin to appear in the white patches of mildew on the twigs. These constitute another type of spore, which at one time doubtless served to carry over winter or other the fungus adverse growing conditions, but this function is now lost, and these "winter spores" are known to play no part in the essential life-history of the fungus. The disease is carried over from year to year by the mycelium which penetrates the buds formed on infected branches and which remains dormant with the buds until the following Then, as these infected buds spring. unfold, the meycelium resumes activity, covering the leaves and twigs and soon produces its first crop of summer spores, whereby a new cycle of infection may be started. From these facts in the habits and life-history of the fungus it is apparent that there are two methods by which the disease may be combated: (1) by cutting out the infected twigs, and (2) by destroying the fungus as it grows. To the first there are practical difficulties which render it impossible of a

the experimental

commercial scale. In work at Wenatchee,

the

spring,

at

the

normal buds were beginning

time to

the

show

At this time the infected buds remained dormant, being delayed about ten days or two weeks behind the normal buds; too, the infected buds were more slender and elongated, with a peculiar reddish color. The persistent mycelium on the stunted twigs bearing these buds imparted a silvery appearance in the sunlight. By extremely careful work in pruning, all such twigs were removed (in the case of badly infected trees, only through the serious mutilation of the young growth, howgreen.

frequently

weeks

been

after

the

delayed

fully

application

two

of

the sprays, and has always followed the advent of burning sunlight, which, under Wenatchee conditions was

found

to

accompany shade tempera-

tures ranging above 90 degrees. Hence the use of sulphur sprays should be

avoided when such temperatures may be expected to prevail within a couple of weeks. Other spray materials were tested in an endeavor to find a substitute for use

after all the buds had that numerous infections still existed. These could be traced to isolated buds that had escaped detection in the very careful pruning, done with a thoroughness demanded in investigational work. From this it was apparent that pruning, as it ordinarily must be done in commercial orchards, could never be depended upon to eradicate or materially affect the disease.

ever).

opened,

susceptible.

achievement on

Washington, reported in this article, it was found that many of the twigs bearing infected buds could be detected

all

Later, it

was found

In subsequent spraying experiments it was shown that the careful pruning followed by proper spraying during the growing season was a valuable supplement to the spraying, and that less trouble was experienced in controlling mildew on the pruned trees. But at the same time it was apparent that, since adequate results follow a consistently adhered to spraying program, the extra time and expense involved in the very thorough cutting out of infected twigs in a badly-infected orchard is not justified from a commercial standpoint. Where apple scab is prevalent, as in the more humid sections of the Pacific Northwest, and where it is controlled by spraying with lime-sulphur or other sulphur materials, little trouble is experienced from apple powdery mildew, since the treatment followed in controlling scab is likewise most efficient



Figure 4 -Branch from a Jonathan tree, showing a terminal spur killed by an infection of the previous year and three spurs l)llghted during the present season. This branch had been sprayed with lime-sulphur solution and the mildewed leaves were severely burned, while the healthy foliage was unharmed.

BETTER FRUIT

Page 5

during the period of hot, burning sunBordeaux mixture gave rather light. indifferent results in fungous control and its heavy deposit on the apples prevented their normal coloring. In the rainless-summer climate of the Wenatchee Valley, Bordeaux applied in July was still present on api)les picked in It is likely that the use of October. neutral Bordeaux

such marked

would not

effect

result

in

on the color, but

was not used in the experimental work. Instead, ammoniacal copper carbonate was used. This material leaves no deposit on the fruit and hence does not restrict natural coloring. It gave practically as good control as Bordeaux mixture, but neither of these sprays approached the efliciency of lime-sulphur or certain other sulphur

this material

sprays.

The following spraying program, based upon the results of the Wenatchee spraying experiments during the seasons of 1915-16-17, is recommended. The first application should consist of lime-sulphur solution, diluted 1 to 50, and should be applied when the buds are in the "pink," that is, when the individual buds arc separated and just before the blossoms open. The delay of infected buds prevents an earlier spread of the disease, hence an application of fungicides at this time protects the trees through the blossoming season during the period when the first crop of new spores is produced and scattered. If the spraying is well done and all of the new leaves thoroughly coated with lime-sulphur, spores on them will be prevented from germinating. At the same time the application of the caustic lime-sulphur spray to existing patches of mildew destroys established centers of infection. At this time, however, the foliage is expanding very rapidly and new leaves are continually being pushed out, so that complete protection is assured for a short time only. An ideal fight against mildew would consist in providing a proper spray coating to all new leaf surface as rapidly as it appears. But it is impracticable to



accomplish

this

from

a

commercial

standpoint.

The second application should follow soon as the petals fall. For this spray lime-sulphur at the same dilution may be efficiently combined with lead as

arsenate, used for codling-moth control. prejudice against this combination spray exists in some sections, due to an idea that the poison is rendered less effective against the codling moth and that danger of spray injury is increased. This prejudice is not warranted by the facts. The combined spray not only provides a great economy of time and effort in application where both insecticide and fungicide must be used, but it has been repeatedly demonstrated that it is more efficient than separate applications. This com-

A

spray is in general use throughout the country where limesulphur and arsenate of lead are used against apple scab and codling moth. The combined spray, with lime-sulphur diluted 1 to 50, does not increase the danger of spray injury. In the Wenatchee experiments no serious injury ever bination



Figure 5 Branch from a Jonathan tree, shoving a terminal killed by the infection of the previous Note that the petals are beginning to fall from the healthy blossoms on the lower portion, while the blossoms from the infected buds near the terminal twig are not yet open.

year.

developed from combining lime-sulphur

and lead arsenate. Serious injury has, however, followed the combination of lead arsenate and sodium sulphur preparations put out as substitutes for limesulphur. The first two applications described above are most important, and in any efficient program for mildew control they cannot be dispensed with. Under some conditions further spraying for mildew may not be necessary, but ordi-

narily at least one more application ought to be made. The time for this is about three weeks after the second application, or "calyx spray." If the spring has been rainy, and if a serious infection persists, continued spraying through the summer may be necessary.

The

interval

betwen ths applications

should not be greater than three to four weeks. Until after the calyx spray the very efficient sulhpur sprays, especially lime-

BETTER FRUIT

Page 6 sulphur, can be used without danger of serious spray injury or sulphur burning on the fruit. After this time, however, there is considerable risk in applying sulphur in any form. In cool seasons injury may be escaped, but cool seasons can seldom be expected in regions such as the Wenatchee, Yakima and Walla Walla districts. If subsequent spraying is necessary, and if growers are most anxious to check the disease and at the same time are willing to stand some loss of fruit on the south side of the trees, continued spraying with lime-sulphur diluted 1 to 50 will bring best results. But if fruit burning is to be avoided the grower must use other than sulphur sprays, even though they are less efficient, and take a chance on the mildew control he may establish. The spray found best suited to this purpose in the Wenatchee experiments is ammoniacal copper carbonate, which may be prepared by dissolving five ounces of commercial copper carbonate in three pints of 2.5-per-cent ammonia (previously diluted in several times as

much water) and

finally

adding

to fifty

Neutral Bordeaux of water. mixture doubtless would prove as effective as the ammoniacal copper carbonate, and under some conditions might be cheaper. This material may be prepared by dissolving four pounds copper sulphate, or bluestone, in water for each fifty gallons of spray to be The bluestone is brought into used. solution most easily by suspending the required amount in a clean gunny-sack just beneath the surface of a measured quantity of water in a barrel and allowing it to stand for twenty-four hours. gallons

April

A

drop of this test solution to the bluestone solution before the latter is neutralized produces a dark water.

added

reddish-brown

When

color.

the

re-

quired amount of lime has been added no change of color occurs upon the addition

of the

test

Water

solution.

should then be added to bring the spray material to the desired strength ordinarily four pounds of copper sulphate being used for each fifty gallons of spray. Neutral Bordeaux thus prepared



similar in

is

fungicidal properties

to

ordinary Bordeaux mixture (though not generally efficient over as extended a period), but without the staining effect of the latter.

— Pryor

Red apple, showing sulphur type of injury which may be follow applications of sulphur siirays after the advent of hot weather in the arid valleys of the Pacific Northwest. I'tGiiu;

G

injury,

the

expected

to

A

quantity of stone lime should be slaked in another vessel and water added to make a thin paste. When ready to spray the required amount of the bluestone solution may be added to the tank and diluted with a quantity of water. Lime water, from the stock solution above described, should then be added, the mixture being well stirred or agitated meanwhile, until the copper sulphate or bluestone solution is just neutralized. This is determined by means of a test solution prepared by dissolving a few cents' worth of potassium ferrocyanide (which may be se-

cured

at a

drug store) in a bottle of

It should be emphasized that no real substitute for the sulphur sprays for mildew control have been devised and that the copper sprays are merely a more costly and makeshift supplement to be used during the period of hot, burning sunlight, when sulphur sprays are unsafe to apply. The importance of early and thorough spraying with lime-sulphur during the spring, when best progress can be made, should

therefore be apparent. In spraying it is important to cover every part of the leaves and twigs, and special attention should be given to the terminals. A pressure of 200 to 250 pounds should be maintained, or sufficient to drive the spray in a fine mist through the tops of the trees. High pressure is especially important if spray materials are used which have poor spreading qualities, or a tendency to gather in drops and run off. Eddychamber or "whirlpool" nozzles of the "driving-mist" type should be used.

Early Prospects for Northwest Fruit Are Promising BELIEVING fruit

that readers of Better Fruit will be interested in knowing what the early prospects for in the Northwest are we are pub-

summary

in this issue secured in direct touch with conditions as they exist in the various districts. The reports received indicate that the situation is very promising, although the more conservative issue a warning note that the season is early and that care and thought must be exer-

lishing a

from those who are

cised

to

secure the maximum as follows:

result.

The reports are

Yakima

Situation

Good

Yakima, March

30.

Better Fruit: The prospects were never brighter for a bumper fruit crop in the Yakima valley than at present. To begin with, there has been an abundance of moisture throughout the winter, and officials of the U. S. Reclamation Service assert that there is ample storagc'water in the reservoirs and on the snow-capped slopes of the Cascades for liberal use throughout the spring and summer months. It is further stated that even should there be an unusually dry summer, storage water will be sufficient to supply the needs of orchardists and

farmers throughout this section. Last year there was produced in this

valley approximately 7,000 carloads of apples, 140 cars of prunes, 2,000 cars of pears, 700 cars of peaches, 100 cars of cherries, 60 cars of strawberries, and 200 cars of mixed fruits. These, together with 325 cars of watermelons and cantaloupes, 40 cars of grapes and 5 cars of apricots, had a total valuation of slightly more than $12,000,000. Conservative estimates place the fruit crop of the Yakima valley for 1919 at 50 to 60 per cent in excess of these figures. As a matter of fact, indications now point to the largest fruit crop in the history of this valley. Some of the oldest fruit growers predict that there will be from 11,000 to 12,000 carloads of apples alone, in the proportion of about 60 per cent Winesaps, 25 per cent Jonathans and 15 per cent mixed varieties.

Spraying operations are just now being conducted on a large scale, and there is a tendency on the part of all growers to improve their orchards so as to produce only the very highest quality of fruit. As 1918 was an off year, in which the crop was only about 65 per cent normal, it is held by those best familiar with climatic and crop conditions that nothing short of damaging frosls can prevent the valley from reaching the maximum production this .

year.

A

recent survey of orchard acreage the Yakima valley, comprising the lands adjacent to the Yakima and Naches Rivers and those under the Tieton, Wapato, Sunnyside and Grandview irrigation projects, show that there will be a total acreage of apples in

in full bearing amounting to 60,000, with 2,500 acres of peaches and pears, and nearly 2,000 acres of prunes. It is

estimated that there is yet to come into bearing approximately 2,500 acres of young apple orchards. Great preparations are being made in Yakima and the nearby shipping points to provide adequate warehouse facilities to

care for the coming crop.

ONLY $3

PER

Im-

-

MONTH

Not one cent down. This brings you a $100 Oliver Typewriter, now $57. So you save $43 iKiy at the rale of but 10c per day. This is the Identical $100 Oliver, brand new. never used, shipped direct from the factory to you. Not secon


Write

today for our book. "The Typewriter on the Farm." Then you may order an Oliver for Free

new

Easy to learn. Write today. Trial.

The Oliver Typewriter Co. 39630llv«r Typewriter BIdK. Chlceio.

III.

112.07)

BETTER FRUIT

/p/p

Page 7

provenients of this character to be made in this city will cost more than half a million dollars. As a result of the splendid prices received for last year's products, and the unusually good crop outlook for 1919, business conditions generally throughout this section were never better at this season of the year.

ORPHEUS SOOTS, Secretary Yakima Commercial Club.

Toppenish Hopeful Toppenish, Wash., March

30.

SavefrateO

Better Fruit:

Answering your inquiry of March In the orchards which 1 have

C O f^R U G>(\TC

12th:

seen recently, prospects are for a very large crop of all kinds of fruit; especially will there be an increase in the crop of peaches and some varieties of

PAPER CONTAINERS ECONOMY

apples. Of course, there is still a great liability of frost damage, which may reduce the prospective crop considerably. A reliable estimate of the crop cannot be made until the early part of May. In regard to prospects for the coming crop: I have recently visited a great many points in the East, and during this trip 1 found that our boxed fruit has reached a great many markets, and has become established in a great many

in the initial

cheaper than wood in storage

in sealing

no hammer, nails, in freight

in

C.

truly,

W. GRANT,

Assistant General Manager Richey & Gilbert Company.

Spokane Reports Favorably Spokane, March

30.

Better Fruit: The outlook for the fruit industry in the Spokane district and the Northwest has never been better. Orchards so situated as not to be capable of producing a large quantity of high-class fruit per acre are generally being abandoned, thus reducing the apple production of the Northwest. Growers are generally profiting by the experience of the California orange, lemon, grapefruit, raisin, almond and

weight

wood

breakage

should have a great and good effect on the marketing of the 1919 crop.

kets,

Yours very

slivers

two-thirds lighter than

made a profit for the Eastern purchaser. The fact that the business has been profitable, couple with these new mar-

are at present.

space half space of shook

markets which have not heretofore used Northwestern boxed fruit. The Northwestern boxed fruit has generally

I believe the principal danger which might interfere with or destroy these prospects is the fact that those growers who stored their apples this year have made tremendous profits, and this may lead some growers to attempt the same thing another year. If any large percentage of the growers had held their apples this season there would not have been the present high prices and large profits, and if any large percentage of the growers attempt to hold or gamble with their fruit next season it may be dangerous to all concerned. On the other hand, if the growers of fruit will be satisfied to sell and ship at harvest time, at a reasonable price, I believe the prospects were never better for the marketing of a crop than they

purchase

every side a cushion

SCHMIDT LITHOGRAPH Mam

Office:

SAN FRANCISCO, CAL.

BRANCHES.— Fresno,

Los Angeles. Portland, Seattle, Honolulu

walnut growers, and the spirit of cooperation has never been stronger. The opening of the export markets, occasioned by cessation of the war, will aid materially the scope of distribution. This should have a decided beneficial efiect on the market in a general way, it would seem that the fruit grower the Northwest has before him prospects for several succeeding years of prosperity. The grower must by persistent and by diligent efTorts maintain the high standard of grade and pack, since this is the only method that can be used to successfully place the Northwestern fruit crop in the large and critical marketing centers of the East.

and of

P. R.

CO.

PARKS,

Manager Spokane Fruit Growers Co. Medford Optimistic

apple and pear trees with fruit buds. Some of the most optimistic of the fruit growers are enthusiastically predicting an apple and pear crop of 2,000 cars next fall. While County Agricultural Agent Cate agrees the prospects never appeared brighter for a large fruit crop, yet he warns not to be too optimistic about the frost outlook, and points out that May 21st last year there was a heavy frost of from 22 to 30 degrees, and April 3rd a severe frost of 18 degrees in the valley and 22 degrees in Medford. And two years ago on May 12th there was a severe frost of 20 degrees. A prediction of 2,000 cars for the entire valley this year seems to require nuich optimism, as the highest previous crops of apples and pears did not approach anywhere near that number of cars.

Prospects were never brighter for a big fruit crop at Medford than at the present time, says the Medford MailTribune, because of the great amount of moisture in the ground, the shortening of the frost danger period by the later development of buds this year than for

But with the glorious prospects and abundant late moisture this year there is a thorn with the rose, as on account of the saturated ground and continued rains the orchardists are so far behind with their spraying for scale that the majority of them will abandon any

and the heavy setting of the

further attempt at spraying this year,

years,

:

BETTER FRUIT

Page 8

BEST SERV1CEfAllTYa PRICES

y.

PERFECTION IN

pean war, lack of co-operation and the reduction of the acreage from over 100,000 acres to approximately 60,000 to 70,000 acres. The following good reasons are cited by many of the growers

mice in orchards planted to alfalfa or permitted to grow up to weeds. This, however, is local, but more widely distributed than one would be at first inclined to believe. The very mild winter

for the eventual success of the industry: (1) A depression of the citrus industry a few years ago in California and its later recovery since the organization and perfection of the California Fruit

give possibilities of some fruit-bud injury at blossoming time and for abundance of insect pests during the following summer. There is no reason to believe that the start that may be obtained by good opening prospects cannot be entirely destroyed by a bit of neglect in fighting pests long before the

(2) The war has opened markets. Plantings have (3) stopped. (4) The population is increasing faster than the new plantings. (5) Many of the old orchards in parts of the Northwest have ceased to be high producers. (6) Dissatisfied growers and non-resident owners grubbing up their orchards. (7) Federal aid has been instrumental in causing the fruit industry to take on new life. (8) The important legisalation enacted during the session of the last, legislature, whereby the fruit growers will receive state protection against unscrupulous

Exchange.

FRUIT ^

(

ILABELSI

new

dealers.

ijMPSONSDOELLERCCL IE.ShELLEY H
Moscow, Idaho, March

19.

Better Fruit

The outlook

for the fruit industry in very encouraging, and if present indications mean anything the fruit growers can look for a ljumper crop of

Idaho

April

is

coming year. Fruit trees of kinds have come through the winter in fine shape, and fruit buds and spurs are in evidence on practically all varieties. If the frost later in the season, and the "June drop," do not play havoc with the various crops, the orchardists of Idaho will have at least 5,000 cars of apples for sale and will make larger shipments of peaches, pears, prunes and cherries than any previous year. "With this prospect in view the growers arc taking all precautionery measures possible to protect their crops ,and are planning to follow the correct methods of spraying, prunfruit this

(9)

Those

all

ing, irrigation, fertilization, etc.

There appears

to be an optimistic the fruit growers concerning the future of the fruit industry in the state, notwithstanding the fact that they have met with reverses during the past few years, such as unsatisfactory returns, killing frosts, the Euro-

feeling

among

who have been

in

the business for a period of years have made money, when the average for the entire period is considered. If the industry in the Pacific Northwest is to become one of the great factors of our agricultural and commercial world, it will necessitate the among all the closest co-operation growers in the future. Furthermore, immediate legislation should be enacted, standardizing the grade and pack, if the present high prices are to be maintained. The Government believes that it is only through standardization of the products and co-operative organization that the fruit industry of the Northwest can be placed upon a good substantial Co-operative organizations apbasis. plied to the needs and requirements of the fruit industry as defined by one authority implies a partnership and union of interests, supported by cooperative effort and joint actions. If co-operation and standardization, therefore, will eliminate the petty rivalry which now exists here in the Northwest, and will be instrumental in strengthening our present markets and extending new markets, let us secure and the sooner it is accomplished it, the more permanent will become our industry. C. C.

summer

over.

is

Very truly yours, b. M.

MORRIS,

Department of Horticulture, Washington State College of Agriculture.

Hood River Prospects Bright The outlook for Northwestern fruits the coming season is unusually promising, according to C. W. ^NlcCullagh, manager of the Hood River Apple Growers Association, who bases his opinion upon what he saw and heard while attending the recent annual convention of the Western Fruit Jobbers' Association in Chicago. The prospects are bright not only for apples, but for cherries and strawberries. Mr. McCullagh states in the Fruit Trade Journal that he had repeated offers for the purchase of the association's entire cherry crop at handsome figures. prominent Chicago dealer also made an offer for several carloads of strawberries, to be sold on the

A

Chicago market. "We turned down the berry offer from Chicago," says Mr. McCullagh, "with the explanation that it was out of our territory. But as for our cherries, Chicago is determined to have them."

Montana Expects Bumper Crop Bozeman, Montana, March

Prospects were never brighter for a bumper crop than they are at present. The trees set buds last summer in good

VINCENT,

Horticulturist,

University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho.

Advises Growers to Be Careful Pullman, Washington, March

17.

Better Fruit:

March 12th at hand. I not as well posted on the present condition of the fruit prospects of this state as you believe me to be. Basing my opinion, however, on comparative visits to Okanogan, Wenalchee, Your

fear

I

letter of

am

Kennewick and Walla Walla

regions,

I

can say that conditions are promising. I think that I have seen the trees more heavily laden with fruit buds, but still everything is favorable for a fair crop. There has been very little winter in-

and most of the trees went into winter quarters in good condtion. There has been some injury to trees by jury,

20.

Better Fi-uit:

Cheamcal

BETTER FRUIT

19 J 9 shape and the winter has been so mild that there has been no damage whatever apparent in llie orchards. The hiyh prices that prevailed last year has encourafted the f,Mowers and the interest in fruit {^rowing is again reviving. Many of the orchards that have been neglected, more or less, for the past few seasons are being taken care of and put in shape for profitable

production.

Orchard work at this lime is progressing nicely. Much of the pruning has already been done and the growers are beginning to prepare for the application of the dormant spray for blistermite and scale. If the crop is not injured by frosts during the blooming season, Montana should market this season between four and five hundred cars of apples. The fruit produced in the home orchards and for the local markets will about equal the amount of commercial fruit. Fruit other than apples is also looking fine. The cherry and plum crop, while not large, promises to be good. The Bitter Root valley, the Missoula valley and the Flathead Lake region are the most important commercial fruitproducing regions in the state. There is some planting of new orchards this year, though none of the new plantings are likely to be of large proportions.

Page 9

Since that lime the average has been,

Wenatchee, $3.09, .*2.80 and $2.39; in Yakima, $2.91, $2.72 and $2.(59; and today offerings of $4 are being refused. This has stimulated activities in the sale of fruit lands and some valuable in

transfers are being

made

in the leading

operations of 1918

was an expensive

and the growers are exerting an extra ell'ort to get trees better pruned so that they can do a thorough job of spraying this spring, and reduce the lesson,

percentage of cull apples. M. L.

DEAN,

This condition has encour-

State Horticultural Inspector.

aged the growers to the extent that 100 Bean power sprayers have been sold in Yakima and more carloads ordered which cannot be filled by the factory. Other sections and other concerns are reporting the same conditions. The lack of thoroughness in the spraying

The cannery of the Grcsham Fruit Growers' Association at Gresham, Oregon, has been leased for a term of four years by A. Rupert & Co. The pack will be principally berries, cherries, pears and vegetables.

districts.

A. L. STRAUSZ, State Horticulturist.

Washington Apple-Crop Prospects Olympia, March 20. Better Fruit: 1918 goes down into history as being the most profitable year ever experienced by the fruit growers of Washington. The outlook for the coming crop of Washington was never brighter than at present. The 1918 crop was not abnormal in any way. The stone fruits were injured by spring frosts so that the crop was short. These conditions, accompanied by favorable weather, permitted the trees to develop a strong, heavy setting of buds for the 1919 crop. The trees went into the winter in an ideal condition. The winter weather thus far has been very favorable, and if the blooming periods are not accom-

panied by frosts we have reason to expect a bumper crop of all fruits in 1919. Never in the history of the orchard development in the Northwest has Washington fruit averaged the prices that has been paid for the 1918 crop.

The state output of apples was approximately 1800 cars, which brought up to February 25 an average f.o.b. price of In

Wenatchee

Extra Fancv

Fancy

C Grade Yakima Extra Fancy Fancv

$2.10 per 1.83 1.53

box

$2.02 per

box

In

C Grade

1.80

1.58

Including the four Northwest States Extra Fancy $2.03 per box

Fancy

C Grade

1.86 1.51

Illustration

Showing Bees

in Connection

with Orcharding.

Value of Bees in Relation to Fruit Growing By Luke

Powell, District Horticultural Inspector, Prosser, Washington

A GREAT

many of our valuable fruits are sterile, or, in other words, nonproductive unless they are pollenized by other fruits of the same variety. Ninety-nine per cent of the pollen is carried by the insects, and it is a safe estimate that seventy-five per cent is carried by the busy little honey bee. Thus the value of the honey bee to the fruit grower is beyoivl estimation, because without it many of your fruit trees would not bear sufficient crop to warrant the spraying and care of them. Not only does the bee scatter the pollen but it gathers the nectar that would otherwise go to waste and makes it into honey, which is a valuable farm product; therefore, it has a distributive as well as a productive value. Now for a fruit grower to be a success in raising fruit he must understand the growing and care of it. The same applies to fruit growers who have bees and expect to get results from them. First study and learn all you can about caring for them. Second, don't put your bee stands out in the orchard under the trees. Why? Because it is too cool and damp for them. For bees to do good work the temperature of the hive on the inside should be about 90 degrees. The professional bee men keep their bees out where they can get plenty of good, warm, spring sunshine. The trees where the hives are are never

well sprayed. The bees object and the man spraying naturally sustains the

There are more scale and these trees than any of the others in the orchard. objection.

worms on

Therefore, if you have your bees around under the trees, move them out at once, where they can do better work. They will scatter more pollen and increase their production of honey.

U/onf pfi I fffCllllCUa

Horticulturist

— one

who

has had

experience in pruning, spraying, irrigation and packing fruit. Please state full experience in first letter.

Horticulturist, care Better Fruit

The Old

Reliable

BELL & CO. Incerporatad

WHOLESALE Fruits and Produce 112-114 Front Street

PORTLAND. OREGON

BETTER FRUIT

Page 10

New

April certain

degree, the speculation of the in the fruit growers' product. This service has been especially valuable to the producer with only a few acres, where the small volume of business made it possible to become a successful salesman. The wide distribution and strict grading brought about by means of the co-operative associations has also been a great factor in the satisfactory sale of the fruit by the producer, as well as the ready and continual purchase of the product by the consumer. This has increased and stabilized the consumption of California fruits and nuts to a degree which the horticulturists of the past generations hardly hoped for in their fondest dreams, and, needless to say,

Departure in Handling Fruit Packages

PACKAGE SALES

middleman

f,

CORPORATION Universal

Pack^

never realized. Another important agency in establishing a satisfactory fruit industry in California has been the successful preservation of fruits by canning, drying and the manufacturing of various

With the general markets so far from this state, the agency of successful preservation has in many cases been the most important factor in making possible the sale of vast quanThe large tities of perishable fruit. areas of orchards which have been planted solely to fdl this market for a preserved product are among the most profitable of any in the state. Such orchards are planted without any regard whatever for the fresh-fruit markets at home, or abroad; but rather are made to include the most valuable varieties of fruit for preserving purposes, and often grown for price, contracted for stipulated a either one or several years in advance. Many of the preserving factories are now co-operatively owned by the fruit fruit products.

Standard container now being nsed in the East for the shipment of both fruit and vegeThe baskets contain an even bushel and the fruit or vegetable is attractively packed by having the top faced.

tables.

One of the most interesting and helpful exhibits that has ever been put before the fruit and produce trade was that of the Package Sales Corporation of South Bend, Indiana, at the recent conventions of the Western Fruit Jobbers and the American Fruit and Vegetable Growers in Chicago, says the Fruit Trade Journal. The display was in charge of E. L. Tanner. Its purpose was to demonstrate the value of the~ universal shipping package. The interesting part of the exhibit was the numerous baskets filled with vegetables, showing how economical and advantageous it is to use universal packages for the shipment and market-

ing of fruits and vegetables. Fruits and vegetables shipped and packed in these packages promote quantity buying, which is becoming quite a habit in these days of high cost of living. The center post of the universal bu.shel shipping package attracted wide attention and is the cause of a number of interesting expressions. The idea of the center post is to keep the fruits or vegetables from being crushed when one basket is placed on top of another. The Package Sales Corporation is now issuing an interesting booklet entitled "Shipping Profits," which is of interest to fruit and vegetable growers as well as shippers.

growers. The foregoing agencies and others, such as the State and County Horticultural Connnissions, the University of

Outlook for the Fruit Industry in California By

L. D. Palchelor, University of California Citrus

THE fornia

fruit and nut industry of Caliat

present

is

apparently on a

more stable and sound economic basis than ever before during its illustrious history. Assuming a wise choice of the natural conditions, surrounding the fruit plantation, I am of the opinion that there never has been a more promising future for the fruit and nut raiser in California than the period we are just approaching. One of the most important factors in bringing the present industry to this high economic plane has been the organization and the successful management of the various co-operative asso-

NOW is the time to send to Milton Nursery Company MILTON, OREGON

FOR THEIR 1919 CATALOG. FULL LINE OF NURSERY STOCK. "Genuineness and Quality"

Experiment Station, Riverside, California

ciations for the purpose of selling the respective products. These associations have removed many of the hazards of the sale of the crop by eliminating, to a

California Experiment Stations and the United States Department of Agriculture are all actively minimizing the producers' business risk in the production of fruit in California. All these agencies and many others, some of which have been ])erfected in their successful and efficient operation in recent years, certainly give every promise of making fruit growing in California even more attractive in the future than it has been in the past.

Report of Cold Storage Apple Holdings, March

1,

1919

United States Department of Agriculture, liureau of Markels, ^Vashinplon, D.

C.

'Combined Comparison Sloragcs lieporiing

HoldiuRs reported March C()nn>ariM}n of holdinss on March 1, 1918

and JIarch 1, 1919 Comparison of holdings on March 1. 1917 and March 1, 1918 Comparison of holdings on December 1, 1918 and March 1, 1919 Comparison of holdings on December 1, 1917 and March 1, 1918 (Comparison of holdings on December 1, 1910

1,

1919.

.

Holdings Expressed

Poxes

Barrels

of Holdings on a Pet.

Basis

514

Hnrrels 958,131

2,111,981

1,702.125

5.'?5

1,575„'}72

.i.7fi3.fi21

535

952,090

2,.399,091

2,829.912 1,751,787

100.0 61.9

518 518

1,500,012 1,488,437

2,640.027 3,057,003

2,442,051 2,707,458

100.0 110.9

534 534

3,242,304 953,473

4,847,621 2,397,778

4,838,238 1,752,732

100.0

4,085,,551

100.0 56.7

530 530

3,152,127 1,487,828

4,600,272 3,509,107

in

2,057,530

36.1

100.0 4,030,108 3,894,308 484 2,7,32,006 51.9 2,091,312 2,304,235 484 1,303,234 1917 * Three boxes to the barrel. cold in storage apple holdings in the decrease per cent shows a of 38 Summarized, this report on March 1, 1919, as compared with those of a year ago, and a decrease of 69 per cent compared with the holdings in December, 1918.

and March

1,

BETTER FRUIT

/p/p

Page II

Building a National Market for Northwest Fruits By David M.

Botsford, Portland, Oregon

years ago, when men TWENTY discover that the Pacific bej^an

of the country to another, depending upon the competition from local grown

Northwest had the potentialities of a great fruit section, they had one ambition to grow the best fruit in the world. These jjioneers of the North-

apples.

first

to



fruit industry went through hardships clearing the land, planting their orchards, and nursing them into full bearing. No one questions that their ambition to grow the largest, finest apples; the most luscious peaches and pears; the most luxuriant berries, was not a thing that makes national marketing possible. As one great merchandizing man has said: "Selling and advertising are not the most important things about the product Frankly, there is one thing more imjjortant, and that is the merit of the product." During this generation the magnitude of the Nortiiwest fruit industry has become a reality. The Hood River, Yakima and Wenatchee districts are growing an immense tonnage of apples. Through the care taken in planting, growing and harvesting, a large proportion of this tonnage is being shipped as fancy and extra fancy fruits. Because of the way in which Northwestern apples are grown and marketed at long distances they must necessarily be a high grade product. Box apples cannot compete with barrel apples in the markets of the United States on anything but a quality basis. Now, the selling end of the Northwest fruit industry, with several exceptions, has clung to older methods for disposing of their products. This method was the method "Push!" It meant a great many growers and associations pushing their product out to wholesalers, who in turn pushed it out to retailers, who ofTercd it to the consumers. Markets were shifted each vear from one section

west

.

A few of the associations and shippers in the Northwest sought newer methods for building a national market. They have taken the method of "Pull," as compared with the method of "Push." They have recognized that there are peojile in every community with whom quality is the first consideration. These people are being educated to buy good apples, and to buy particular brands of apples.

Among the advertising of the Northwest apples carried on there was that of the Hood River Association. In 1913 a

campaign of newspaper advertising started in Los Angeles in connec-

was

with specialty work among the retail trade. One year later, encouraged by the success in Los Angeles, the same campaign was started in San Francisco and other cities. One interesting incident in connection with the San Francisco advertising of Hood River apples ran like this: In the opening newspaper advertisement was the telephone number of the local representative, with the suggestion that if the housewife could not obtain Hood River apples from her grocer, to telephone the representative and he would It see that she would be supplied. tion

happened

that this local representative a down-town hotel, and his telephone number given was the hotel number. On the day the first advertisement appeared he dropped in at his hotel and met a demoralized condition among the telephone operators. He was lived

at

handed several hundred numbers, with the courteous request that he should install a private telephone if that sort of thing was to continue. This incident shows that enough interest can be aroused with the housewife

to get her to want a particular kind of apple. Such illustrations cannot but help to convince the most skeptical of us that

apples can be merchandized and advertized just like anv other connnoditv. During the fall of 1918 the Yakima Fruit (irowers' Association ran a fullpage and several smaller advertisements on Big "Y" apples in the Satur-

day Evening Post. As a result of this they were able to extend their distribution considerably along national lines. they received direct consumer inquiries which showed the interest of the public in the advertising of quality apples. One man, living seventy-five miles from a railroad in Nevada, ordered five boxes of Big "Y" apples

And

sent to him.

The Yakima

Fruit Growers' Associa-

tion are planning to gradually extend their elTorts to nationalize the Big "Y" apple. As their volume and distribution grow they expect more and more fully to cash in on advertising that reaches

In the meantime they are laying a foundation which will enable them to spread their tonnage over the country within reach of discriminating people who are willing to pay prices based on the merit of the product.

two million people.

Probably the most striking illustration of the success of building a national market for Northwest fruit products is that of loganberry and apple juice manufacturers. Four years ago the Northwest Fruit Products Company was organized at Olympia, Washington, and Salem, Oregon, to produce and sell fruit beverages on a national scale. These products w'ere "Loju" loganberry juice and "Applju," a sparkling, clarified About the same time apple juice. "Phez" pure juice of the loganberry was put on the market by the Pheasant Fruit Juice Company at Salem, Oregon.

SPECIMENS OF PROGRESSIVE ADVERTISING FOR A NATION-WIDE CAMPAIGN TO PROMOTE THE SALE OF NORTHWEST FRUIT PRODUCTS rut

MrvKMr

BvtMiHc po»t

^SVineyardso/Oregoi^ to

Refresh

^/2e

Natioi

Tliey're big—

they're juicy

g jppifj

they're delicious

'

Appiiu Buy "Big Y" Applet by the Box

T-HK ^

l.mou. otth.cd,

in^tr>n jfij

Jpptc* "f

.,f

ripe jpplc^. hanvl picked

^p«^lcJ

VVi,li.

Oregon tuppU fhe Thc.< art Kitind,

.Appl|ii.

i'A

4nd

in-

.|'.jV,ts

"BigO'Apptei Page advertispnient used in 1918 in Saturday Evening Post l)y tlie Yakima, Washington, Horticultural Union to make its flne fruit better

known.

The Northwest Fruit

I^roducts

Company

of

Salem, Oregon, will use this advertisement in the Saturday Evening Post in 1919 to make known the merits of its popular drink "Phez."

".Vpplju," another of the products of the Norlliwest Products Company of Salem, Oregon, will also be extensively advertised by this

company

in 1919.

BETTER FRQ IT

Page 12 On January 1, 1918, these two concerns were consolidated, forming one large company for the handling of Phez, Loju and Applju. From the gross sales of the first year, amounting to $65,000, the volume of this industry has grown until during 1920 they are planning to do a total business of $3,000,000.

Today

in

the Willamette Valley the growing of berries is encouraged in every way

WTiere growers were plowpossible. ing up their berries several years ago because of failure to obtain a market, a market of tremendous size and of constant growth

upward

is

now

firmly

established. It is more than a coincidence that this fruit juice industry from the very be-

ginning adopted the policy of aggressive national advertising.

During 1920

full-

page advertisements in color will be printed in 28,000,000 copies of the Sat-

urday Evening Post. As an outgrowth of the fruit juice industry, the Phez Company, which is

now

the

name

of the consolidated con-

cern at Salem, Oregon, has just completed a large jelly, jam and preserving plant which will have a capacity of carloads annually. several hundred Through this plant much of the valuable by-product of the berry will be utilized.

The prospects

for the grower of small particularly in Oregon, were never so bright. Through big concerns like the Northwest Products Company fruits,

a

nation-wide stabilized market

is

being

created for their products. This company alone could increase its output many times over if it was given the tonnage. With a profitable market assured them, small-fruit growers in the Willamette Valley should be encouraged to plant small fruits on a most extensive scale. In fact, with the opportunity that is now offered them they should cooperate to the fullest extent in assisting the by-products and other companies that are spending thousands of dollars in making for them such an extensive

and profitable market for their fruits. In all the history of the Northwest fruit business there never was a period so ideal for building new markets and so promising to the fruit grower as in this era following the war. America is prosperous, and has learned to pay higher prices than ever before in her history. Although prices of living must decline, they will probably never come down to a pre-war level. It presents the greatest opportunity we have ever known for the building of a market for

Northwest fruits and fruit products, based upon an appeal of quality and an increased demand.

The Small Fruit Industry By W.

April

Northwest

in the

H. Paulhamus, President Puyallup and Sumner Fruit Fruit Growers' Canning Company, Puyallup, Washington

1WISH

to express my confidence in the small fruit industry in the Northwest, and I trust that Better Fruit will give this industry its hearty support in future. In my judgment Better Fruit has been one of the best assets of the fruit industry of the Pacific Northwest. It is entirely clear in my mind that it

has done as much as any one single agency in bringing to the attention of the consuming public the high quality of our Pacific Northwest apples, and I believe it can do the same thing for our small fruits. to stimulate the growlarger quantity of small fruits is a better price to the producer. For a number of years in the past the loganberry grower of the Willamette Valley and other sections of Oregon has been up against a losing proposition. Of course the loganberry was a new species of fruit, therefore it has taken

I may be wrong in my vision, but the Pacific Northwest, and particularly the States of Oregon and Washington, could be doing many times the volume of business in bush fruits, provided there

was an organized manufacturers

on the part of

effort

who

use

class

this

Pacific Northwest. This being true, our people should be growing one hundred times the quantity of this fruit that is now being produced. If we were producing our strawberries in sufficient

quantities it would mean the establishment of great manufacturing plants that would work up the Pacific Northwest

grown strawberry. There is no question about the superiority of our red raspberries, our black raspberries, our loganberries, and our blackberries, but strawberries are so uniformly grown all over the United States that it is the one item in which quality is the big factor that is of greatest value to us. I cannot say too much in my enthusiasm for the future of the small fruit industry in the Northwest. All we need is to take advantage of the

opportunity and develop

The Hood River

it.

district

has a

The

officers

are:

President,

grower secured what he raises.

much

the event was a big success. The surplus from the sale of tickets was used to supply the soldiers and sailors in the base hospitals with fruit.

The chorus of optimism for the Northit west fruit outlook is stimulating puts new life in every phase of the



business.

a

Now for a concerted effort to the 1919 fruit crop the best ever.

considerable time to properly introduce it. The development of the loganberry juice product has been extremely helpful in increasing markets for this berry, not only for juice purposes, but for other purposes. The great trouble with the fruit raiser is that so many of them fail to understand what it costs them to produce, with the result that buyers are constantly pinching down the price. I know of one or two canning plants that have been buying loganberries at prices that could not help but strain the grower, although the consumer would pay much more for the product if requested to

do

Bucket, Barrel and

Power Spray

spraying machinery manufactured by F. E. MYERS CS, BRO. Included are many styles and sizes for spray-

everyone largest

who

MYERS PUMP talog on

meet the needs

home gardener

is

Ask your

dealer or write us

Ji

it.

MYERS PNEUMATIC SPRAYER Sclf-Loclcing

Iron Tank,

— Has

D-Hajidie, Screw Top, Galvanized Brass Cylinder

Distance Nozzle.

broad fan

of

to the

and vegetables, and every guaranteed. Interesting Ca-

fruits

request. for

— they

sprays, from the

grower of

like to

and Adjustable Long

Spray can be adjusted from long distance.

NO. 135

ORANGE ST. RE.MY PDCXRDO .KJC^DKV/a ASH LAND, OHIO. FARM OPEPATING EQUIPMENT

Northwest Distributors PORTLAND, OREGON

so.

WHEN WRITING

F.

The United Fruit Buyers' Association banquet was held in New York, March 29. The affair was held at the WaldorfAstoria. Covers were laid for 500 and

Pumps, Atomizers, Compressed Air Sprayers, Spray Guns, Nozzles and Accessories make up the extensive and successful line of modern

ing, disinfecting or painting

W.

Shannon; vice-president, Mrs. W. H. Crenshaw; secretary and treasurer, C. B. Compton.

The main thing

ing of a

new

growers of the Dee flat formed the West Fork Fruit Growers Club, the aim of which will be better apples and strawberries. association, the section having

of

fruit to see that the

fair price for

There is no strawberry grown in the world that equals the strawberry of the

ADVERTISERS MENTION BETTER FRUIT

make

BETTER FRUIT

19 19

A

Spray Program for the Northwest Apple Orchards By Leroy Note— At

^Edifor's

the rctjuest of

Childs, Entomolog:ist

many

appeared

in

the April, 1918, issue of Better

accompanying spray calendar

arranged that it will adequately cover the needs of the orchardist in most of the apple-growing It sections of the Pacific Northwest. must be understood that this is not a blanket recommendation, for there are indeed but few localities that wouhl demand all of these applications of spray listed in order to etTect control of the different apple pests. The orchardist must determine, first, the pests that must be controlled in his orchard, and secondly in his procedure, with the asis

so

Discussions

of

,

Hood River Experiment

Different ...

Applications ..

J

,

connection with the difi-erent applications given in the calendar there are a few important factors tha should discussed somewhat at length; lack prevents this in the tables. «J ^P'^^^ ^^e sake of clearness, a discussion ^ application follows, the para8''^''?^ """Jer corresponding with the spray number given in the calendar. Dormant Spray. The oil applica^.. is a dormant spray and is only

sistance of his local adviser, determine

whether seasonal conditions warrant The the alterations of the program. calendar presented is arranged to meet maximum adversities from the standpoint of weather conditions and pest development, with a result that during seasons decided alterations may be necessary. In the alteration of these arranged spravs the advice of an expert orchard investigator should be obtained

many

auMsea

Dossible

Seasonal development is the most important factor in making the necessary anv snrav schedule. qlterations in a la e spring s fdecTded adfrom the orcha. " to i"/vantage \aiudj,i, I" tL standpoint of the number of spraj-s that will be necessary during the season. This is especially true in the control of apple scab. In order to completely protect the orchard from the disease it is necessary to keep the foliage protected from the delayed dormant stage until Under the the spring rains are over.

UsuX

Pathologrist,

conditions which cxist at rains Can be expected until about the Two applications a month first of July. are necessary to keep the foliage and developing fruits coated, so that if the delayed dormant stage is reached by April 1, which often happens, it would be necessary to make five applications of a fungicide in order to obtain complete protection. If, on account of delaycd plant development, this is applied April 15, four applications will be efi'ective, and should this be delayed until May 1, as was the case in Hood River in 1917, three applications in many cases gave excellent results.

^"^'"'•J

THE

and Plant

Hood River

or-

a«a[n'fubi?shTnfTis'spray°'S^^

if

Page 13

orcnarcis

in

wntre

ine

leai

[f^S

i^riSenta^ly^^^^^^^^ San Jose Jo^^^^ scale ana prow both ban n However under Northwestern '''Phis. conditions, rains following the apphcation of sprav Within three to five days,

"'mni trot ing

dL

v^

efi-ectiveness is greatly reduced. weather conditions are arm, settled ^^eathel

absolutely essential to insure the leaf i"oller eggs being destroyed by the oil. The best results have been obtained by waiting until the buds are well swollen and the tips of the first leaves are just

Station

beginning to show. For the control of San Jose scale and oyster shell scale linie-sulphur used 1-8 will be found less expensive and more effective, provided rainy weather follows the application, If the lime-sulphur is used as an early dormant application (before the buds swell) use Black Leaf for brown aphis control in Spray No. 2. Delayed Dormant Spray. The de2. layed dormant spray is primarily a scab spray. Protection is needed at this time as spores of the fungus are being discharged in large numbers from the old fallen leaves. In orchards where the brown aphis is troublesome (the insect ^^;hich causes the small, knotty clusters of apples), tobacco (nicotine sulphate) 1.120O should be added. Compared with

have made a reduction ^^^^ ^^^..^^ jhe strength of lime-sulphur to be ^^ged, and further experimental evi^^^^^ ^.jjl probably permit the making gj-^gter dilutions for this application, orchards where lime and j^een regularly used in the ^ppj^ ^cab for several years, incidentally kept in check

sulphur control

mildew by

this

^he trouble is usually more pronounced in young unspraved orin sections where limeextensively era'V^^^!!'' t^' ''r"where the disease ployed. In orchards prevalent it can be more speciallv brought under control by adding iron .minhirip mivtnrp in inn tr. tVi« lim^ su EhS Thl tungus funS^^^^^^ wtiich causes ^"'P""'^-

powdery mildew begms

activities as as the foliage appears in the spring, and demands the same attention in controlling it as does apple scab,

^oon

3. Pink Spray. The pink spray is employed chiefly for the control of apple

Spray Program for Northwest Apple Orchards 1

Application Dormant Snrav.

Insect

and Plant Disease

Leaf roller

Brown

aphis.

San Jose

scale.

Oyster shell scale. 2.

Delayed Dormant Spray.

Apple scab Apple mildew

Brown aphis 3.

Pink Spray.

Apple scab Mildew Bud moth

4.

Calyx Spray.

Apple scab Mildew

5.

Ten-Day Spray.

Apple scab Mildew

6.

Thirty-Day Spray.

Codling moth

Apple scab Codling moth (if present) Green aphis ) Woolly aphis ) July Spj-ay. (Advisable in certain sections for) Codling moth For codling moth, add arsenate of lead, 4 to 100. Green aphis ) For green and woolly aphis, add tobacco, 1 to 1200. In applying this spray conWoolly aphis suit with your nearest expert. (See discussion for Spray 7.) J Third Codling Moth Spray. Codling moth For codling moth, add arsenate of lead, 4 to 100. anthracnose and late scab, add bordeaux mixture, 3-4-50. } Late"'sc'ab*^!^. For woolly aphis, add tobacco, 1 to 1200. Woolly aphis Date of application can only be told by seasonal development of codling moth through breeding cage studies. Get in touch with nearest entomological investigator. (See discussion for Spray 8.) Fall Spray. Anthracnose For anthracnose, bordeaux mixture, 6-6-50. Apply as soon as fruit is harvested. * If lime-sulphur does not test 32°, see accompanying table for the proper dilution. t Write Oregon Agricultural College for particulars in the preparation of self-boiled lime-sulphur. t Three pounds blucstone, four pounds lime, flftv gallons water. .

7.

8.

.

9.

Material and Time of Application For the leaf roller, miscible oil, 6 to 100. Use only in orchards where leaf roller control is desired or where San Jose scale is serious. Apply as late as possible in the spring, under warm, settled weather conditions. (See discussion for Spray 1.) For scab, lime-sulphur 32°, 1 to 25.* For mildew, add iron sulphide mixture, 10 to 100. For brown aphis, add tobacco (nicotine sulphate) 1 to 1200. Apply at time the first leaves are unfolding about the bud clusters on the fruit spurs. (See discussion for Spray 2.) For scab, lime-sulphur 32°, 1 to 30. For mildew, add iron sulphide mixture, 10 to 100. For bud moth, add arsenate of lead, 4 to 100 (powder 2 to 100). Do not apply until the fruit buds stand separated in the clusters (Figure 2). (See discussion for Spray 3.) For scab, lime-sulphur 32°, 1 to 3.5. For mildew, add iron sulphide, 10 to 100. For codling moth, add arsenate of lead, 4 to 100. Apply as soon as petals fall. (See discussion for Spray 4.) For scab, lime-sulphur 32°, 1 to 40. For mildew, add iron sulphide mixture, 10 to 100. Apply 10 to 15 days following calyx application. (See discussion for Spray 5.) For scab, lime-sulphur 32°, 1 to 50; or self-boiled lime-sulphur, 6-6-50. For codling moth, add arsenate of lead, 4 to 100. For green and woolly aphis, add tobacco, 1 to 1200. Apply 30 days following the calyx application. (See discussion for Spray 6.)

.

.

S

BETTER FRUIT

Page 14 In sections where the bud moth present arsenate of lead used in the standard dilutions should be added to Owing to the fact the lime-sulphur. that the entire developing apple cannot be completely covered with spray, and thereby given complete protection, until the young fruits have separated in the clusters, this spray should be delayed In until they sufficiently develop. large orchards, however, it will not be possible to wait until all of the spurs are in this condition. The orchardist should arrange his spraying so that the greatest proportion of the crop is scab. is

If sprayed while in this condition. mildew is severe add the iron sulphide

mixture. All orchardists are 4. Calyx Spray. familiar with the value of applying arsenate of lead at this period in the devolpment of the young apple. Apply the spray a few days following the dropping of the petals. Owing to the fact that it is necessary to protect the fruit from further scab infection, limeIn orchards sulphur must be used. where mildew control is a problem, continue the use of the iron sulphide mixture. 5. Ten-Day Spray. The so-called tenday or two-weeks spray is primarily used for furthering scab protection. It is through the use of this application and the following one that "shot fungus" or the appearance of numerous scab spots on the fruit, usually early in July, is prevented. It is a very important spray during most seasons and must not be omitted. This applica6. Thirty-Day Spray. tion is made just previous to the hatching of the first brood of codling moth and is therefore a very important appliDuring certain seasons it is cation. necessary to use a spray in order to prevent further scab development. The use of lime-sulphur is dangerous at this time, due to the possibility of burning, and before using it consult with the nearest investigator. We have been experimenting for two seasons with selfboiled lime-sulphur in this application and the preceding, and the results that have been obtained are very encouragScab control has resulted with ing. practically no fruit burn. The greatest difficulty so far encountered is that of Both the lime and the preparation. sulphur must be of good quality or the resulting product will contain many fine particles which clog up the nozzle.

The work which

is

to

8. August Spray. In many sections of the Northwest the lead spray for the control of the second brood of codling moth must be applied during this month. The exact date can only be determined by carefully conducted breeding observations, carried on by one familiar with the insect's activities. If your section is badly infested with worms, get an expert to carry on some breeding studies. To be effective during the time the eggs are hatching the spray must be applied at a time not to exceed a few days before the hatching of the first eggs, or the spray will lose its effectiveness before the later eggs are hatched. A lead spray at this time of the year is entirely efi"ective for a period not to exceed 21 to 25 days. If an application, therefore, is applied a couple of weeks before the eggs begin to hatch its extended effectiveness is greatly reduced. During some seasons eggs continue to hatch for a month or more, with a result that it is very essen-

put the spray on at just about the time. Bordeaux 3-4-50 can be added to the arsenate of lead. This, however, is only advised in orchards tial to

right

where anthracnose is causing considerable damage. Bordeaux has a tendency red apples, due to the fact that the sunlight is prevented from reaching the surface of the fruit and the apples do not color uniformly. Fall Spray. For the control of an9. thracnose the fall application of borto mottle

deaux mixture should immediately

low the harvesting of the

(This table

once put under complete congiven district, spraying every other year thereafter has been found sufficient in the Hood River sections to keep the trouble in check. This would probably be true of the activities of the Spores bedisease in other sections. come active follownig the early fall rains, and to get complete control the application should be made before these disease

is

trol in a

occur. *

prepared considering limc-sulphiir at 32° Beaunie as standard. Concentrates testing higlier or lower are arranged so tliat they will contain the same amonnt of sulphur in the diluted spray.) Thirly-Day Delayed DorPink Calyx Ten-Day mant Spray Spray Spray Spray Spray

is

Degrees

Beaume

1 to 28.3 1 to 27.5

36 35 34

to to 1 to 1 to 1 to 1 to a to 1 to 1 to 1 1

33

32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20

26.7 25.

25.0 24.2 23.3 22.5 21.6 20.8 20.0

to 19.1 1 to 18.3 1

to 17.4 1 to 16.5

to 15.8 1 to 15.0

1

*

1 to 34.1 1 to 33.1 1 1 1

1 1 1

1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1

1

to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to

1

to 40.0

1

32.1 31.0 30.0 28.9 27.8 26.7 25.7 24.5 23.5 22 4 2l!3 20.2 19.0 18.1 17.0

1 1 1

1

1 1

1 1

1 1 1 1 1 1 1

to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to

to 45.6

1 to 44.2 1 to 42.8 1 to 41.3

1 to 38.8

37.5 36.2 35.0 33.7 32.3 31.0 29.7 28.3 27.0 25.7 24.3 23.0 21.6 20.3 19.0

1 to 57.4 1

,

^

1

to 40.0

1

1 to 38.6

1

to to to to 1 to 1 to 1 to

1

1

1 1 1 1

1 to 1 to 1

to

1 to

to 55.6

1 to 53.7

37.1 35.6 34.2 32.8 31.3 30.0 28.7 27.2 25.8 24.5 23.0

1 1

1 1

1 1 1 1 1 1

51.9 50.0 48.2 46.4 44.5 42.7 41.0 39.0 37.2 35.4 33.5 31.7 30.0 to 2S.2

to to to to to to to to to to to to to

This table was kindly prepared by Mr. R. H. Robinson, Assistant Chemist, Oregon

Experiment

Station.

Oi'chard DiskiivdPa37s! AND THIS ORCHARD FOLDER TELLS Bigger and better crops this Season proper and deep cultivation with

C!I^ r*lc jiTaSLt*^

will result

from

ORCHARD IMPLEMENTS

harrows — double

We

WHY



single and with rigid frame make extension head disk also California Orchard Plow with reversible feature; at least one special orchard tool that fills wur needs. Write for this special folder on orchard tillage.

The Cittnway Harrow Co. 471 Main Street Hi£gaaum. Connecticut

5^. I

\

r,

IlllllllllllliirA"! lllHIll !!!!!" I"l .iirtlll

III..

mil

gon Agricultural College, Corvallis. 7.

July Spray.

This application

is

some sections

of the state for the control of codling moth. Keep in

needed

in

fol-

If this

fruit.

DILUTION TABLE FOR LIME-SULPHUR AT DIFFERENT DEGREES BEAUME

be continued

along this line during the coming season will clear up many of the difficulties so far encountered in the use of self-boiled lime-sulphur. For the preparation of this material write the Ore-

April

touch with your fruit inspector or investigator. At Hood River and most of the interior apple districts the hatching of the second brood of worms does not take place until August. During some

Northwest Distributors

seasons the green and woolly aphids become injurious during this month. Watch them closely and if they become

PORTLAND, OREGON

injurious spray.

WHEN WRITING

.\DVERTISERS

MENTION BETTER FRUIT



BETTER FRUIT

ipip

Page 15

Development of the Northwest Fruit Industry By W.

S.

Thomber, Director Extension Service State College of Washington. Pullman, Wash.

THK

fruit-growing industry of the Pacific Northwest is gradually coming back to its normal condition and will soon again take a very important place in the agriculture of the Pacific Northwest. Like all branches of agriculture, fruit growing has had to experience a period of comparatively small activity and development, and

with the close of the war and the desire of

men

return to agricultural purinterest has been shown in the development of the fruit interests of the Pacific Northwest during the suits

past

to

more

four months than has

or

three

been apparent

in the past three years.

Those familiar with the importance of the industry realize that with the millions of dollars invested in this industry the opportunities for development by increased acreage and the possibilities of favorable climate, soil and conditions for the production of fruit, the industry will gradually assume a very important phase in the agriculture of the Northwest. Thousands of acres of orchard have been neglected or pulled out not only in the East, but as well here in the Northwest during the past three years. People are again beginning to demand more fruit in the diet and it is very evident that this will tend to make the industry not only an important but a good, substantial fundamental branch of our Western

suitable kinds or varieties in districts

where fruit is uncertain should be converted into alfalfa, corn, sugar-beets or other farm crop land and great care should be exercised in the planting of new districts to see that only those districts which have all the factors necessary for success be largely devoted to fruit

growing.

During the past twelve or fourteen years, the industry has developed from that of a pure apple industry to diversified horticulture, and now in the Pacific Northwest are included European and American grape plantations, cherry orchards, peach orchards, pear orchards and small fruits like strawberries, loganberries, blackberries, raspberries and currants, and even the culture of nuts, including almonds, filberts and English walnuts.

A COMING FRUIT DISTRICT Robert Paulus of the Salem Fruit Union gave The Chicago Packer man interesting facts when calling there a few days ago. According to Mr. Paulus the apple acreage of the Willamette and Umpqua valleys coming into bearing this coming season will be more than 10,000 acres. Last season the output of dried prunes was between

some

58,000,000

and 59,000,000 pounds.

Washington, the Wa.shington prune district .just across the Columbia River from Portland. One hundred cars of apples were shipped from these two valleys mentioned above and should increase to 2,000 cars within the next two or three years.

of Great Merit for Table

or Canning WELLINGTON'S MARVEL was

Owners

tricts where fruit production is favorable can it be made a success worthy of consideration. Lands planted to un-

V



1

9 ^

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Portland Seed



Company

i!

«

p

J

'*

J.

purposes.

KEEP BEES! HONEY

IS

PRICE OF PLANTS— 3

We

THE BEST

— sr (u THE GARDEN GUIDE

more Wholesome and Delicious.

a>i(i is

I'rice

Tells

you own an orchard or keep bees, IFyou should have a copy of our Cataeverything for the successful handling of bees and the production of honey. We are pioneers in the bee supply business in the Northwest, are thoroughly familiar with local requirements and carry a large and complete stock.

for Catalog No.

11

Order now.

r

r

— 400 pages,kinds fully illustrated. how to grrow of vegetables 75c

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and flowers successfully; illu'Strates the art of pruning and training grapes, shrubs and vines, the making of window and porch boxes, etc., etc. It is the best book of its kind we have ever looked into worth iloUar.s, onjy "."lO I'o.stpaid.

It lists

»

for 25c; 12 for 75c; 100 for $5.00 postpaid.

have the exclusive sale of originator's true stock.

M3U' HOOK

SUBSTITUTE FOR SUGAR

Ask

originated

by Wellington S. Butler, of Merlin, Or., a strawberry specialist. We have the exclusive sale of all his plants, and take great pleasure in introducing this really superb and meritorious new variety. In all our experience and observation, we have never seen the equal of the "Marvel" in color. shape, size and quality. The ripe berries command instant attention on account of the bright, fresh, delightful appearance. The commercial grower who gets a start of this variety anftl markets the fruit, will reap a rich harvest. BEST BY TEST If we were to tell you how far ahead, how superior, the "Marvel" is over Clarks, Magoons, Oregon and Gold Dollar and such varieties, you would scarcely believe it. We claim there is no comparison at all. The "Marvel" is in a class by itself, and head and shoulders above all in Beauty, Flavor, and Production. A trial will convince you. CANNING As a canning berry or for crushed fruit flavor it has no equal. It maintains its shape, color and aroma, making it the leading berry for these

and operators should not misunderstand this activity and feel that any kind of land will bring good returns, because only on land planted fo proper varieties in disof orchards

WesternAgents A. 1. ROOT CO.'^t

This

includes the output of Clarke County,

MARVEL New Strawberry

The

activities.

log.

It is my opinion that there will be greater development in the fruit industry during the next four or five years than in any other single branch of agriculture.

FREE

Catalogue

Out 160-page Illustrated and Descriptive Catalogue will be of great value to you in the selection of the best seeds, plants and supplies, for Western buyers. Free on request.

203

You can keep bees anv place where they can forage ivithin a mile.

PORTl^AJ

14S 147 2^ St. WHEN

Port-land Ore

WRITIN'G ADVERTISERS MENTION BETTER FRUIT

6

Page

BETTER FRUIT

1

Does Fruit Tree Spray Injure or From

letters have come to my desk of late, says the editor of the American Bee Journal, which have to do with the poisoning of bees from the spraying of fruit trees while in bloom. In New Mexico it seems that a bill is pending in the legislature which provides a penalty for the application of spray poisons to the fruit trees before 90 per cent of the blossoms have fallen. A few states have passed similar laws and several others, after considering such measures, have refused to enact them. At one time I used my influence for the passage of such a bill in Iowa, although I must confess that I was not enthusiastically in favor of it. Since that time I have investigated the matter somewhat and now doubt whether such laws are desirable. Here in America we have come to look upon "laws" as the cure for every ill. Every day we hear somebody say that there should be a law passed prohibiting this or that. Perhaps we will learn in time that the mere passage of a law does not always remedy our troubles.

In the case of spraying, so many beekeepers report the loss of bees from the spraying of fruit trees while in bloom that there must be some cause for com-

However,

seems

it

to

Bees

the American Bee Journal

SEVERAL

plaint.

Kill

me, after

looking into the thing, that a law is not In the first place, the proper remedy the passage of such a law is resented by the fruit growers as being aimed espeInstead of developing cially at them. harmonious action it has the opposite .

The interests of the fruit grower and of the beekeeper are mutual. It is effect.

recognized that bees are necessary to

insure proper pollenization of fruit blossoms. It is also taught by most entomologists and horticulturists that the best time to spray is after the petals have fallen. Not only may the bees be poisoned, but the fertilization of the blossoms may be retarded or to some extent prevented by spraying before that time.

This being the case, what we need is not a law punishing the man who reduces his own crop and kills his neighbor's bees by improper spraying, but an educational campaign to give proper instruction in the application of the poison. The fruit growers are as anxious to teach the mass of small orchardists to use spraying materials as the beekeepers are to induce every bee man to treat foulbrood. The enactment of a law prohibiting spraying at any time may easily discourage its being done at all. In this case the fruit business has been injured.

There are few fruit growers, progresenough to spray their fruit trees,

sive

who will be purposely disposed to injure the bees on which they are dependent as an agency in the fertilization of their fruit. Instead of trying to force through a law against spraying while the trees are in bloom, the bee men and fruit growers should meet and agree upon a campaign of education in diswhere spraying is improperly done. Such a campaign will result in great benefit to both the fruit grower and the beekeeper, and should leave both with the best of feelings toward tricts

each other.

When,

sometimes happens, the committees ask for definite proof of the injury to bees from this cause, the beekeepers find it difficult to Our senior editor prove their case. once served as a member of an Illinois delegation to appear in behalf of such a measure. The chairman of the legiscommittee was an extensive lative orchardist, who seemed disposed to be very fair in the matter He asked for proof of injury to the beekeeper, and when an attempt was made to furnish specific cases which could be laid to this cause the beekeepers were unable "We are a little in the to find them. dark as to just how much the bees are injured from this cause and here is a place where our experiment stations can render some real service to both fruit growers and beekeepers by making extensive and careful tests as to the as

legislative

?WVTEr\?

.

NURSERY STOCK Apples, pears, peaches, cherries, walnuts and all kinds of stock and plants. No Agents; we sell direct; save you 50%, try us; 29 years in business. Send for planters price list.

CARLTON NURSERY

CO.

CARLTON, OREGON

WHEN WRITING

ADVERTISERS MENTION BETTER FRUIT

extent of the injury, the time when bees are poisoned, and also in searching for Judge Taylor, of Yakima, a remedy. Washington, suggests that since the arsenate of lead is said to be sweet, the bees may be attracted to it at times when the trees are not in bloom. He also suggests the possibility of adding to the spray some repellant which is obnoxious to the bees, and thus prevent them from taking it at any time. From Washington comes the report that the greatest loss is not at the time when the trees are in full bloom, but

April during the subsequent spraying for the second and third broods of codling moth. The injury seems to be worse in dry sections, where water is not easily available, which indicates that the bees in search of water for brood rearing at times suck up the newly applied poison. Until we have more definite information on which to base our demands for legal protection, let us appeal for help to the extension departments of our agricultural colleges in spreading information and to the experiment stations to ascertain true conditions.

Sends Fruit

Man

Europe

to

Apple growers throughout the Northwest will be keenly interested to learn of the forward step taken by the association at Hood River, Oregon. This organization was among the very first to recognize the opportunity for growth and expansion of its distribution through intelligent European trade connections. Now that conditions are rapidly becoming normal, Sales Manager McCullagh recommended to the board of directors of the association that Dwight

Woodruff, their New York district manager, visit the United Kingdom, France, Belgium, Norway, Sweden, DenL.

and, if advisable, other European countries, with instructions to carefully

mark

study trade conditions and obtain

hand information

as

to

first

undeveloped

business possibilities. Mr. Woodruff left New York late in March, expecting to be away from America until about July 1. On his return Better Fruit hopes to furnish its readers with a synopsis report covering this extended trip, which we feel sure will be of unusual benefit to the apple industry.

SULPHUR

It has been proven and recommended by the University of California that if you sulphur your grape vines and orchards 6 times they will not be

so

m

50

]

KILOS] IBS. 100% PURE i

affected by

MILDEW

or

RED SPIDERS.

ANCHOR

Brand Vel-

vet Flowers of Sulphur,

also

EAGLE

Brand,

Fleur de Soufre, packed in double sacks, are the fluffiest

and

PUREST

sulphurs that money can buy; the best for vine-

yards; the best for bleaching purposes. LEAVING NO ASH. Try our new brand of

'^tcisrrftto

VENTILATED

Sublimed

Sulphur, 100 per cent pure, for making — (Atomic Sulphur) and for Dusting.

Paste

For Lime-Sulphur Solution, use our DIA-

MOND "S" Brand Refined Flour Sulphur. We can furnish you this sulphur at such a low price that It will pay you to mix your own solution.

To create additional available plant food, drill into the soil 100 to 400 pounds per acre of our Diamond "S" Brand Powdered Sulphur. It has been proven that sulphur has creased various crops up to 350%.

in-

Write immediately to

San Francisco Sulphur Co. 624 California St. We are equipped to make

San Francisco,

Cal.

Immediate shipment. Send for Illustrated booklet, price-list and samples, and please state for what purpose you use the sulphur, quantity needed, and Tel. Kearny 871. date of shipment preferred.

WHEN WRITING

ADVERTISERS MENTION BETTER FRUIT

J

BETTER FRUIT

ipip

^

Page

Arse 17 ate

of

Lead

^

^

Tt7e Universal Insecticide "Corona Dry"

is full

strength poison— no

filler

on the trees— goes

or waste.

It

distributes evenly

It

sticks to the foliage through rain or shine.

It

has been used by leading orchardists since 1912.

far.

the choice of many leading fruit associations placing huge co-operative orders.

It is

"Corona Dry"

man believes in enjoying ;ife. He lives in the country

This

hut he has the advantage of tlie city His home isequipped with kitchen sinks, hot and cold water, modern bath room, sanitary toilet, wash room. Kis garden nas taps here and there and his dairyhouse and barn has running water where needed It cuts down his own work and very much reduces the work of the women folks.

will help to

when

make your

orchards more profitable Write us a postal and we'll explain why. Ask also for the useful "Corona Spraying Schedule."

Corona Sulphur FOR USE WITH

Corona Arsenate A

highly refined pure sulphur reduced to an impalpable powder specially for dusting purposes. The use of this in the summer season for fungus diseases of fruit and vegetables is equally as effective as Lime-Sulphur; is more easily applied and there are no harmful results as it is a pure, non-poison-

ous sulphur. You can buy Corona products from your local dealer.

He

likes it, his wife likes it, and his children like it. He had the goodness of judg-

•^ent to invest in a

CORONA J I

CHEMICAL

CO.J

Dept. B

,

,

WATER SYSTEM Hundreds of these systems are making country homes brighter and more comfortable. They are economical,

0

dtpendable, simple If you have a well, cistern, sprinu or creek on your place you can have runnine water in your home. We guarantee satisfaction.

Now

the cnap below believes in 'celtinc alone v.ith things as they are." His wife totes water from the well, lifts the pail a

hundredtimesaday Hespends hours pumpingwaterfor stock

when he has other thincs to do. His children leave forthe city as soon as they can get away where they can "at least have a ftw comforts." Don't you think you'd better take our tip and send your

name and

addre.e'i. for

Free Book Nc.JO " Threuih

thr

Etf

e/ thi

our

called Lamira.

Mitchell, Lewis

&

Staver Co. Portland, Or. Spokane and Boise

"

Corona Dry and Corona Dusting Sulphur Mixed

by measure, is a complete and satisfactory summer dust spray and fungus diseases; more easily, quickly and effectively applied than other sprays, and is much more economical.

in equal parts

for insect pests

"Garden Pests and about

and full information mailed on request.

their Control"

"CORONA"

tJ)OKnlDSElD(07i' WHEN WRITING

ADVERTISERS ME.NTIO.N BETTER FRUIT

I

BETTER FRUIT

Page i8

BETTER FRUIT An

Illustrated Magazine Devoted to the Interests of Modern Fruit Growing and Marketing.

Published Monthly

by

Better Fruit Publishing Company 407

Lumber Exchange

PORTLAND, OREGON

Early Prospects for Fruit. Reports on the early prospects for the Northwest fruit crop are optimistic. For the first time in several years the fruit grower, the expert in horticulture and the fruit shipper of the Pacific Northwest and the fruitmen of California also are hopeful. This new beam of sunlight in the fruit-growing industry is due somewhat to the success attained last year but not altoFruitmen generally are now gether. feeling that the fruit industry has been more nearly stabilized and standardized and that new markets at home and abroad promise a much greater consumption. The favorable wintering of all fruits is

also a factor.

While the optimistic tone of the outlook for fruit crops in 1919 more particularly applies to orchard products, there seems to a be a general feeling among all fruitmen that the coming season should be a good one. From Oregon, Washington, Idaho and California come reports containing great expectations. In presenting these interesting reports to its readers Better Fruit takes occasion to warn them that the season is yet young and that many things may occur to cut down the ex-

pected output considerably. The course of the Northwest fruit grower, therefore, should be to bend every energy toward guarding against all contingencies as far as possible. The success attained last year and the promising outlook for 1919 should be the signal for renewed effort instead of a let-down due to over-optimism caused by the splendid prospects for the fruit industry during the coming season. Retain your optimism but let your watchword be "EfTiciency," with a big E.

Future Apple Production.

A tree census just completed in the State of Washington shows a marked reduction in the acreage of fruit trees since the last census was taken in 1915. The greatest reduction according to the census is shown in peach trees, which in some districts have declined in numbers 50 per cent. While figures for apple trees do not show such a startling decline, still the reduction throughout the state runs into a large total. In four of the large fruit-growing counties in Washington the loss is given as 7,000 acres. In these same counties the number of apple trees has declined from 2,678,172 in 1915 to 2,288,490 in 1918. Oregon, Idaho and Utah do not show such large losses in apple acreage as Washington, but the number of trees that have been eliminated runs into thousands of acres. For the past three years the planting of new apple orchards in the Northwest has practically ceased and although a considerable

acreage of apples will come into bearing in the next few years it will be a negligible quantity as compared to that which has been uprooted. The world war has also resulted in the loss of an enormous number of fruit trees. In France alone the destruction of apple and pear orchards has been enormous, and it will be many years before these orchards can be replanted and brought to the stage of productivity that existed previous to the war. What is true of France in respect to its fruit production is also true in all the other foreign countries which were

by battling armies. These countries will need l^ruit, and the only nation that can largely supply it is the overrun

United States.

The cause of the diminution in apple acreage in the Northwest has of course been due to the planting of orchards in sections where neither the climate or soil was adapted to their successful propagation, and also to bad market conditions, during a period of several years previous to 1917 and 1918. With these facts and figures in mind it would seem that the "overproduction fear" which harassed the apple grower for several years has to a large extent been eliminated. Over-optimistic orchardists and promoters of apple lands to be sold regardless of their productive qualities have learned their lesson. Increase in orchard acreage in future will be studied carefully with a view to supplying actual demand instead of ex-

ceeding

it.

Apple Powdery Mildew. a new apple-tree disease apple powdery mildew is now assuming such proportions in some of Although not

the

Pacific

Northwest

fruit-growing

districts that it is becoming recognized as being as serious as scab, anthracnose

and other more common diseases that Its most the apple tree is heir to. serious result is a general devitalization of the tree with a consequent lowering of output and the production of inferior fruit. Better Fruit, through the courtesy of D. F. Fisher, Assistant Pathologist of Fruit Tree Investigations of the U. S. Department of Agriculture, presents in this issue a very able article on this subject one of the first to be published. As Mr. Fisher not only describes the general symptoms of the disease in detail, but also prescribes a remedy, apple growers where it is



found to exist should be enabled to combat its ravages in the early stages, the most effective time to fight fruit-tree diseases of any character.

The

New Remedy

for Pear Blight.

In discovering that cyanide of mer-

April the tools used in cutting and frequently transmitting the disease to trees that were sound or only slightly affected. After experimenting with various disinfectants Mr. Reimer tried cyanide of mercury. The results have been so beneficial that they should lead growers in pear blight infected districts to become extremely hopeful of eradicating this fatal tree disease.

The Small-Fruit Grower. While apple growing has occupied the center of the stage in the fruit producing industry of the Northwest for some years, owing to the big tonnage shipped and the large income received from this fruit, it is now apparent that ilie smaller fruits are going to play a very important part in the Pacific Northwest in the near future. Prunes and berries of all varieties are going to take their place alongside the apple as an income producer on a big scale, for a new factor has entered the field for the small-fruit man. In addition to his market for the fresh fruit, the small-fruit grower is going to have that of the canner and the juice, jelly and jam producing plant on a scale never before attempted and it is safe to say that he is going to get a profitable price for his product. A nation-wide advertising campaign has already created a strong demand for the products of Northwest small fruits, and this advertising campaign will be made even more extensive this year. The opportunity, therefore, is ripe for the fruit grower who may not have made a success in the larger fruits to grow a product that should bring



him quick and

.sure returns. will be the aim of Better Fruit to keep the fruit grower informed on this new phase of fruit raising as thoroughly as it has on the orchard fruits. It calls the attention of its readers to a number of special articles in this issue on the subject of small fruits, believing that opportunity of the small-fruit the It

grower

hand.

The Apple Growers' Calendar Spray well that your fruit will be free of insect pests and other causes that will affect its quality.

Thin

make

it

that the size of your fruit will all

marketable.

Prune that you may let in the sunand give it the color necessary to

light

place

it

in the extra

fancy

class.

Cultivate that you trees may receive the necessary moisture and nourishment to develop and mature their burden of fruit during the growing season.

cury apparently is an effective remedy for pear blight F. C. Reimer has given the fruit grower a boon of incalculable value. Heretofore the only known remedy for blight was to use the knife so freely that in many instances the trees were ruined, or if very badly infected had to be cut down and burned. Of all the tree diseases pear blight is perhaps the most infectious and the most deadly, the germ even clinging to

is at

Irrigate

if soil

moisture in your dis-

but remember that there such a thing as using too much water.

trict is lacking, is

The value of bees in or near an orchard has been admitted by fruit growers for a long time. A little cooperation between the orchardist and bee keeper therefore ought to result in mutual good.

BETTER FRUIT

19 19

Northwest Receives Big Returns on Apples final leluins for llie 1918 apple crop in the Northwest which are now being completed show that growers generally throughout this district had a very profitable season.

Yakima Ships Over

Tin-:

Hood River Average .$1.87 According to the report of Manager A. W. Stone of the Hood River Apple Growers' Association, which was delivered to the growers Saturday, March 8th, the gross returns to the association were the largest in its history, totaling .?2,102,900.90. The detailed income from all sources was as follows: Stores, 4'?290,000; apples, 1,520,000; strawberries, i?120,288.42; pears, .$106,-

998.18; cherries, $14,875.75; raspberries, $151.70; loganberries, .$77.92; gooseberries, $3; prunes and plums, $9.75; blackberries, $752.13; crabapples, $248.38; quinces, $65.74; ice, $9,500. The report showed that the pools on all varieties of apples except Newtowns had been closed, and that with the exception of this variety the average price for all grades and sizes was $1.87 per box, the highest received in Hood River since 1911. The final returns on Newtowns, it is expected, will make this average somewhat higher. In his report Mr. Stone digressed from his formal report to pay a high tribute to the local experiment station. "The experiment station," said Mr. Stone, "is the valley's most valuable institution. This report shows it to have returned the orchardists of this valley thousands of dollars last year. Its permanency will increase its value, and for their recent legislation we owe I the legislature a debt of gratitude. urge on all of you growers to make the fullest use of this institution." •





«

Apples at Wenatchee Practically complete returns have now been received from every grower $9,.500,000 for

Wenatchee fruit-growing district, including Chelan, Okanogan, Douglas and Grant Counties, for the sea.son of 1918. This report shows that a total of 8,350 cars of apple were produced, in the

besides 1,237 cars of summer fruits, or a total of 9,587 cars. The total gross return to the grower is given as $1.65 per box for apples of all grades and varieties, or a total of $9,500,000 for 6,400,000 boxes. The 1,237 cars of soft fruit returned approximately $2,000,000

growers. total acreage of bearing orchard in the district, both apples and summer fruit, is shown to be slightly less than 35,000 acres. This indicates an average yield of $325 per acre for every acre of land in fruit in the district, good, bad and indifferent. By-product factories in the district used 250 cars of apples, 300 cars were shipped to other factories in the slate, to the

The

and the remainder went out as commercial fruit. The total loss from

worms was about

8 per cent, instead of 25 per cent, as predicted early in the season. About 650 cars of apples remain in the district.

from 15

10,000 Cars

Fruit shipments out of Yakima passed the 10,000-carload mark during February, when it is estimated that 441 cars left the vallev over both the Northern Pacific and O.W. R. & N. Railroads. This is an average of about one car a day better than January, when 415 carloads were shipped out. Records of the total amount of fruit rolled throughout the 1918-1919 season show: November 30, 8,425; 31,

December

9,890;

31, 9,475;

Februarv

28

January

(estimated),

10,301.

Page 19 $4 for

Yakima Winesaps

On March 12th two carloads of Yakima apples were sold on the regular a box. They were 4 and extra fancy Winesaps. This is to date the highest price ever obtained for carload lots of apples in the history of the fruit-growing industry in this valley. Of late the price has been creeijing to within hailing distance of the even $4 mark. There are hopes in the breasts of a few holders of the fast diminishing slocks that even $4..50 will be reached. Two weeks ago $3.75 was paid for two carloads of similar fruit, and a couple of cars of extra large, extra fancy brought $3.90.

market for $4

'\\'>

tier

Interesting Notes on the Fruit Industry third biennial report of the DeTHE partment of Agriculture of the State

apple crop of this year, a tonnage of almost 1100 carloads of fruit was

of Washington, just issued, contains an orchard census of the slate. This census is taken every two years. The last report shows a total of Of 6,617,785 apple trees in the state. these 1,904,032 were Winesaps, 1,343,720

moved to points more noticeable

were Jonathans,

777,,582

were Rome

Beauties, 555,064 were Delicious, and 449,426 were Spitz. The fourth horticultural district, in-

cluding Chelan, Okanogan, Douglas and Grant Counties, led the state in the number of apple trees with 2,664,047 trees of all

An

varieties.

interesting

comparison is found by comparing the orchard census for the Wenatchee district, recently completed by District Horticultural Inspector P. S. Darlington with that of three years ago, which was the last one made. This shows that the total acreage in fruit in the four Counties of Chelan, Okanogan, Douglas and Grant has decreased from 41,711 in 1915 to 34,815, a loss in total acreage of about 7,000. The number of apple -trees has declined from 2,678,172 in 1915 to 2,288,490 in 1918.

Peach trees have decreased in number from 108,382 in 1915 to 51,977 last year, a loss of over 50 per cent. «

The Idaho

*

*

*

of distribution with a celerity than in the past seven years. Almost 75 per cent of the tonnage of the valley had been shipped by December 20, and nearly 50 per cent of the apples remaining in the big cold-storage plants of the Association had been sold by that date.

The first shipment of "Shepard's Fruit Concentrates" will probably be made from the new plant of the Shepard Fruit Products Company at Wenatchee, W'asbington, within the next few days. After many unexpected delays the factory is finally ready to manufacture apple concentrates in large quantities. The factory will use from 20 to 25 tons of fruit daily. A forcp of about twenty-five people will be employed during the balance of the season. *

*

figures

little planting of apples in the last five years. The prune acreage has increased greatly, however, due to adaptability of the red hill lands to this fruit and to the high prices of the last few years. The Italian prune is the only variety planted.

State Horticultural Associ-

ation at ils recent meeting at Boise had 48 boxes of apples contributed by the growers for aclvertising purposes, for distribution to the newspaper men and the legislature, and to the visiting pubAlthough 1918 was an oil" lic to eat. year for the Boise valley and Payette district, yet certain orchards more favorably located secured full crops. J. P. Gray came down from Mesa in the Council district with an exhibit of 28 boxes of apples of remarkably high quality in five varieties. These orchards of 1200 acres just coming into bearing produced about fifty carloads of apples in the year 1918; they also shipped out many carloads of peaches. The outlook for a successful year for the fruit industry in the Payette and Boise valleys is regarded as very favorable this year.

Richey& Gilbert Co. H. M. GILBERT, President and Manager

Grower* and Shippers of

Yakima Valley Fruits and Produce SPECIALTIES: An>l*St Peaches, Pears and Cantaloupes

TOPPENISH. WASHINQTON

Nice Bright Western Pine

FRUIT BOXES AND CRATES Good itandard

grades. Well made. Quick shipment*.

Carloads or

to

Without the the

*

compiled by the Dallas, Oregon, Commercial Club show

Complete

movement

slightest

of the

congestion in

Hood River

valley

less.

Get our prices.

Western Pine Box Sales Co. SPOKANE. WASH

Page 20

BETTER FRUIT

The Pear a Coming Fruit

for

April

Western Oregon

By M. M. McDonald, President Oregon Nursery Company subject of the pear in Western THE Oregon one that worthy of our is

is

best study and investigation, and I believe there are many things we can say about the pear and do with it that will be of vital interest to horticulture. In the first place, I think it is pretty well understood, and generally admitted, that the pear succeeds as well in

Oregon and our Coast country as it does in any other part of the United States, and that we have growing in these Western valleys the greatest varieties of pears of any place in America. Therefore, this country must be well adapted for pear growing, and it follows that the subject should have a place in your deliberations. We have only recently been producing pears in such quantities in these valleys that

we

have been able to reach the commercial markets of the world; in fact, we have given but

little

attention to the subject

of varieties, production and marketing of pears. It is true that in the Rogue River, and some of the other Southern valleys, they have been growing pears in a commercial way and shipping in carlots, but throughout the state generally, I do not believe the same attention has been given to the pear that has

been given to some other fruits. It is one of the fruits that lends itself well to small acreage. It seems to thrive better in the back-door lot and out in the open than when growing in large orchards; and in these small backdoor lots there is growing a great deal of fruit of splendid quality that never reaches the consumer. Our trouble seems to be that no adequate provision has been made for marketing it when grown in a limited way. True, in cer-

where

canneries are best of the fruit is taken, but thousands of tons of the most luscious of all fruits is allowed to go to waste every year for the lack of proper tain localities established, the

marketing

facilities.

We

need better

co-operative marketing systems for taking care of the production of the small grower, for every time a ton of pears, for instance, goes to waste there is just so much wealth lost to the community, for it is only when labor receives its just returns for the effort put forth that it can turn the result of that labor into the regular channels of trade and thereby add its part to the wealth of the nation as a whole. We hear a great deal these days about creating positions agricultural for our boys when they come back from the front. We also hear a great deal about the back-to-the-soil movement for them. But people cannot live by just producing things from the soil. We must create the machinery that will convey these products, when grown, to the market that is hungry for them and return to the producer a fair amount for his labor and interest on his investment. Therefore, it would seem as if we ought to try to create conditions that will allow a man to plant and care for his trees and wait a reasonable time for them to come into bearing. As some

of us grow older, we realize that it takes time to produce fruit profitably. In our earlier years, we had an idea that we could plant an orchard this year and next year harvest the crop. As time goes on, I believe we will more and more come to a realization of the fact that the production of tree fruits is a permanent investment that takes years to come to full fruitage an investment to hand down to our children. To my mind, we are planting all of our orchard trees too close together. By the time they come into bearing, both roots and tops are interlocking



and

exhaustion has already set in. is a heavy producer under proper conditions and a gross feeder; consequently, when planted close together they soon exhaust the available plant food and are impoverished. If we are going to produce the pear at its best, we must extend the distance between the trees, allowing more soil area for each tree, and by so doing produce larger crops and more money per acre. In our Western valleys and Coast country, there is none of our tree fruits that gives a surer annual crop than does the pear, and j^et it has received but little attention in a general way. What I mean is, there is less information readily available for the use of the average planted than for other fruits. We want to know more about the pear; the soil

The pear

best varieties to plant in different soils and different localities; the best kinds to plant for shipping and the best for

canning.

my

opinion that more attention should be given to the subject of canning the pear that is, from the standpoint of the grower. It is true the canneryman knows all about what he It is



wants from his standpoint.

He makes

arbitrary rules to protect his own interests without any regard for the interest of the producer or the consumer. To illustrate: Last season we had a

very large crop of Bartletts, as fine fruit as ever grew, but on account of climatic conditions the fruit was not as large as usual and a large percentage did not come up to the standard set by the canneries. Consequently, there was no market for this under-sized fruit, fruit that had just as good food values as the larger grade. The average consumer would be- just as well served if the smaller size were canned and the producer would realize a profit instead Better provision must be of a loss. made to take care of the small producer in years when there is a surplus and the crop, from climatic conditions, does not come up to the usual standard. If

be brought to its highthen fruit must be produced by the small grower, who, with the help of his own family, does all of his own work and harvests his own crop. He needs, and must have, assistance in marketing in a co-operative way. He must be allowed to get orcharding

is to

est state of perfection,

fair returns for his labor ment, and this he cannot do

and investunder some

made in regard grades because he cannot always conditions surrounding the control If the small growing of his crop. grower is to be allowed to survive, we of the arbitrary rulings

to

some method that will market in these off years when for some reason, climatic or otherwise, his crop has run largely below the standard rule established. must

devise

assure

him

a

Canned Goods Prices Adjusted.

A

price

final

$12,000,000

which were

adjustment

covering

of canned goods released from government

worth

reservation some time ago has been decided upon in Washington, according to the announcement of H. Clay Miller, who has just returned after having taken part in the conferences. He says that the price adjustment has been highly satisfactory to the canneries, especially in the matter of tomatoes, which at one time promised to be a burden.

Hy WADE 5aw5 Four Cordi an Houn with

"The Wade

is

and

as

it,

it's

certainly the fanner's friend. good as the day I bought it."

Why break your

I have cut 1600 cords of yellow Jir wood

— Dan Ross, Corbett, Oregon.

back sawing wood by hand, when the power-

Portable Gasoline Drag Saw will outsaw JO men at one-tenth thecost! Li(;ht, simple, economical. Cuts wood of any size. Averages 8 cords of gasoline. Thousands of Wades now in use. When not gallon to a sawing wood, the 4 h. p. engine will operate other light machinery.

ful little

Wade

Wade

WHEN WRITING

Portable Gasoline

Drag Saw

ADVERTISERS MENTION BETTER FRUIT

BETTER FRUIT

ipip

Soil By

Treatments for Mature Apple Orchards B. S. Pickett, Chief in

ALTHOUGH

cultivation

Pomology of is

the Illinois Agricultural Experiment Station

especially

bencticial in young orchards, it often produces marked results in old orchards. Orchards which have stood several years in sod, even when they have begun to decline in vigor, are often stimulated to new production by tillage. If the soil is naturally fertile and there is no special local reason for not cultivating, such as danger of washing on steep slopes, cultivation may be expected to stimulate fruiting of the trees. Cultivation should consist in plowing either in the fall or early spring to a depth of four or five inches at the point farthest from the trees, running somewhat shallower close to the trees; or disking may be substituted for plowing, especially where tractors are used. Plowing should be followed by spring cultivation with disks and harrows to work the ground to a smooth, wellpulverized condition. Two or three successive cultivations sufTiciently thor-

keep down weeds and maintain should be given at intervals of about two weeks. Cultivation should cease some time between June 15 and July 1, depending on latitude and local

ough

Page 21

to

tilth

conditions; after which the weeds and natural grass should be allowed to grow unchecked in order to shade the ground and form a cover crop for winter. To facilitate the securing of the crop, this wild growth should be mown just before harvest.

Mulching Mulching will successfully take the place of cultivation in bearing orchards, where sufficient suitable material can

be brought in to make a covering deep enough to conserve soil moisture and the rootlets and root hairs, which work close to the surface of the soil in a mulched orchard and are endangered by intense heat in midsumprotect

mer. Eight to ten inches of loose straw, waste or damaged hay, leaves, shredded corn stalks, shredded weeds, or other suitable waste materials such as shredded brush, which later will compact to a depth of one and one-half to three inches, will provide a suitable mulch. The grass and weeds already growing in a sod orchard provide some mulching material if, when mown, they are

raked under the trees or allowed

to lie

where they fall. In only rare cases, however, where this growth is unusually heavy, does this mulch provide covering for the purpose. is advised where steepness of slope makes cultivation impracti-

sufficient

Mulching

cable; in thin soils, where root growth is close to the surface and it would be seriously injured by cultivation; or where, for various local reasons, the grower prefers to use it instead of cultivation.

If a

from

mulching system

is to

be

precautions

against injury mice and fire must be taken.

practiced,

Fertilizing

Neither cultivation nor mulching will render an orchard productive if the soil supplies an inadequate amount of plant food to the trees. It is necessary, therefore, that the fruit grower determine, without delay, whether or not his trees need plant food in order that he may obtain the desired results quickly. It has been amply demonstrated that nitrogen is usually the controlling element in apple production. If the trees in an orchard are growing rapidly and bearing poorly, the orchard is almost certainly oversupplied with nitrogen. Steps should be taken, therefore, to check the supply by seeding the orchard to grass, thus providing an intercrop which will divert some of the nitrogen that would otherwise go to the trees. On the other hand, if the trees are

growing slowly and producing small leaves which yellow or fall early, and are bearing poorly, they are almost certainly inadequately supplied with nitrogen. A deficiency in nitrogen may be made up in several ways, among the most important of which are, first, the liberation of the unavailable nitrogen present in the organic matter of the soil through the improvement of soil conditions by drainage and cultivation; and, second, the addition of fertilizers carrying nitrogen. Stable manure supplies from 10 to 15 pounds of slowly available nitrogen per ton, depending on its kind, moisture content, amount of litter present, and other conditions. Leguminous green manures supply from 8 to 11 pounds of slowly available nitrogen

per ton of green crop. Dried blood supplies from 200 to 280 pounds of quickly available nitrogen per ton. Sulfate of

ammonia supplies from .390 to 420 pounds of very quickly available nitroNitrate of soda supplies pounds of immediately available nitrogen per ton. Of the fertilizers above mchtioned, stable manure is especially valuable in building up orchard soils depleted in organic matter and general fertility and in stimulating a rapid growth in young orchards. Leguminous green manures are most useful in orchards where the trees are still small enough to give room for a good growth of the crop used. Like stable manure, they add organic matter to the soil and improve its general fertility. Among the more strictly commercial fertilizers mentioned, nitrate of soda has come into the widest use for

gen per ton.

from 300

to 320

orchard purposes and has sufliciently proved its value in many experimental and commercial orchards to warrant a rather general recommendation of its use in unproductive apple orchards in this state. On this account and because of the widespread interest in its effects,

somewhat

detailed instructions for

Nitrate of Soda as a Fertilizer for Apple

Orchards Quantity to apply: Trees to ten years old, growing well, none. Trees five to ten years old, growing poorly, half to two pounds per tree. Trees ten to fifteen years old, growing well, none. Trees ten to fifteen years old, growing poorly, two to three pounds per tree.

Trees fifteen

to

twenty years

old,

growing well, none. Trees fifteen to twenty years old, five to six pounds per

growing poorly, tree.

Old trees persistently unproductive, twenty pounds per tree. Old trees declining in productivity, five to ten pounds per tree. The quantity should vary from year to year, depending on the response obtained, more being used if the trees fifteen to

show a definite but insufficient increase in productiveness, less being used if, after obtaining a definite increase, a

The Cutler Fruit Grader THE ONLY PRACTICAL AND EFFICIENT GRADER NOW ON THE MARKET OUR NEW ROLLER SORTING TABLE MAKES LOWEST SORTING COSTS

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Models for Barrel Packing Send for Catalogue and Prices

Model

CUTLER MANUFACTURING WHEN WRITING

ADVERTISERS MENTION BETTER FRUIT

its

use are given herewith.

CO.

PORTLAND, OREGON

!

BETTER FRUIT

Page 22 falling,

!

off

accompanied by a heavy

wood growth,

occurs. The orchardist must determine for himself the correct

between wood growth and fruitage and maintain that balance by withholding or increasing the nitrogen supply as the yearly crop and wood growth indicate. Time of Application. Experimenters balance



are agreed that early spring applications are very much more effective than It is applications at any other time. advised that nitrate of soda be applied when the buds begin to show green tips,

usually about three or four weeks before the period of full bloom. How to Apply. To prepare the fertlizer for distribution, dump it, a sack at a time, into a large, shallow box with a reasonably tight bottom, such as a good wagon box, and crush the large lumps with a cement tamper, a shovel or other handy implement. Load the nitrate into any convenient wagon for conveyance to the trees. Prepare a



measure by weighing into

a tin can, a

bucket, or other receptacle, the required amount and mark the height or cut the

April can to fit the amount. Spread the nitrogen by hand over all the soil covered by and somewhat beyond the spread of the branches. It is not necessary, however, to apply it closer to the trunk than two feet. Two men, one working from cither side of the wagon, will distribute the fertilizer for a large orchard very rapidly. Caution. Nitrate of soda is inflammable and should be protected from fire. It should also be kept out of reach



of

live stock, as its saline taste is attractive, and taken in considerable quantities its effect is poisonous.

Strawberry Acreage Reduced Advance figures made by the United States Bureau of Crop Estimates show that the strawberry acreage of the country will be reduced approximately 30 per cent this year. It is expected that only 58,159 acres will be cultivated, whereas 83,139 acres were grown last year and 107,000 acres in 1917. The reduction is general in all the berry growing sections except California, Michigan, New York and Virginia, and none of these shows any decided increase. In the heavy producing states, and Tennessee record the Oregon is credited with a increase over last year with 445 but it is such a reduction from

Louisiana

greatest cut. slight acres,

1916 record of 3,184 acres that the industry is nearly abandoned. New Jersey also has fallen from 5,015 acres in 1916 to 3,340 acres last year and to only 24 acres this season its

CopyriBht

1919

by R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Co.

.

about smokes, Prince TALK Albert geared to a joyhandis

out standard that just lavishes smokehappiness on every man game enough to make a bee line for a tidy red tin and a jimmy pipe old or new



to

in the P.

a

clean

now.

Want

Better Apple Boxes.

"Better apple boxes" will be the slogan of Wenatchee apple growers this year. Growers not only want the quality of the boxes improved, but will make an effort to have the price standardized. The reason for the movement for better boxes is due to the fact that last year many boxes of apples were reported to have reached their destination affected with blue mold and mildew, due to the

lumber useil in their manufacture. Mills in the Sound district are now said to be quoting the price of boxes at 15 cents, although a number of contracts for large orders are reported on a basis of 14 cents. It is stated that one contract was recently closed for one million boxes at this price. dani])

moistener top that keeps the tobacco in such perfect condition.

ADVERTISERS MENTION BETTER FRUIT

is

the market

Buy Prince Albert everywhere tobacco is sold. Toppy red bags, tidy red tins, handsome pound and half pound tin humidors — and —that clever, practical pound crystal glass humidor with sponge

WHEN WRITING

district.

!?3.75 above the high record for previous years, when in the spring of 1917 a block of Baldwins was sold from storage in Brockport at $7. Some dealers are now asking ?11 for fancy lots. The holdings have virtually all passed from the hands of growers with a half-dozen dealers controlling It

A. smokepasture longer than

Tobacco Company* Winston-Salem, N.

Baldwins have

at $10.75 a barrel, f.o.b. loadstation. This stands as the high

record price for apples in the 'Western

remember back

R. J. Reynolds

levels, sales of

New York

I

!

a section

new

ing

any more make Prince Albert bite your tongue or parch your throat than you can make a horse drink when he's off the water Bite and parch are cut out by our exclusive patented process You just lay back like a regular fellow and puff to beat the cards and wonder why in samhill you didn't nail

apples soared to unheard-of prices during the past month. Under the heavy export demand, which has boosted all prices to

can't

you care

$10.75

been made

Get it straight that what you've hankered for in pipe or cigarette makin's smokes you'll find aplenty It never yet fell short in P. A. for any other man, and, it'll hand you such smokesatisfaction you'll think it's your birthday every time you fire upl That's because P. A. has the quality/

You

BARREL APPLES SELL FOR Western New York barrel

C

BETTER FRUIT

iprp

Page 23

Like a Fairy

Wand

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MINNESOTA MANUFACTURERS' ASSOCIATION North

St. Paul,

Minn.

BRANCH OFFICES rfl-^^vvxl^^A CJ^CIN.NATI. O.

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WHEN WRITING

w^^mv^rn^v^n V\ ASHINGTOiN, D.

r C.

PITTSBURG. PA. SAX FRANCISCO, CAL. SEATTLE. WASH. -

-

Representatives in

ADVERTISERS ME.NTION BETTER FRUIT

all

^'-4' Cortlandt St. Ouray Bide. 829 Oliver B d|. 20 Davis sl - Lumber E.tchange Bldg principal cities.

BETTER FRUIT

P<^s<^-^4

A New

and Effective Disinfectant By

is

ITers

generally known by pear growthat the only way to eliminate

F. C.

margins of the wound. It is certain that this has been responsible for such continued development of pear blight in very many cases. However, often pear blight would continue to develop from such wounds where the most thorough work possible had been done. For this reason it was

(Bacillus amylovorus) tree is to cut out and destroy all the infected parts of the tree. It is also well known that in cutting out and through these infected portions often many blight bacteria are smeared over the tools used in the work. Furthermore, when the final cuts are made in the clean, healthy bark some of the bacteria on the tools again are smeared over the healthy surface. In many cases new infections inadvertently are made in this manner, and the disease continues to spread from For this the margins of the wound. reason a disinfectant should be applied to destroy any bacteria that in this way may have been left on the surface The only disinfectant of the wound. that has been recommended generally and used widely for this purpose is corrosive sublimate (bichloride of mercury). This is a very powerful disinfectant and has been extensively used in the past by medical men. It often has been noted that where the blight cankers have been removed and corrosive sublimate applied, the disease would continue to develop, especially during favorable weather This has been attributed conditions. generally to a lack of thorough work, leaving some blighted tissue in the

pear blight

from an infected

for

Pear Blight

Reimer, Talent, Oregon

suspected that possibly corrosive sublimate was not destroying all of the bacteria left on such wounds. Hence experiments were started in June, 1918, to test the efficacy of corrosive sublimate and other chemicals as disinfectfor pear-blight germs on the of pear trees. For the first experiment a large number of uniform and very vigorous threeyear-old Bartlett pear trees were seThese were entirely free from lected. pear blight at the time the experiment was started. On the trunk of each tree two large wounds were made by removing the bark and exposing the sapwood over the entire wound. Blight bacteria were then smeared over the surface of each wound, especially over the margins, by which process most of the bacteria were deposited on the cut surface of the margin of each wound. In order to preserve uniformity all of the bacteria utilized were taken from one culture. Immediately after placing the bacteria the disinfectants were supplied, ants

wounds

thoroughly covering the entire wound by means of a new, clean, paint brush. For each disinfectant a separate brush

was used. The following

disinfectants were used, treating with two exceptions eight trees, or sixteen wounds, with each disinfectant: (1) Bordeaux paste; (2) corrosive sublimate 1 to 500; (3) cresol 5 per cent; (4) cyanide of mercury 1 to 500; (5) lime sulphur 10 per cent; (6) "Black-leak 40" 5 per cent; (7) chlorozene 1 to 500. Eight trees in which the bacteria were applied to the wounds but no disinfectant was used, were utilized as checks. The results of this experiment were rather startling. Every wound treated with corrosive sublimate, Bordeaux paste, cresol, lime-sulphur. Black-leaf 40 and chlorozene developed a vigorous case of pear blight. The corrosive sublimate was used twice as strong as is recommended generally for this purpose, and the brand used is manufactured by one of the largest and best known chemical firms in this country. The Bordeaux paste was made by dissolving one pound of bluestone in one gallon of water, and two pounds of lime in one-half gallon of water, and then mixing the two. The cresol used was the liq. cresolis conipositus. The limesulphur was one of the best known commercial brands and tested 32 de-

INCREASE THE YIELD questions the necessity of Nitrogen. The great problem is to get it to the roots when it is needed and not have to wait for favorable conditions of

No one

moisture and sunlight.

With Nitrate of Soda no waiting, as 15% Nitrogon, equal to 18 Ammonia, is available AT and is quickly absorbed. Results are immediate and positive. Maturity will be hastened, the yield surprisingly increased and the quality greatly improved. Nitrate of Soda is clean, odorless, easy to handle. May we send you the proof that Nitrate of Soda will put money in the bank for you? Write for literature today. there

is

ONCE

USE

IT THIS

SPRING

NITRATE AGENCIES CO. Hoge

Building,

SEATTLE

BETTER FRUIT

1 9 19

Page 25

Chlorozene is the new grees Baume. disinfectant now used extensively in treating It

human wounds. known that

well

is

a

is

Corrugated Joint Fasteners

corrosive sub-

very powerful disinfectant under certain conditions. In pure water cultures it will kill readily most bacteria in a comparatively short time when used at a strength of from 1 to It has been known for a long 1000. time that its value is impaired by organic matter, and especially by alIn fact in the presence of bumins. large quantities of organic matter it forms inert combinations which reduce, if not totally destroy, its value as a dislimate

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protects

This probably explains our results with corrosive sublimate as a disinfectant on fresh wounds of pear trees. These wounds are largely polluted by organic matter, and under these condi-

goods from

damage and pilferage.

tions corrosive sublimate is not thor-

oughly

effective.

Specify

Results With Cyanide of Mercury The treatment with cyanide of mercury, in the foregoing experiment,

proved very treated

effective.

Not

wound developed

a single In blight.

experiment pure cyanide of mercury was used at a strength of 1 to 500 (1 gram of pure cyanide of mercury to 500 grams of water). It is remarkable that in all the other treatments blight developed, whereas in the case of the cyanide of mercury not the slightest indication of the disease could be The margins of the wounds found. showed some injury from the treatment in every case where the cyanide of mercury was used. This injury was confined to a narrow strip of bark around the wound, and was of no special importance, as the cambium soon started to push out from underneath the injured bark and continued to grow out over the wound just as it does in normal wounds where no injury has been produced.

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Cyanide of Mercury at Other Strengths In the later experiments it has been found that cyanide of mercury is not always effective when used at a strength of 1 to 1000. ^^^^ile some of the wounds on which this strength was used did not develop blight, in a number of cases the disease did develop. Hence, it is not safe to use this material at

this

weak

strength.

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Experiments

be conducted to determine the weakest strength that will be effective

will

in all cases.

"BUCKEYE" Incubators and COLONY

Experiments have been conducted to determine what strength of cyanide of mercury causes injury on the wounds of pear trees. It has been found that a 1 to 300 causes severe inthis reason it should not be stronger than 1 to 500.

W. W.

strength of jury.

used

For

Cyanide of Mercury Not

Efifective

on

Tools

Experiments have also been conducted to determine the value of cyanide of mercury as a disinfectant for the metal tools used in blightcontrol work. The results have been surprising to say the least. A drop of blight ooze was smeared over the blade of a steel knife,

Brooder Stoves

BOLLAM

BOLLAM &

CO., Inc.

SUCCESSORS TO

Dryer, Bollam

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Co.

General Commission Merchants FRONT STREET

128 Phones: Main 234|

PORTLAND, OREGON

which was then imWHEN WRITING

ADVERTISERS MENTION BETTER FRUIT



BETTER FRUIT

Page 26

April

in the cyanide of mercury to 500) solution. A cut was then made with this knife througli the bark and cambium of a clean, healthy pear

cury for the wounds. While this procedure will prove thoroughly effective, the carrying and use of two solutions is

branch.

This operation was repeated many times, treating the knife with a drop of ooze and immersing it in the disinfectant each time before a new cut was made. In most of the cuts no blight developed, but in a small percentage of

average blight cutter. It is evident that another disinfectant should be found which will be effective on both the wounds and the tools. A search is now being made for such a disinfectant.

cases the disease did develop. It is evident that this disinfectant is not a safe one to use on tools. This is unfortunate but nevertheless true. Another surprising and remarkable result was obtained with corrosive sublimate (bichloride of mercury) as a disinfectant for metal tools. The above experiment was duplicated, using corrosive sublimate at a strength of 1 to 500 as the disinfectant. Not a single case of blight developed where this material was used.

It is interesting to speculate on why the cyanide of mercury is effective on the wounds but not on the knife, while the opposite is true of the corrosive sublimate. The following suggestions are worth considering in this connection: The cyanide of mercury may form a chemical compound with the metal when placed on tools, which destroys its effectiveness as a disinfectOr it may be effective on the ant. wound simply because it modifies the plant tissues by injury or otherwise making it impossible for the bacteria to develop and enter the normal tissues beyond. The corrosive sublimate, as has already been discussed, probably becomes ineffective in the presence of the organic matter in the wound. On metal tools, in the absence of organic matter, it is effective.

mersed (1

To summarize: Cyanide

mercury 1 to 500 is effective on the wounds, but not effective on metal tools; and corrosive sublimate is not effective on the of

wounds but

effective on the tools. evident that if the cyanide of mercury is applied to every wound whether a wound from which blight has been cut or simply a wound made in healthy bark in probing for blight it will prove effective. In other words, it will destroy blight bacteria left on the surface of the wound by the tools. If the blight cutter wants to disinfect his tools also, and this is preferable, he should use the corrosive sublimate for that purpose; and the cyanide of merIt

is

g





cumbersome and not

relished

by the



A Prominent

Disinfectant

In our experiments a number of disinfectants have been tried, and most of

them have proved

ineffective.

With

some, unfortunately, not sufficient work has been done to draw final conclusions. One of these appears quite promising and is well worthy of fur-

ther work.

This is formaldehyde, also as formalin. I-Ixperiments have been conducted to determine the value of formaldehyde as a disinfectant for both the wounds and tools. It was used at strengths of 4, 7 and 10 per cent. In these tests the 4 per cent strength proved effective in all cases as a disinfectant for the tools. The other strengths were not tried on the tools, but undoubtedly the 7 and 10

known

per cent would be

effective.

All of these strengths

were

tried

effective in many cases, but developed blight in a few cases. Hence these strengths cannot be recommended. The 10 per cent strength has proved effective in all these tests; as not a single case of blight has developed where this strength was used. Wounds treated with corrosive sublimate at the same time developed the disease.

These

tests

with formaldehyde were

not started until midsummer, hence the results cannot be considered final. It is well known that a pear tree usually will not blight as readily after midsummer as during the spring and early summer, due to the great amount of sap and more succulent growth early in the season. Next season we shall repeat the experiment at the most critical time, and I reserve final conclusions until that time.

While the findings cannot be considered

final,

the writer considers formal-

dehyde as an extremely promising

must be handled quickly

Prompt shipment and

a

minimum

of han-

dling are necessary to deliver fruit in the best

A Mathews Gravity Roller Conveyer will save not only time and handling but it will save labor as well. condition.

SPEED

The

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ECONOMY

GRAVITY ROLI^ CONVEYER

Curves, switches and other special devices

make the Mathews System adaptable to practically every need. Upkeep is negligible because of the unusually sturdy construction. In almost every line of business Mathews Conveyers are paying for themselves in labor and time saved. Find how they can help you. Write for our illustrated literature which gives

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MATHEWS GRAVITY CARRIER 134 Tenth

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'ipooDOOOODDDnnrinciQQQQQaDOQQDOOOOQOOODOaoaoDaoooDOoaoonannnaannaaQnnannaaaoaaDaaoDaaDoaaaDaM] WHEN WRITING

ADVERTISERS MENTION BETTER FRUIT

dis-

infectant for blight-control work. If it proves effective during the most critical

limDDDUUUDDODODDDDDDDDODOODDDDDDDDODDO

Fruit

on

the wounds of pear trees. The 4 per cent and 7 per cent strengths proved

!

BETTER FRUIT

19 19 season of the year if will be even more desirable than cyanide of mercury, as it can be used on both wounds and tools. The writer feels that a 10 per cent solution of formaldehyde can be safely recommended for both tools and wounds in blight work during the fall and winter months. The conunercial formaldehyde conmionly sold by druggists 10 per cent strength was used in this work. A 10 per cent strength in this discussion means one part of commercial formaldehyde mixed with nine part water. This strength causes noticeable, but inunaterial, injury to the margins and surface of the wound. .\t this season of the year in his regu-





lar blight-control

work

orchard, the writer

in

Page 27

Farmers, Fruit Growers and Home Owners

ATTENTION Write for our big descriptive catalogue and prices for trees delivered

your

to

nearest railway station, freight paid.

PEARS

PAY. Chester Ferguson, of of $2,016 per acre for pears this year, 1918. Agents wanted

to represent

us

in

each

Yakima, Washington, realized an average

PLANT PEARS. Address

locality.

OREGON NURSERY COMPANY ORENCO. OREGON

the Station

using 10 per cent formaldehyde for both wound and tools. Next spring and early summer he will use cyanide of mercury on the wounds until experiments have decided is

whether formaldehyde is efTectivc at that critical season. I must repeat that for wounds alone cyanide of mercury

Orcas

Lime

Fruit Spray NO SUPERIOR FOR SPRAYING

Orcas Lime Company

thoroughly efTectivc at all seasons of the year, and where every wound, cut and scratch made by his tools is disinfected with this material it will prove entirely effective. These results were regarded of such importance that the work was repeated

S. W. R. DALLY, Selling Agent 332 Pioneer Building, Seattle

is

WHAT EVERY HOME CANNER SHOULD HAVE

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our H. A, Hand Power Double the only hand power seamcr built that

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HENNINGER & AYES MFG. CO., Builders of Seamers

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bouillon blight culture was used, in the other series we used the typical blight ooze from badly blighted pear trees. In some of these later experiments the disinfectants were used at the same strengths as in the first experiment, while in others different strengths were tried. The results were almost identical with those in the first experiment. With the exception of a a

while

few wounds, on

trees

tablets commonly found on the market, the effect, if any, of hard water on their disinfecting quality, and whether the material is impaired when

carried in a tin bucket and applied with a .sponge. Also to determine the weakest strength of cyanide of mercury that will destroy blight bacteria on the wounds of pear trees.

The

first

strawberries

shipments

commenced

of to

Louisiana

move

be-

tween March 15th and 20th. The shipments will be made this year for the first time in 21 i)int and 24 quart standard

made

styles

all

is

and

sizes.

in

All

shears delivered free to your door.

Write for

MFG. 520

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DIVISION AVE

circular

I

GRAND RAPIDS, MICH.

and

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PRINTING FOR FRUIT GROWERS, CANNERS, MANUFACTURERS

AND MERCHANTS

CATALOGS BOOKLETS

STATIONERY BLANK BOOKS

POSTERS

LABELS

ADVERTISING MATTER WRITE FOR

AND SPECIFICATIONS > OUT OF TOWN ORDERS EXECUTED PROMPTLY, ACCURATELY AND ECONOMICALLY WE PRINT Better Fruit

PRICES

F.W. BALTES 6? COMPANY

The crop of Louisiana estimated this year at 1,000

crates.

berries

that cuts

Made

bruise the bark.

all

mercury

only pruner

SI

from both sides of the limb and does not

making very slow

of those treated with corcresol, Bordeaux rosive sublimate, paste, lime-sulphur and Black-leaf 40, Not a single again developed blight. wound treated w ith cyanide of mercury has developed the disease. In all of the earlier experiments pure cyanide of mercury and distilled water was used. The disinfectant was prepared fresh each day, carried in glass receptacles, and applied with a clean paint brush. Two drops of blight culture ooze was applied to each wound to make the test a severe one. Experiments are now in progress to determine the value of the cyanide of

growth,

THE

RHODES DOUBLE CUT .PRUNING

cars.

WHEN WRITING

ADVERTISERS MENTION BETTER FRUIT

BETTER FRUIT

Page 28

The Fruit Industry By

THE

C.

I.

of the Pacific Northwest

Lewis, Chief, Division of Horticulture, Oregon Agricultural College

industry of the Northwest is just entering a fruit

Pacific era of prosperity, a new era of planting. Not for ten years have we planted as

new

we have the past year, or contemplate planting the coming year. It is true that this planting is of a new type. Ten or fifteen years ago we were all planting apples, almost apples exclusively. Today, our planting is very diversified. Italian prunes, Bartlett years, fall pears, berries of all kinds such as strawberries, red raspberries, black caps, evergreen blackberries, loganberries, English walnuts and filberts are being planted in very large quantities. Occasionally also there is an

apple plantation and a limited planting of such fruits as the cherry and peach. The horticultural products plants have been passing through a phenomenal development. In fact, they had developed up to the point where the great crying need of our canneries, evaporators and other plants is for



in fact, some of these must have more tonnage and more local support or they will have to

more tonnage plants

go out of business. It is encouraging to note that the people as a whole are

showing more interest in the possibilities of growing products for our canneries and similar plants. This spring large acreage is being contracted on the basis of one to ten years, which would

April

seem to indicate a rather permanent and healthy situation. Of course, one cannot talk about the fruit industry of the Pacific Northwest without mentioning the apple, which is our biggest horticultural asset at the present time. It is true that the apple acreage has shrunk considerably, but we must bear in mind that a large percentage of this acreage was of such a character that it never should have been planted in the first place. Acreage which was on poor sgil, continued wrong varieties, was neglected from the start, etc., w-hich never would have Although this figured commercially. had a discouraging infiuence on the industry during the dark days, 1911 to 1915, the Northwest has built an international reputation with certain varieties. This market is established and will continue to demand these varieties which we can grow as no others can produce them. The apple industry is well on its feet. What it needs now is good facilities for growing and handling and avoidance on the part of the growers of agitation or innovations which may question the future of the industry. The price outlook is good, although no one can predict what may happen in the next few years. It is well to note, though, that without the European market the past few years we have done wonderfully well. European acreage has been greatly reduced and we will certainly find a market in Europe for a large percentage of our tonnage. Many

new markets have been developed

here

home. All these signs are good and augur well for the future. As I see it, the Pacific Northwest horat

hasn't forgotten-

ticulture has several distinct horticultural problems at the present time.

No

need to tie a string 'round /its finger to remind him of Ghirardelli's Ground Chocolate — for that's one good thing he never forgets.

Nothing more

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nothing quite so handy! A hundred uses in every can aWays keep a can on hand! tious!

And



Ask for Ghirardelli's by name — and see that you get it. In '/z lb., i lb. and 3 lb. cans — wherever you do your trading. Say ^'-Gear-ar-delly' Since 1852

D.

GHIRARDELLI

CO.

of fruit as a food. Not a mere tonic, not something which "take today will keep the doctor away," but we should educate the people up to the real value of our products as food. This we have neglected to do. The fourth problem as I see it at this time, is a co-operative

movement

San Francisco

Ghirardelli

first one I would state would be to support in a better w-ay the horticultural products plants which we have established. Second, the establishment of a good, generous advertising fund to advertise the fruit and fruit products of the Pacific Northwest. It is true that we have done something along such lines as the "Skookum," "Rosy Apple," "Y Brand," "Loju," "Phez," etc., but these after all are mere drops in the bucket to what the Pacific Northwest should do. We can take a profitable page of experience from California Third, we need a along these lines. campaign of education to bring to the people the real realization of the value

The

's

Ground Chocolate SiHiuiniin

to establish steamship lines operated from Pacific Coast points to European and other markets. Thus we would be taking advantage of the Panama Canal, would save expenses in placing our products in foreign markets, and would be able to handle our Tliis products to better advantage. movement must be the result of cooperation between the various lines of horticultural endeavor such as the

BETTER FRUIT apple and pear growers, the dried fruitmen handling prunes, berries, evaporated fruits and vegetables of all kinds and the canneries. If all such organizations would work together it should be possible to establish foreign connections by steamers operating directly

from our own

ports.

Page 2p

Apli

Kill

Before'7ipttis<>'^ Hills

California Notes Apricot and prune growers in Santa Clara Valley are reported as being offered prices considerably in advance of last year for their 1919 crop. Apricot to have been offered $80 a ton for this year's fruit, as against $G0 for last year, while 9% cents a pound is being offered for prunes, as against 6 and 7 cents in 1918.

growers are said

Of 15,000 fruit trees planted in Merced County in 1918, 20,070 were fig trees of various varieties. The total number now growing in the county is 99,000, of which 29,000 were in bearing last year. Considerable planting has been done in the neighborhood of Tuttle, and more acreage is to be put out there this year. It is expected that figs will lead all varieties of fruit trees to be planted in Merced County again this season. Since importations of figs were cut off by the war about 10,000 acres of fig trees have been planted.

your Profits

f This tiny, sap-sucking insect, ^ scarcely larger than apin-head,^< is destroying apple profits all"^ over the country. Feeding withJ its sharp, mosquito-like bill, it causes dwarfed, deformed, unmarketable fruit. Curls foliage. Weakens trees. Spray with

BlackLeBf40 ^OVoNfCOr/NE and control Aphis, Red Bufir, Leaf Hopper and other soft- Ji','J,''^ph|s. bodied, sucking insects. Aphis is making its appearance in Besttimoy^^I^ many sections for the first time. Regarded by many grow- spray*^'^,." ers as the most destructive apple insect. Oneaphidprof/ duces thousands in a few weeks. Spray with Black Leaf 40 and save your profits. Can be used with limesulphur, arsenate of lead, bordeaux and other sprays as recommended, or may be used separately, if desired. Mixes perfectly with water. Costs only about Ic per gallon diluted for the trees. Recommended by agriSend for cultural colleges and experiment stations. F^ree Sprav Chart and Lieaflets showing when and how to spray and hov.- to protect fruit trees,

The Oakdale district is finding more room for almond trees. One nursery

vines

and vegetables from these

profit-killing insect pests.

The Kentucky Tobacco Product Co«

alone reports the sale of over 40,000 trees in that section. The extent of the new tracts set out varies from five to forty acres.

Incorporated

Louisville^

Kentucky

Eighty-five dollars worth of nuts were sold last year from a 14-year-old walnut tree in the Orange Blossom disThe yield trict in Stanislaus County. was 340 "ijounds. The same tree, which is owned by George Grundel, last year produced $45 worth of nuts.

Cull Apple Bill Defeated The killing of the Gellatly cull apple bill by the Washington State Senate meeting with the general approval of the fruit growers and shippers of that is

state. The bill would have allowed Washington growers to have shipped

apples

cull

into

state

markets

un-

wrapped and in specially marked boxes. The apples must now be sent to the by-products plants. The strongest opposition to the bill developed from the fact that no provision was made as to what was to be done with the fruit reached the retailers' hands. On this account it was the opinion of its opponents that the passage of the bill would result in the abrogation of the entire inspection system in the state. Many of the prominent fruit shipping organizations throughout the state opposed the bill and assisted in defeatafter

ing

it

pulled one pino 3 ft. acronn

I

stump .

My One Man

atin pulla biRKcr

stumps thoD

ever

1

expected. Afr. /. Erkkila.

Calumet, Mich.

Mr

KtrfltlD

atumpg

M7 Khstln pullod Btumpa we thuUKhC couM not Mr. /:. A.

Single, Double,

Puller Triple Power! Weighs Ies3— costs less— yet has greaterspeed, alreni/th, power and laatslonggr! Clears one acre from one anchor! Easily moved around field. A few pounds pull or push on handle exerts inns on stump— due to wonderful leverage principle,

Get

null.

liucklni.

You

Man

iqIIs falls ft.

blind maple 8 co lu Inches. Pulled tree 150 ft hiKh ond 22 Inches at base. Id 16 minutes. A. H. JejTery, Goble. Oregon.

It

After 30 days trial— if satis-* ficd, keep puller, Ifc If not jileascd, sendit back at my expense. dQTi't nsk a penny. Four easy ways to pay.

^i-ycar gu£u*antee against

breakage!

Big New Boolt NOW! My man few

pulld stubborn Btumos in minutes E.t low Tells how one Explains all about dillercnt speeas. Also patented quick "take up" for slack cable. Describes Kirstin one man Clutch Model; Kirstin One Man Drum Model; an«l Kirstin Horse Power Model.

cost.

Qu

c k Shipment From Escanaba, Mich. i

Atlanta. Ga. Portland, Ore.

Soo Canada

Got iho book and Special AE<"nt?t' OlTi-r. ShlpmeDtfromDearest point saves time and freight. Write today.

A. J. KIRSTIN, Gen. Mgr., A. I. KIRSTIN CO. 370 East IVIorrlson St., Portland, Oregon

it.

WHEN WRITING

,


ADVERTISERS MENTION BETTER FRUIT

World'. Lars..t

Msk.r. of Stump Pulleral

BETTER FRUIT

Page so

Idaho Horticulturists Have Good Meeting By

THE

E. F. Stephens

meeting of the Idaho Horticul-

Association was interesting and a number of important questions were thoroughly discussed. Among others which were taken up were the report of the Transportation Committee, Joel L. Priest, chairman; "Cooling, Heating and Refrigeration Cars," President Secrist, of the Pacific Fruit Express Company /'Results of Car Shortage in Boise Valley in 1917," J. C. Sewell, Boise; "Results of Car Shortage in Payette," P. M. Smock, Payette; "Cold Air Storage, With Plans for Same," turist

;

A.

W. Hoy, Nampa. The recommendations

of S. H. Bodinghouse, of the United States Bureau of

,

Nampa, Idaho

Markets,

Washington,

were

adopted

after a full discussion and a committee was named that should meet with delegates from the other Northwestern

view to a conference which should determine grades and markings that would be agreeable to the boxapple interests of the Northwest. Prof. E. R. Bennett urged the importance of inspection at the shipping point, with a view to giving character and explicit standard of quality to the shipments as packed; believing this would help to give confidence to the purchaser and making sales at standard assist in States with

April C. J. Devies of Yakima, Washington, gave an illustrative lecture, "Modern Methods of Spraying." This helped to give a very clear idea of the insect enemies with which the fruit grower must contend, and the best method of combating it. It was agreed and voted that the summer meeting should be held at Caldwell and the next winter's annual meeting at Payette. H. Maybee of Meridian gave a J. highly instructive and interesting talk on "Strawberry Culture." After experimenting with seventeen varieties he now grows the Senator Dunlap only. From two and one-half acres he sold something over .$1700 worth of fruit. He fruits his plantations three seasons then renew^s. Plants growing from re-

newal are selected from special plants for the purpose and not allowed

prices.

grown to

fruit

during

the

season

first

of

growth. In the discussion of insecticides the trend of opinion at the meeting was in favor of liquid lime and sulphur. Competing manufacturing firms brought in samples of arsenate of lead which were tested out as to suspension and covering quality.

Top Dress with Nitrate of Soda

It

does not

Sour the

IMPROVE = PROTECT

Nitrate

leaves

Soil no

mineral

residue to injure your soil



it

acid

keeps

the land sweet.

YOUR FRUIT CROP

Arsenate of Lead

Nitrate of Soda Top

dress 100 pounds per acre for seeded crops; 200 pounds cultivated in thoroughly for hoed crops. These light dressings should be evenly spread.

For thirteen years the GRASSELLI BRAND has been used throughout the fruit growing sections of the Northwest where it has given unvarying satisfaction to the user because of its all-round good qualities:

W. LAMBERT MYERS IT IT IT

the worms. sticks well to the foliage. is high in suspension qualities and will always be found dependable and uniform. kills

Chilean Nitrate Committee p. 0.

Box 248

mm

THE FRUIT GROWERS' STANDARD Grasselli Arsenate of Grasselli Arsenate of

Lead Powder Lead Paste

Berkeley, Cal.

For FREE Big Book

Buy

yoo a postal card to get G.'.Uowriy's biff money saving Look on ^ Gasolino Kneinc3, Manuro Sprcnders. Cream Separators and other

Now

It only coats

and Pay

'

Gf lioway 'acat.ilopon Lis desk. Uo knovra Galloway prices ond qii:dity. ChiccKupour

Your

with olbcn

choif-e of five selling plans includ-

The

Grasselli Chemical Co. Established

ing long terms. The money you eave you can use ia a dozen different ways. So IniT f.irhii{1919 tlio

••Divide

Melon" -

BOSTON

PAUL CHICAGO

DETROIT

CINCINNATI

ST. LOUIS

ST.

.ng

Book.

Implement SOU.OOOsali^^-

d customrrfi — many

BRANCHES:

NEW YORK

Wo

to $200.

'tdolTipwiif

1839

CLEVELAND,:OHIO PHILADELPHIA

Tho close - buyirjf usincsa farnit^r of today hjis

implcmcnta.

Next Fall

_ur no\t noifrhbor— provoN

MILWAUKEE

PITTSBURGH NEW ORLEANS

BIRMINGHAM

,0 mfrit of tho Clallowny :thod. Factaarewhatcoiti Special patented features on dal^ way Implements on no other. yetXJ ico9 awav below. Close by snipijrpointa.Mcntionimplt ment inter-

"

!c
WHEN WRITING

ADVERTISERS MENTION BETTER FRUIT

BETTER FRUIT

jp/p

Page SI

program the address of wel-

In the

come by Mayor Hayes was

set for In his response in behalf of the society Hon. Silas NVilson of Nampa mentioned that he had charge of the loNva exhibit of fruit at St. Louis

Thursday evening.

in 190-1.

Among

all the states exhibiting at Louis, Idaho had the best fruit in This detersize, color and quality. mined Mr. Wilson, then a resident of Atlantic, Iowa, to visit and investigate a district which could grow apples of such superior cpiality. Expending several months in his investigation he finally decided to locate at Nampa, Idaho, and purchase lands now known as the Wilson Orchard Company, consisting of G40 acres in orchard at

St.

Nampa and Kuna.

At a later period Mr. Svilson decided to make an exhibit of fruit in competition for the Wilder medal offered by the American Poraological Society, thirteen varieties of winter apples were selected, 264 apples carefully packed in three boxes. This fruit was declared to be the best exhibited and received the much coveted Wilder medal, which Mr. Wilson had with him and exhibited to the meeting. Attention was called to a peculiarity in the ])rcsent law, under which poisons and insecticides must be sold in the original packages under serious penalty Unfortunately this precludes of law. the subdivision of 200-pound packages of the dry arsenate of lead and weighing out into four or five-pound packages the proper amount for 200 gallons, the usual tank full. The difference be-

tween the price in 200-pound packages and in the smaller packages varies from five to ten cents and prevents the dealer from subdividing his 200-pound packages and supplying his customer who the lowest price. In the discussion of prospective car supplies Joel Priest stated that while shipments of hav had increased from 5610 cars in 1917 to 11,000 in 1918 and there had been an increase in shipments of potatoes amounting to over 2000 cars, yet the railroad companies had been able to supply all cars needed. In the discussion of freight rates it was shown by George W^ay that Idaho

needs a

little at

shippers were at a disadvantage in reaching the Middle W^est. The Eastern shippers have a far better freight rate on Western shipments than the Idaho shipper on Eastern shipments for equal This inequality presents distances. work to our Utilities Commission. Committee on Memorial reported the death of Robert Milliken of Nampa, the first secretary of the Idaho Horticultural Society, and at one time a teacher of horticulture at Manhattan, Kansas. Mention was made of E. H. Shephard,

widely

known

as

editor

of

Better

Fruit, recently deceased. Prof. E. D. Ball of Ames, Iowa, who was to appear on the first day, wrote a letter stating that it was impossible for him to attend but presented a discussion of the essential surrounding successful work, of which the keynote was thoroughness of application. Mr. V. S. Peet, General Agent of the U. P. Railway, presented a lot of in-

Seasoned Lumber Boxes made from SEASONED lumber insure your fruit pack against mildew which causes thousands of dollars' loss every year where containers made of green material are used

Bloedel Donovan Boxes Are Made of Seasoned Lumber Carefully inspected and expertly sawed.

Prompt

deliveries assured.

BLOEDEL DONOVAN LUMBER MILLS 1018 White

lis your

Building, Seattle, Wasli.

own money

you're spending, says Barney Mc(/e0 ahead and chew your sweet,

good tobacco

if you But there isn't an ordinary

Good

*'Go

sticky plug, like

it.

tobacco that's one, two, three with Real Gravely. The real

taste

stays with it." taste, smaller chew, longer life is what makes CJenuine Gravely cost less to chew than ordinary plug.

Write

to:



Genuine Gravely DANVILLE. VA. for booklet on chewing plug.

Peyton Brand

REAL CHEWING PLUG Plu^ pajckcd in poucfv

PEARS

APPLES For European

Gerald Long

Distribution

Da Costa

Acre, Covent Garden,

Cables: "Geracost, London."

London

Codes: A. B. C. 5th Edition and Private

SHIPPING AGENTS: Lunham & Moore, Produce Exchange, New York WHEN WRITING

ADVERTISERS MENTION BETTER FRUIT



BETTER FRUIT

Page 22

Wonderful Opportunity To Purchase Splendid Commercial Orchard Just Coming to Bearing 137 -acre six -year -old orchard, four standard varieties, in first-class condition,

on main

line

Great Northern Railway, one and one -half miles from shipping station in the Wenatchee district.

$30,000 will purchase this orchard, develop own water system and fully equip it for

its

operation.

Very favorable terms

to the right party.

This year's crop estimated at 6,000 boxes.

The

F.

teresting statements in defense of the railroad policy. In this discussion Mr. Peet stated that one-sixteenth of the population of the United States resided in New York, one-fifth of all our people lived in cities containing more than 300,000 population. The urban population was increasing much faster than the producers of food, and that intelligent application in the production of food products should bring steadily in-

creasing profit. Mr. Peet made mention of a family residing near Boise which is cultivating twenty acres and sold over -12000 worth of farm products. Mr. Peet stated that the Union Pacific and Oregon Short Line would soon publish a free bulletin which would be a compendium of useful information. Mr. Ornsby was asked to address the society on the merits of the Hammond Evaporator and Dehydration Process, and said that a plant large enough to handle 25 tons of fruit and vegetables daily would cost about $50,000. Mr. S. W. Foster of San Francisco was delayed in reaching the meeting, but arrived in time to discuss the

"Season Sprays" Saturday morning. "Spraying as an Asset and Liability"

was

W. Kiesling Company

Box 1288

April

Spokane, Washington

also discussed by Frank E. Seeley of Payette, and Prof. C. C. Vincent of Moscow, Idaho, sent in a letter giving the result of his experiments with different insecticides. The present board of officers and directors were re-elected for the coming year. The meeting adjourned and separated in the feeling that the sessions had been unusally interesting and profiitable.

Pacific Coast Agents

United States Steel

Sole Manufacturers

Products Co.

63 Pearl Street Boston, Mass.

San Francisco Los'Angeles Portland Saattle

PEARSON E

A R

BUREAU OF MARKETS SAFE

J.C.Pearson Co., Inc.

CONOMY

in buying Is getting the best value for the money, not always In getting the lowest prices. PEARSON prices are right.

DHESIVENESS % l°T.%^^Z: For twenty years for PEARSON nails.

A

they have been making boxes strong. Now, more than ever. behind the goods is TTT T A RTT

TTV

X added value. Toucan rely on our record of fulfillment of every contract and fair adjustment of every

iUi-i»..t\.l3ll^l.l.

claim.

S

ATTCiF APTTrnVT .^\llori^\^±lV^i'^

o

"RTPTIV A T

making needs.

nails

to

We know

suit

's

assured by our

long experience in our customers'

what you want; we

guarantee satisfaction.

TTV

I

plus experience alJ. X ways excels ImitaImitation's highest hope is, to sometime (not now) equal Pearson meantime you play safe.

L

NAILS tion.

WHEN WRITING

ADVERTISERS MENTION BETTER FRUIT

It

is

announced

in

Washington

that

concern is felt in the Bureau of Markets over the failure of Congress to little

pass the agriculture appropriations bill for the fiscal year beginning July \. The bureau" has sufficient funds to carry on its work until that time. It is expected that an extra session of Congress will have been called, and in all probability the agriculture bill will be In the event passed before July \. that there is no session of Congress or if the bill is not passed by that time, some of the work of the bureau will be curtailed, but it is stated even in that event the work which would be carried on could be done on a monthly

payment basis. The appropriation asked for by the bureau for the coming fiscal year is $2,689,365. More than half of this sum is

for the enforcement of the Standard

Grain Act.

BIG MONEY FOR BEN DAVIS Some idea of the demand for apples in the Eastern markets may be obtained from the fact that a large pie company recently closed a contract with a New 100,000 5 cents per pound, equivalent to about $2.50 per box. The pie company had a contract with the Government to furnish 5,000 pies daily.

York commission house for pounds of Ben Davis apples at

BETTER FRUIT

Page 33

Pinched Feet Bad for Trees By

Dynamite

woman

F.

W. Wilson.

isn't

a

commodity

that

a

enthuses over, but Mary Jane Gregory of Westminster, Colorado, has found something to commend itself to her in the big bang stulf. She had a number of four-year-old fruit trees on her place and was anxious to have them grow uniformly, but this spring one of them showed no signs of A neighbor was appealed to for life. advice. His opinion was that the tree was root-bound by the compact prairie This soil in which it was growing. man happened to be familiar with the use of dynamite and suggested as a remedy for the trouble that a bore hole be put down in the ground about three feet from the trunk of the tree and loaded with a small charge of the exordinarily

plosive.

Mrs. Gregory in speaking of the reexperiment says: "This shot loosened the soil about the tree and a week or two later, it began to leaf out and a few weeks later, was ahead of the other trees." \Mien a man's feet are pinched by shoes too tight for him, he can easily get a larger pair of shoes, but when a tree's feet are pinched by too tight a sult of the

plight is serious. Poor circulation is as bad for a tree as for a man. The roots are not only the feet of the Impertree, but its stomach as well. vious, tight soil around the roots, therefore, means more than merely sore feet; it means starvation as well. relieve trees of If dynamite will troubles such as Mrs. Gregory describes, her neighbor is entitled to the gratitude of tree lovers for suggesting a practical

Laugh

at the

Weather

in

soil, its

remedy.

ADOPTS STANDARD FOR BOXES At a meeting held Monday, February 24th, the Yakima Valley Traffic & Credit Association adopted the following specifications as the standard for apple and pear boxes for the season of 1919:

PINE BOXES Ends

%

Sides

iHe ?i6

T. & B Cleats

%

X 101/' X n\(> X 101^ X 191^ X 5% X 19% X ?4Xlli,^

SPRUCE BOXES Ends

i?lox 101,^x111/2

Sides

516x101^x19% ?le X SVix 19%

T. & B Cleats

%

X

% X IIV2

two-piece tops and One-piece bottoms, no knots in ends that will interfere with nailing. No objections to two-piece ends if well stapled with smooth joints. Tops and bottoms to be free from pin knots. Pear boxes same as above except two inches less in sides,

Sturdy, Comfortable "U. S/' What "U.

S.

does the weather matter

when your

feet are

Protected"^? You'll find protection of the sound-

sort in U. S. "Protected" rubber the heavy-service, double-duty rubber footwear you need for work in the open. est,

most comfortable

footwear.

It's

U. S. "Protected" rubber footwear keeps your feet dry and comfortable under all conditions. It's especially designed for rough outdoor service, reinforced to give longer wear. It's i/ie rubber footwear for economy and comfort. The Government probably used more U. S. "Protected" rubber footwear during the war than of all other makes combined. U. S. "Protected" rubber footwear comes in all kinds and styles suited to the special needs of all who work in the open. Your dealer has the kind you want or can get it quickly. Every pair of U. S. "Protected" bears the "U. S. Seal," trade mark of the largest rubber manufacturer seal.

depth.

for

It

in the world.

insures

your

feet,

"U.

Look

S." quality



for this

protection

health and pocketbook.

ORCHARDISTS BUY MANY CARS Motor-car dealers

at

the sale of 148 during 1918 and say

port

Hood River renew machines

United States Rubber Company New York

that the sales larger had they

would have been much been able to secure more

cars.

The

purchase price for the new cars reached $126,590. Orchardists at Hood River say that they find the motor car and truck invaluable in handling fruit. total

u.

xx^uLDoer WHEN WRITING

4

Footwear

ADVERTISERS MENTION BETTER FRUIT

BETTER FRUIT

Page 34

Future Fruit Outlook Most Encouraging By

Hutchins, Secretary White Salmon Commercial Club

C. C.

of the White THE Salmon Valley believe that the fruit fruit

growers

business has "come back," and back to remain. This applies not only to the apple but the pear and other orchard fruits. A general feeling of optimism prevails, and encouragement to give their orchards even closer attention from now on. It has been a hard struggle in this and all orchard sections to bring properties to the point of com-

mercial bearing, and to the point where a profit over expenses might be enThe past season's market has joyed. not only covered the cost of production but in most cases returned a very

That a satisfactory margin of profit. certain degree of prosperity prevails in

Illlllllllllllllllllllllllll

the district is evidenced by the Columbia State Bank of White Salmon having the largest deposits in its history. The large orchard of the Mt. Adams Orchard Company, in the Gilmer district, coming into commercial bearing for the first time this past season, shipped out in apples and pears over •$25,000 gross; with a handicap of a fifteen-mile haul to the shipping point and a number of quite extensive improvements, including a large storage

building and spraying machinery, they netted several thousand dollars, according to their field manager, Homer Green. So encouraged were the stockholders of this corporation, they voted at their recent annual meeting to in-

IIINIIII

llll

acreage of pears, piilting in make a nuniher of substantial improvements, including probably a cold-storage plant for the precooling of their pears. The outlook for the future of our crea.se the

the Bosc, and to

orchard fruits seems most bright. As far as the pear is concerned, it will probably always command a price which will net the grower a good profit. The Eastern pear orchards have suffered greatly from the blight, to such an extent that the majority of them are no longer a factor in the market. The East must look to this Pacific Coast for its pears. The apple does not, however, hold this position, for throughout the East and Middle West are large producing sections; it is up to the growers

and associations of the Northwest to keep a lap ahead of those sections in their quality of fruit and pack. During the past four years thousands of acres of orchard throughout the United States have been sadly neglected; many of

llllllllllllillllITTTT

Get Your Irrigated Farm From the Canadian Pacific a climate not excelled by any agricultural INarea in America you can own a fine, rich farm

of your own.

April

them beyond recovery. This has been caused by the low prices prevailing for several years; almost prohibitive over-

head cost in the way of labor, team keep and hire, box and other materials. Many of our orchards, too many, are owned bv non-residents who are un-

The Canadian Pacific Railway offers

you this opportunity to achieve independence and grow rich in Western Canada. The lands offered are in the largest and most substantial



The

irrigation undertaking in the Continent. price is only |50 an acre some for less.



Twenty Years

to Pay You pay down 10% and have 20 years in which to pay the remainder. The first crop is often worth more than the total cost of the lands.

Genuine comfort if" you ask for and ^ef-

from 50c to 11.25 per acre forthe maintenaiice of the system and the delivery of the water. Irrigation here is not an experiment.

fee of

nar(ha Washington Comfort Shoes

Why an Irrigated Farm? Because irrigation in Southern

$2,000 Loaned to Farmer Loans of $2,000 in improvements are made to approved setders on irrigated farms with no security except the land itself. You can take 20 years to repay this loan at

6% interest.

Alberta

— insures crops every year •

Beware of Imitations—

—increases crops every year

name and trade-mark stamped on the sole.

—makes you practically independent of weather conditions —produces great quantities of

F.

coarse grains, pasture, alfalfa,

Irrigation, Crop Insurance Thisland is not arid but production can be greaUy increased by irrigation. There is an unfailing supply of water which is administered under the direction of the Canadian Government. The provinces have no control over it and there is no conflict of law or

roots, thus



stock industry which is safer and ultimately more profitable than wheat farming tends toward close settlement, well cultivated farms, good neighbors, good roads, schools,

munity

The Opportunity for You I

its

I

rates and special booklet fully describing all lands

and giving M. E.

all details.

THORNTON

Supt. of Culonizutiun

Canadian Pacific Railway 5

116 Ninth Ave.

& Shoe

Company

developing the live

HONORBILT

^Milwaukee,

churches, telephones, mail demarketing, and a high standard of com-

The Canadian

Send for special railway

Mayer

Boot

livery, co-operative

authority over its use. The water is free, the oidy charge being a

Pacific Railway knows that prosperity depends on the prosperity of the seltleraalougits lines. Beuiuse it wants good settlors it is willing to sell its lands at these reniarkahle prices and terms.

1

M.

E.

life.

THORNTON,

Supt. of Colonization

CAM^DiANPACIFICRAILWAY

THE SELF-OILING WINDMILL naa become so popular four yeara that

116 Ninth Ave. E.. Calgary, Alberta

would IIabout:

be interested ia learning more

Sunny Alberta.

Farm opporiuniiies in Albertu, Ikutcbeivaii and Manitoba. I

I I j I

Q

in

My Name

i

Address

I^To^vn

Sas-

Aermotors, making them ing. Its enclosed motor keeps in the oil and keeps out dust and rain. The Splash Oil-

_

___

self-oil-

ing System constantly floods every bearing with oil., venting wear and enabling I

State

E., Calgary, Alberta

mill to

ADVERTISERS MENTION BETTER FRUIT

pump

in the lightest breeze.

The oil supply is renewed once a year. Double Gears are used, each carrying half the load. We make Gasoline Engines, Pumps, Tanks, Water Supply Goods and Steel Frame Saws. Write

WHEN WRITING

first

old towers, other makes of mills, and to replace, at small cost, the gearing of the earlier

Special railway rates for borne seekers. Business and industrial opportunith'3 in Western Canada. Town lot* in growing Western towns.

j

its

thousands have been called for to replace, on their

Irrigation furniing in

I

AERMOTOR

CO.,

2500 Twelfth SL. Chicago

BETTER FRUIT

The Tractor A RE

one of the many farmers ^ ^ who need more power to handle the farm work properly? Do you have to work with less help than you need? 3'ou

If so, you ueed an Internatioual kerosene tractor. The size that gives you. power for your

heaviest load will handle all the work. Internationals use only as much fuel as the load requires. They are made to work with farm machines the kind you are now using and special hitches are provided for all kinds of field and road work. Their belt pulleys are large enough to prevent slippage, run at con^ect speed, and are set high enough to keep the belt off the ground. They all use kerosene or other low-grade fuels which means a big saving in operating expense.





The Company

to

too much at stake to market machines of any but expect to the highest standards of quality.

We

Headers

Push Binders Rice Binders

Harvester-Tliresliers

Shockers

Reapers

Tlireshers Tillage Implements

Disk Harrows Cultivators Tractor Harrows Spriiii; Tooth Harrows Peii Tootli Harrows

Haying Machines

Mowers

their customers. Service is a ver}' essential part When you buy an Internaof any tractor sale. tional kerosene tractor you buy with it the assistance of an organization that brings a well stocked branch house or a live, local dealer within telephone call, fully equipped to keep your tractor

working

steadil}'.

International tractors, all using kerosene for fuel, are made in 8-16, 10-20, and 15-30 H. P. sizes. A line to the address below will bring you full

information about all our tractors and about any other machines you mention in the list shown in this advertisement.

Daicy Equipment

Cream Separators

Feed Grinders

(Hand)

Cream Separators

Power Machines Kerosene Kngines

(Belted)

Kerosene Engines

Gasoline Engines Kerosene Tractors Motor Trucks Motor Cultivators

Gasoline Engines

Motor Trucks Other Farm Equipment

Bunchers

Com Machines

Belt Machines

Ensilage Cutters

Huskers and Shredders Threshers CornSheliers

Hay Presses Stone Burr Mills

& Lime Sowers

Machines

— Cont,

Cream Separators

Tedders

Baling Presses

Seeding Machines Corn Planters Corn Drills

Grain Drills Broadcast Seeders Alfalfa & Grass Seed Drills

Belt Machines

Loaders (All Types) Rakes Combination Side Rakes and Tedders Sweep Rakes Stackers Combination Sweep Rakes and Stackers

&

Fertilizer

Whenever Needed

branch houses and many thousands of loj'al local dealers, wide awake and attentive to the needs of

Side Delivery Rakes

Orcliard Harrows Planting

Tractor Service

In line with this policy, we have developed a service organization which now consists of 89

Full Line of International Harvester Quality

Grain Harvestins Machines

Binders

future.

International Tractor Sizes

that

The

Buy

come back some day and sell you some other machines in the long list you see in this advertisement. In every sale we try to build for the

Buy From

we have supplied farmers with high-grade machines for nearly 88 years. You know that our tractors have furnished satisfactory farm power for more than 12 years. We have far You know

to

Page 35

Planters Drills Cultivators Motor Cultivators BindiTs Pickers Ensilage Cutters Shellers

Huskers and Shredders

International Harvester

Company

Manure Spreaders Straw Spreading Attach.

Farm Wagons P'arm Trucks Stalk Cutters

Knife Grinders Tractor Hitches Binder Twine

of America

(Incorporatco)

Helena, Mont. Denver, Colo. Crawford. Neb. Mont. Portland, Ore. Salt Lake City, Utah Los Angeles. Cal. Spokane, Wash. San Francisco, CaL

Billings,

able to do any personal work on their property, thus helping to keep down the cost, but during the past three or four years, in many cases, have permitted them to go practically uncarcd for. It would be interesting to know how many thousands of apple trees have

been pulled out of the ground replaced with some other crop.

be This step may be a repetition of the prune business a few years ago, and before long be a cause of regret to those who failed to keep them in the ground. There were a few years ago thousands to

of acres throughout the Northwest set to orchards and sold to Easterners that

have never been cared for; were set on soil unsuited for orchard development, and which have gone back to the brush or sage brush; they never will become factors in the apple market, and these

,

BETTER FRUIT

Page 36

April thousands of acres helped wonderfully a few years ago in creating the "overproduction" bugaboo. Word has come

Ridley, Houlding& Co. COVENT GARDEN, LONDON

WE ARE

Specialists in

Apples and Pears CABLE ADDRESS: BOTANIZING, LONDON Codes:

A. B. C. 5th Edition and

iill

powered straight -distilled, Look for the

is

all-refinery gasoline.

Red Crown

sign before you

with standard varieties, in a proven fruit district, has every encouragement to stay with it strong and to expect satisfactory returns on his investment, on the average, for there will always be off years in every commodity produced. Many problems of marketing are yet to be worked out, but they will be in the course of time. One of the most important details related to the success of the fruit business, and particularly that of the apple, viz., putting up a square pack, true to the markings on the outside of the box, is up to the grower himself; he may fool himself, but he cannot fool the middleman and

Modern Economy

"Red Crown"

several times from overseas that thousands of apple trees have been blown out of the ground or maliciously destroyed by the Huns. During the duration of the war but few apples were exported; the people "over there" are fruit hungry; more than ever will they get the fruit-eating habit, and it will stay by them. The close of the war has given this country greatly broadened markets, as well as its own merchant marine to deliver the exports. Therefore it would seem the orchardist who has a well-cared-for property, well set

fill.

consequent consumer; the middleman will likely have a very good memory and bear in mind the district permitting the shipment of misbranded fruit, also the name of the grower himself who attempted to camouflage his pack. Quality apples, absolutely true to grade markings, will put the district producing same on the map and bring topnotch returns.

STANDARD OIL COMPANY (California)

Currant Maggot

The

larvae

of

this

fly

are

in

the

ground and the best way to control is to dig over and stir the ground thoroughly under and around the bushes now and then late in March. This may be effective enough to save your gooseberries and currants from containing maggots next spring. There seems to be no other way yet of dealing with this creature.

Let er Raia

Pittsburgh Perfect ^Q2[^0^ NSlilS The Heads

don't

come

off.

Cement highest standard

RULOFSON COMPANY,

359 Monadnock

Building,

Pacific

WHEN WRITING

«^-)-U;«w noining, Pa.

Coast Agents

San Francisco,

keep iv^[<^ you dry as

will

Given Preference by Largest Pacific Coast Packers

MANUFACTURED EXCLUSIVELY BY PITTSBURGH STEEL COMPANY, Pittiburgh. A. C.

BRAND SLICKERS^*^!

FISH

California

ADVERTISERS MENTION BETTER FRUIT

^"^-^

.

V

pommels REFLEX SLICKERS medium coats

else will

'l^^f

DEALERS EVERYWHERE A.

J.

TOWER

CO.

— —

BOSTON.

219

PLANT A VICTORY FRUIT GARDEN We will send you postpaid ten Pure-bred Pedigree Fruit Plants, with complete instructions for planting. These plants will be furnished by the Portland Seed Company, one of the old reliable seed companies of the Pacific Northwest. They have been selected from strains that for generations have produced an immense crop of quality fruit. They are specially adapted to the Pacific Northwest climate and will be sent to you at the right time for planting in your particular section of the country. Let the idle space in your baclcyarfl or garden produce luscious ripe Raspberries, Blackcaps, Dewberries and Blackberries. Nothing is more delicious than fresh ripe fruit picked every morning while the dew is still on the vines. Berries that you buy In the stores are usually shipped from a distance, which means that they are picked before they are ripe. Fruit that ripens naturally on the vine tastes different, infinitely better and you can grow it in your own garden. We have selected for you a collection of five of the best small fruits. We want to send you two of each, ten in all. This will give you enough plants for a splendid home berry garden.

\\ /

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THE COLLECTION CONSISTS OF 2

iLrTFi_3„
"i

2 Cuthbert Raspberry 2 Eldorado Blackberry 2 St. Regis Everbearing Raspberry

Improved Lucretia Dewberry 2 Cumberland Blackcap

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OUR OFFER Western Farmer, one year

QWCjS?!'^^^^'

Better Fruit, one year

All for

\

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(

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I

1

Victory Fruit Collection

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Plants Sent Postpaid at Proper Planting Season We will ship your plants at the proper planting season for your locality. plants are exceedingly hardy freeze easily, but we will hold

improved Lucretia Dewberry

These

and do not them in our

storehouse until such time they can be shipped with safety. This will depend upon whether the season is early or late, but you will be sure to get your collection at the proper time for planting. Eldorado Blackberry

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These Ten Fruit Plants have been selected from strains that, for generations, have produced immense crops of quality fruits. They ^""^ hardy and will grow successfully anywhere in the United States, and will not winter-kill. These plants will provide you with fresh fruit all season, and each year will produce profusely new shoots which can be transplanted successfully.

Cuthbert Raspberry

description of varieties in our collection Improved Lucretia Dewberry berries, which are borne in heavy clusmeasures an inch through, and an inch find a quarter long. Incomparably sweet and juicy when fully ripe, and has but few, very r^j^g

ters,

seeds. By nature a creeper, the vine should be trellised. The large white blossoms are very attractive.

Cuthbert Raspberry Large berries, of wonderfully sweet flavor. are borne in heavy profusion. The Cuthbert sets all its fruit at one time, and ripens it altogether. One or two pickings will usually gather the entire crop. On this account, as well as its quality, it is the favorite commercial raspberry.

Cumberland Blackcap

No

collection

of

small

.

Kor^

in°^ iirg^e ^;^^oJ,^"LV:f clusters that ripen very evenly. The canes grow large and strong, enabling them to ripen tremendous crops of fine berries. . -r^^-^T.r^

!

'

I

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i

cure plants of better quality or plants that will bear more quicl
I

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satisfactorily.

ADDRESS ALL ORDERS TO n -ji-ki Better r rUlt rub. Co. Cumberland Blackcap

/~i

Portland, Oregon.

WHEN WRITING

is

superb.

Regis Everbearing Raspberry Regis begins to bear before any of the other raspberries and continues after all others have quit. The fruit is of medium size and of very good quality. On account of the long season the vines yield immensely. Tou will secure a good picking every week from June to October. St.

The

St.

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— VICTORY GARDEN COUPON | I

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This offer is good for 30 days from date only. You cannot se-

T-i

rado

a * T j, X 5 Name T st or A R D X T _ „ ^ X at to btate v Note: If you are already a subscriber to Western T Farmer or Better Fruit, your subscription will be T extended from expiration for one year. Remember T this offer is good for so days only. 5

xju^^^.^,.,^.,,,., * Better Fruit Publishing

DON T DELAY

J A

for pies, preserves, jellies or jam, the Fldo-

Clip and Mail the fruit

plants would be complete without the grand old Cumberlpnd

Yirwv^.

Eldorado Blackberry in appearance and as beautiful In quality, the Eldorado has no peer among the blackberries. The canes grow rank and tall, and are literally covered with immense clusters of shining blackberries. For eating fresh,

Handsome

^\ *'

3, 3.

A ? ^ * * 2! T T T ? A a %

_ j ^ Co., Portland, Oregon: Enclosed find $1.75 for which enter niy subscription one year each for Western Farmer and Better Fruit. Also send me at the proper planting time your Home Berry Collection.

Gentlemen:

o| 4.4.^^4.4.4.•}.^4..{.4.4..i•^^•i••{•^4•^^4>•{•4.•^4•4•^•S•4••i•4•^

ADVERTISERS MENTION BETTER FRUIT

Illi|-MLJ

l||Lii|["i||||iaMp^^gi^^

I

NEW YORK

briouE5Ti?riflbLY

in

I

the

THE bl3TPIBUTPI1

THE

UNTFiY'3

FfllN(;Y

AR PL&^ AND

OTHER. FRVITJ

OUR MARKET

THE WORLD WHEN WRITING

ADVERTISERS MENTION BETTER FRUIT